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=quae fortuna. Cf. v. 240. The meaning seems to be, "How inveterate the ill-fortune that persecutes you! how savage the violence that leads you here!" the question being one of wonder. In v. 9 he is driven through casus; here the casus drives him. Immanibus = savage; i. e. with reference to the Libyans. Applicat=appellit, v. 377.617. Gr. 672. 3. A. & S. 310. I. Notice the non-elision 618. Alma. See on G. I. 7. Phrygii. See on v. 182.

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– 619. Teucrum; not the first king of Troy (see on v. 1), but a son of Telamon, king of Salamis, and Hesione, daughter of Laomedon and sister of Priam, and the step-brother of Ajax the elder. See on Hor. C. I. 7. 21. 622. Cyprum; a large island in the Mediterranean Sea, off the south coast of Asia Minor, renowned for its fruitfulness and its rich mines of copper. See on Hor. C. III. 29. 60. Dicione. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Cf. v. 236. — 623. Casus may mean strictly fall here and in II. 507. Mihi. Gr. 388. II. A. & S. 225. II. — 624. Pelasgi; a name properly applied to the most ancient inhabitants of Greece, put poetically for Graeci. 625. Hostis= though an enemy. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. Ferebat used to extol.626. Se... volebat = gave himself out (to be), gave out that he (was); i. e. being the son of Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon, king of Troy. See on Teucrum, v. 619. - 627. Juvenes. See on Hor. C. I. 2. 41. — 628. Per multos... labores; with jactatam. Cf. VI. 693.629. Consistere terra. Cf. VI. 807. – 631, 632. Simul... simul at the same time, both. . . and. Here, as in II. 220, they couple two verbs with the same subject: in v. 513, V. 675, two subjects with the same verb. Templis. Gr. 422 and I. A. & S. 254, R. 3. Indicit honorem = orders a sacrifice; i. e. in honor of the preservation of Aeneas. — 636. Munera - dei=(and) the gifts and joy of the god; i. e. wine. Most of the late editors adopt the reading dii, which they make a contraction for diei, and understand the phrase to mean, as gifts and the means of rejoicing for the day, construing munera and laetitiam in apposition with the preceding accusatives. Dei is said to be the reading of almost all the existing MSS., is preferred by Forb. and Henry, and adopted by Con., whose text we follow. It is certainly natural that wine should form a part of Dido's presents; and the expression is resolvable into munera lactifica dei laetitiae datoris. Cf. v. 734, laetitiae Bacchus dator. - 637. Interior. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. Regali - instruitur is being set out in the splendor of royal magnificence. Splendida is proleptic (see on G. II. 353), belonging in sense with the predicate, but in construction with the subject. Luxu; with splendida. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.— 638. Mediis... tectis is explained by domus interior. - 639. Vestes for stragulae vestes coverlets. Sc. sunt or instruuntur. So for the

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other nominatives. Ostro; with vestes. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. - 640. On the table was spread massive silver plate, and vessels of gold chased with legends. Ingens probably includes both massiveness and quantity. The gold seems to be plate also, cups, etc. 642. Ducta = traced. 644. Rapidum explains praemittit. Achates is sent express to bring Ascanius in time for the feast which is about to begin. - 645. Ferat bidding him to report. Ferat... ducat are perhaps best explained as an oratio obliqua; Ascanio fer ipsumque duc. Gr. 530. II. and 3. 2). A. & S. 266. 2, R. 1 (b), praemittit implying a message or command. Haec refers to the incidents that have just transpired. — 646. Cari fond. Stat implies perpetuity and constancy. — 647. Munera as presents; i. e. for the queen. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 648. Pallam. The palla was long garment or robe worn by women and by persons of dignity, especially by the gods. Signis auroque; for signis aureis. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. - 649. Circumtextum = bordered all around. Acantho; i. e. the figures of the leaves and flowers of this herb were interwoven in the border of the garment. - 650. Argivae Graecae. Helenae. Helena, daughter of Jupiter and Leda, and wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta, was the most beautiful woman of her age. In the absence of her husband, Paris, son of king Priam, carried her away, which was the cause of the ten years' war against Troy, and of the destruction of that city. Mycenis; put for Greece. See on v. 284. - 651. Pergama. See on 466. Peteret. Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (1). — 654. Maxima; sc. natu. Collo; dat. of the remote object after ferre understood. Monile baccatum=a bead necklace. - 655. Duplicem — auroque = double with gems and gold; duplicem probably referring merely to the combination or twofold character of the materials of which it was made. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.- 656. Haec these commands. Celerans celeriter exsequens.

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657-694. Venus distrusts Dido, and lays a plot to secure her affections by substituting Cupid for Ascanius, whom she conveys to Idalia. -657. Cytherea. See on v. 257. —658. Faciem... et ora= in shape and features. 659. Donis; with incendat. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Furentem incendat: inflame to madness. Furentem is proleptic. - 660. Ossibus. Ossa is put for the seat of feeling, like medullae. 661. Domum. Cf. v. 284. Ambiguam = unreliable. Cf. Junonia hospitia, v. 671, and IV. 96. Bilingues; treacherous: an anticipation of the Roman feeling against Carthage, which found expression in the proverbial phrase Punica fides. — 662. Urit disturbs, disquiets (her). Sub noctem toward night, as night approaches. 664. Meae - solus; i. e. (qui) solus (es) meae vires, mea magna potentia. 665. Tela Typhoia; i. e. thun

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derbolts the missiles are called Typhoëan from the giant Typhoeus, whom Jupiter slew with them. — 666. Numina divine power. 668. Jactetur. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.-669. Nota; a Grecism for notum. A. & S. 205, R. 8 (6). Dolore. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.-671. Quo se... vertant; i. e. what may be their issue. Junonia; under the influence of Juno. 672. Cardine crisis. Gr. 426 and 1. A. & S. 253 and N. 1. — 674. Ne-mutet that she may not change through the influence of i. e. any divinity; by Juno's influence. 675. Mecum along with me, as well as I. Teneatur; sc. ut from the preceding ne. — - 676. Qua; i. e. qua ratione. - 677. Regius... puer. Cf. rex Aeneas, v. 544. - 679. Pelago. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3. (b). Restantia = saved. -680. Cythera. See on v. 257. - 681. Idalium; a mountain and town in the island of Cyprus, pