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JAQ. There is, sure, another flood toward, and he cut it to please himself: this is called the Quip these couples are coming to the ark ! Here comes modest. If again, it was not well cut, he disabled ® a pair of very strange beasts, which in all tongues my judgment: this is called the Reply churlish. are called fools.
If again, it was not well cut, he would answer, 1 spake not true: this is called the Reproof valiant. If again, it was not well cut, he would say, I lie:
this is called the Countercheck quarrelsome : and Enter ToucHSTONE and AUDREY.
so to the* Lie circumstantial, and the Lie direct.
Jaq. And how oft did you say, his beard was not Touch. Salutation and greeting to you all!
well cut ? Jaq. Good my lord, bid him welcome. This Touch. I durst go no further than the Lie is the motley-minded gentleman, that I have so circumstantial, nor he durst not give me the Lie often met in the forest : he hath been a courtier, direct ; and so we measured swords, and parted. he swears.
JAQ. Can you nominate in order now the deTouch. If any man doubt that, let him put me
grees of the lie? to my purgation. I have trod a measure; I have Touch. O, sir, we quarrel in print, by the book,(1) flattered a lady; I have been politic with my friend, as you have books for good manners:(2) I will name smooth with mine enemy; I have undone three you the degrees. The first, the Retort courteous; tailors ; I have had four quarrels, and like to have
the second, the Quip modest; the third, the Reply fought one.
churlish ; the fourth, the Reproof valiant; the fifth, JAQ. And how was that ta’en up?
the Countercheck quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie Touch. Faith, we met, and found the quarrel with circumstance; the seventh, the Lie direct. All the seventh cause.
these you may avoid, but the Lie direct; and you JAQ. How seventh cause ?-Good, my lord, like may avoid that too, with an If. I knew when this fellow.
seven justices could not take up a quarrel; but when DUKE S. I like him
the parties were met themselves, one of them thought Touch. God 'ild you,“ sir ; I desire you of the but of an If, as, If you said so, then I said so ; and like. I
press in here, sir, amongst the rest of the they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your If is country copulatives, to swear and to forswear ;
a poor virgin, sir, an ill-favoured thing, sir, but good at any thing, and yet a fool. mine own; a poor humour of mine, sir, to take DUKE S. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse, that that no man else will. Rich honesty dwells and under the presentation of that, he shoots his wit. like a miser, sir, in a poor house, as your pearl in your foul oyster.
Still music.' Enter HYMEN,leading RoSALIND DUKE S. By my faith, he is very swift and
in woman's clothes ; and CELIA. sententious.
Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven, Touch. According to the fool's bolt, sir, and
When earthly things made even, such dulcet diseases. JAQ. But, for the seventh cause; how did you
Good duke, receive thy daughter, find the quarrel on the seventh cause ? Touch. Upon a lie seven times removed :
Hymen from heaven brought her, bear your body more seeming, Audrey :
Yea, brought her hither, thus, sir. I did disliked the cut of a certain cour
That thou might'st join hert hand with
his, tier's beard ; he sent me word, if I said his beard
Whose heart within hert bosom is. was not cut well, he was in the mind it was: this is called the Retort courteous. If I sent him word Ros. To you I give myself, for I am yours. again, it was not well cut, he would send me word,
[To DUKE S.
a God 'ild you,-) God yield you, reward you.
b I desire you of the like.] For examples of this mode of construction, see note (a), p. 361, Vol. I.
c Swift-) See note (f), p. 714, Vol. I.
d I did dislike-] Dislike here imports not merely the entertaining an aversion, but the expressing it; so in “Measure for Measure," Act I, Sc. 2:-"I never heard any soldier dislike it." So, also, in Beaumont and Fletcher's "Queen of Corinth," Act IV. Sc. 1:
“ Has he familiarly
(*) First folio omits, the.
(+) Old copy, his. e He disabled my judgment :) He disparaged, impugned my judgment; so in Act IV. Sc. ! :-"disuble all the benefits of your own country."
f Still music.] That is, soft, low, gentle music;-"then, calling softly to the Gentlemen who were witnesses about him, he bade them that they should command some still musicke to sound."- A Patterne of the painefull Adventures of Pericles, prince of Tyre, 1608. See note (a), p. 92.
& Hymen,-] “ Rosalind is imagined by the rest of the company to be brought by enchantment, and is therefore introduced by a supposed aerial being in the character of Hymen."--JOHNSON.
To you I give myself, for I am yours.
That bring these tidings to this fair assembly :
[To ORLANDO. Duke Frederick, hearing how that every day DUKE S. If there be truth in sight, you are my Men of great worth resorted to this forest, daughter.
Address’da a mighty power, which were on foot, Orl. If there be truth in sight, you are my In his own conduct, purposely to take Rosalind.
His brother here, and put him to the sword: PhE. If sight and shape be true,
And to the skirts of this wild wood he came, Why then, my love adieu !
Where meeting with an old religious man, Ros. I'll have no father, if you be not he: - After some question with him, was converted
[T. DUKE S.
Both from his enterprize and from the world : I'll have no husband, if you be not he:
His crown bequeathing to his banish'd brother,
[TO ORLANDO. And all their lands restor’d to them * again Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she.
That were with him exíl’d. This to be true, [To PHEBE. I do engage my
life. Hym. Peace, ho! I bar confusion :
DUKE S. Welcome, young man ; 'Tis I must make conclusion
Thou offer'st fairly to thy brothers' wedding :
To one, his lands withheld; and to the other,
First, in this forest, let us do those ends
That here were well begun and well begot:
And after, every of this happy number, [To ORLANDO and ROSALIND. That have endur'd shrewd days and nights with us, You and you are heart in heart:
Shall share the good of our returned fortune, [To OLIVER and CELIA. According to the measure of their states. You [To PHEBE.] to his love must accord, Meantime, forget this new-fall’n dignity, Or have a woman to your lord :
And fall into our rustic revelry:You and you are sure together,
Play, music !—and you, brides and bridegrooms all, [To TouchsTONE and AUDREY. With measure heap'd in joy, to the measures fall. As the winter to foul weather.
Jaq. Sir, by your patience.--If I heard you Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,
rightly, Feed yourselves with questioning;
The duke hath put on a religious life, That reason wonder may diminish,
And thrown into neglect the pompous court? How thus we met, and these things finish. JAQ. DE B. He hath.
JAQ. To him will I: out of these convertites SONG.
There is much matter to be heard and learn’d.Wedding is great Juno's crown ;
You [To DUKE S.] to your former honour I
bequeath; O blessed bond of board and bed ! 'Tis Hymen peoples every town ;
Your patience and your virtue well deserves it:
You [To ORLANDO.] to a love, that your
true faith doth merit:
Callies : Honour, high honour and renown,
You [T. OLIVER.) to your land, and love, and great To Hymen, god of every town !
You [To Silvius.] to a long and well deserved DUKE S. O my dear niece, welcome thou art to me!
And you [To TouchstoNE.] to wrangling; for thy
5 Even daughter, welcome in no less degree.
(sures; Pue. I will not eat my word; now thou art Is but for two months victuall'd.-So to your pleamine;
I am for other than for dancing measures. Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine.
DUKE S. Stay, Jaques, stay. [To SILVIUS. Jaq. To see no pastime I :—what you would
have Enter JAQUES DE Bois.
I'll stay to know at your abandon’d cave. [Exit.
DUKE S. Proceed, proceed: we will begin these JAQ. DE B. Let me have audience for a word,
rites, or two ;
As we do trust they'll end, in true delights. I am the second son of old sir Roland,
& Address'd-] Prepared.
(*) old text, him.
Ros. It is not the fashion to see the lady the | for the love you bear to men, to like as much of epilogue; but it is no more unhandsome, than to see this play as please you: and I charge you, O men, the lord the prologue. If it be true, that good wine for the love you bear to women, (as I perceive by
Ι needs no bush, (1) 'tis true, that a good play needs your simpering, none of you hates them,) that no epilogue: yet to good wine they do use good between you and the women the play may please. bushes; and good plays prove the better by the help If I were a woman, I would kiss as many of you as of good epilogues. What a case am I in, then, that had beards that pleased me, complexions that liked am neither a good epilogue, nor cannot insinuate me, and breaths that I defied not: and, I am sure, with you in the behalf of a good play! I am not as many as have good beards, or good faces, or furnished like a beggar, therefore to beg will not sweet breaths, will, for my kind offer, when I make become me: my way is, to conjure you, and I'll curtsy, bid me farewell. begin with the women. I charge you, O women,
(1) SCENE I.-And so, God kcep your worship!] In Lodge's novel the complot between sáladyne (the Oliver of the play) and the wrestler is related as follows :—"A champion there was to stand against all commers, a Norman, a man of tall stature and of great strength; so valiant, that in many such conflicts he alwaies bare away the victorie, not onely overthrowing them which hee incountred, but often with the weight of his bodie killing them outright. Saladyne hearing of this, thinking now not to let the ball fal to the ground, but to take opportunitie by the forehead, first by secret meanes convented with the Norman, and procured him with rich rewards to sweare, that if Rosader came within his clawes hee would never more return to quarrel with Saladyne for his possessions. The Norman desirous of pelfe, as (quis nisi mentis inops oblatum respuit aurum) taking great gifts for litle gods, tooke the crownes of Saladyne to performe the stratagem."-ROSALYNDE. Euphues Golden Legocy, &c. reprinted by Mr. Collier in his Shakespeare's Library.
(2) SCENE II.-Charles is thrown.] In the novel, after an account of the Norman's victory over the poor Frank. lin's two sons, both of whom are killed, Rosader's (Orlando) encounter with the “bony prizer" is thus described :“With that Rosader vailed bonnet to the king, and lightly leapt within the lists, where noting more the companie then the combatant, he cast his eye upon the troupe of ladies that glistered there lyke the starres of heaven; but at last Love willing to make him as amorous as hee was valiant, presented him with the sight of Rosalynd, whose admirable beautie so inveagled the eye of Rosader, that forgetting himselfe, he stood and fedde his lookes on the favour of Rosalyndes face ; which shee perceiving, blusht, which was such a doubling of her beauteous excellence, that the bashful redde of Aurora at the sight of unacquainted Phaeton, was not halfe so glorious. The Normane, seeing this young gentleman fettered in the lookes of the ladyes drave him out of his memento with a shake by the shoulder. Rosader looking backe with an angrie frowne, as if hee had been wakened from some pleasaunt dreame, discovered to all by the furye of his countenance that hee was a man of some high thoughts; but when they all noted his youth, and the sweetnesse of his visage, with a general applause of favours, they grieved that so goodly a yoong man should venture in so base an action; but seeing it were to his dishonour to hinder him from his enterprize, they wisht him to bee graced with the palme of victorie. After Rosader was thus called out of his memento by the Norman, he roughly clapt to him with so fierce an incounter, that they both fel to the ground, and with the violence of the fal were forced to breathe : in which space the Norman called to minde by all tokens, that this was hee whom Saladyne had appoynted him to kil; which conjecture made him stretch every limbe, and try every sinew, that working his death hee might recover the golde which so bountifuly was promised him. On the contrary part, Rosader while he breathed was not idle, but stil cast his eye upon Rosalynde, who to incourage him with a favour, lent him such an amorous looke, as might have made the most coward desperate : which glance of Rosalynd so fiered the passionate desires of Rosader, that turning to the Norman hee ranne upon him and braved him with a strong encounter. The Norman received him as valiantly, that there was a sore combat, hard to judge
on whose side fortune would be prodigal. At last Rosader,
My better parts
Is but a quintain, a mere lifeless block.] Much has been written on the origin and use of the quintain. The following is the account of it by Strutt in his “Sports and Pastimes :” those who seek for further information on the subject may consult advantageously the notes appended to this play in the Variorum Edition : “Tilting or combating at the quintain is certainly a military exercise of high antiquity, and antecedent, I doubt not, to the justs and tournaments. The quintain originally was nothing more than the trunk of a tree or post set up for the practice of the tyros in chivalry. Afterward a staff or spear was fixed in the earth, and a shield being hung upon it, was the mark to strike at: the dexterity of the performer consisted in smiting the shield in such a manner as to break the ligatures and bear it to the ground. In process of time this diversion was improved, and instead of the staff and shield the resemblance of a human figure carved in wood was introduced. To render the appearance of this figure more formidable, it was generally made in the likeness of a Turk or a Saracen, armed at all points, bearing a shield upon his left arm, and brandishing a club or a sabre with his right. Hence this exercise was called by the Italians, running at the armed man or at the Saracen. The quintain thus fashioned was placed upon a pivot, and so contrived as to move round with facility. In running at this figure, it was necessary for the horseman to direct his lance with great adroitness, and make his stroke upon the forehead between the eyes or upon the nose ; for if he struck wide of those parts, especially upon the shield, the quintain turned about with much velocity, and, in case he was not exceedingly careful, would give him a severe blow upon the back with the wooden sabre held in the right hand, which was considered as highly disgraceful to the performer, while it excited the laughter and ridicule of the spectators.” To this description of quintain there can be little doubt Shakespeare refers in Orlando's speech, (4) SCENE III.
And wheresoe’er we went, like Juno's swans,
Still we went coupled and inseparable.] Compare this brief but affecting appeal with that of Celia's prototype, Alinda, in the novel : “ ALINDA'S ORATION TO HER FATHER IN DEFENCE OF
ROSALYNDE. “If (mighty Torismond) I offend in pleading for my friend, let the law of amitie crave pardon for my boldnesse ; for here there is depth of affection, there friendship alloweth a priviledge. Rosalynd and I have beene fostered up from our infancies, and noursed under the harbour of
our conversing togeather with such private familiarities, that custome had wrought an unyon of our nature, and the sympathie of our affections such a secret love, that we have two bodies and one soule. Then marvel not (great Torismond) if, seeing my friend distrest, I finde myselfe perplexed with a thousand sorrowes; for her vertuous and honourable thoughts (which are the glories that maketh women excellent) they be such as may challenge love, and race out suspition. Her obedience to your majestie I referre to the censure of your own eye, that since her fathers exile hath smothered al griefs with patience, and in the absence of nature, hath honored you with all dutie, as her owne father by nouriture, not in word uttering any discontent, nor in thought (as far as my conjecture may reach) hammering on revenge ; only in all her actions seeking to please you, and to win my favor. Her wisdome, silence, chastitie, and other such rich qualities, I need not decypher; onely it rests for me to conclude in one word, that she is innocent. If then, fortune who tryumphs in variety of miseries, hath presented some envious person (as minister of her intended stratagem) to tainte Rosalynde with any surmise of treason, let him be brought to her face, and confirme his accusation by witnesses; which proved, let her die, and Alinda wil execute the massacre. If none can avouch any confirmed relation of her intent, use justice, my lord, it is the glory of a king, and let her
(1) SCENE VII.
All the world's a stage,
His acts being seven ages.] Totus mundus agit histrionem, an observation which occurs in one of the fragments of Petronius, and may even he traced still higher, is said to have been the motto over Shakespeare's theatre, the Globe, and was probably in his day a familiar apothegm. The division of human life into certain stages, or epochs, had also a classical origin. In some Greek verses attributed to Solon,-and whether written by him or not, certainly as old as the first half of the first century, being introduced by Philo Judans into his Liber de Mundi opificio,—the life of man is separated into ten ages of seven years each. Other Greek authors, Hippocrates and Proclus, apportioned his existence into seven parts, and Varro the Roman into five. A Hebrew doctor of the ninth century, and a Hebrew poet of the twelfth, have made a similar distribution.
In that miscellaneous collection of the fifteenth century, denominated “ Arnold's Chronicle,” is a chapter entitled “THE VIJ AGES OF MAN LIVING IN THE WORLD."—“The first age is infancie, and lastyth from the byrth unto vij yere of age. The ij is ehildhood, and endurith unto xv yere age. The iij age is adholocencye, and endurith unto xxv yere of age. The iiij age is youthe, and endurith unto xxxv yere age. The v age is manhood, and endurith unto I yere age. The vi age is elde, and lasteth unto lxx yere ago. The vij age of man is crepill, and endurith unto dethe." But the favourite mode of inculcating the moral of human life has been by pictorial illustration; in Shakespeare's time, as in France at the present day, the subject was a popular theme for prints, broadsides, and ballads. An Italian engraving of the sixteenth century, by Christopher Bertello, is still extant, valuable for its intrinsic merit, and interesting from its analogy to the exquisite moralization of Jaques. The school-boy is carrying his books; the lover, a youth of twenty, bears a branch of tle, and at his feet is a young Cupid bending his bow; the soldier, armed cap-d-pie, is “bearded like the pard;" the justice has an
live in your wonted favour; for if you banish her, myselfe, as copartner of her harde fortunes, will participate in exile some part of her extremities.”—ROSALYNDE, P. 28.
(5) SCENE III.-Say what thou canst, I'll go along with thee.] “Why then doth my Rosalynd grieve at the frowne of Torismond, who by offering her a prejudice proffers her a greater pleasure? and more (mad lasse) to be melancholy, when thou hast with thee Alinda, a friend who wil be a faithful copartner of al thy misfortunes; who hath left her father to follow thee, and chooseth rather to brooke al extremities then to forsake thy presence. What, Rosalynd,
Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris. Cheerly, woman; as wee have been bed-fellowes in royaltie, we wil be felow mates in povertie : I wil ever be thy Alinda, and thou shalt ever rest to me Rosalynd ; so shall the world canonize our friendship, and speake of Rosalynd and Alinda, as they did of Pilades and Orestes. And if ever fortune smile, and we returne to our former honour, then folding our selves in the sweete of our friendship, we shal merily say (calling to mind our forepassed miseries), Olim hæc meminisse juvabit.”
ROSALYNDE, p. 31.
aspect of grave severity; the representative of our author's sixth age is a senile personage, bending with years, attired in a long furred robo, his feet in slippers, and “spectacles on nose. Last scene of all exhibits the man of eighty, blind and helpless, with one foot in the tomb already gaping to receive him.
For further information on this subject, the reader may consult two elaborate articles, one in Volume xxvii. of the “ Archæologia,” the other, in the Gentleman's Magazine, for May, 1853: to the mediaeval representations of the ages of life there recorded, we will add one hitherto undescribed, being a series of fourteen subjects engraved on a Monumental Brass of the date of 1487, preserved in the Hôpital S. Marie, Ypres, in Belgium.
(2) SCENE VII.--Re-enter Orlando, with Adam.] The scene in which Orlando confronts the banished Duke and his companions in the forest, demanding food for his famished retainer, is closely copied from the novel :
“ It chaunced that day, that Gerismond, the lawfull King of France banished by Torismond, who with a lustie crue of outlawes lived in that forest, that day in honour of his birth made a feast to all his bolde yeomen, and frolickt it with store of wine and venison, sitting all at a long table under the shadow of lymon trees. To that place by chance fortune conducted Rosader, who seeing such a crue of brave men, having store of that for want of which hee and Adam perished, hee stept boldly to the boords end, and saluted the company thus :
“ Whatsoever thou be that art maister of these lustie squiers, I salute thee as graciously as a man in extreame distresse may : know, that I and a fellow friend of mine are here famished in the forrest for want of food : perish wce must, unlesse relieved by thy favours. Therefore, if thou be a gentleman, give meate to men, and to such as are everie way woorthie of life. Let the proudest squire that sits at thy table rise and incounter with mee in any honorable point of activitie whatsoever, and if hee and thou prove me not a man, send me away comfortlesse. If thou refuse this, as a niggard of thy cates, I will have amonst you with my sword; for rather wil I dye valiantly, then perish with so cowardly an extreame. Gerismond,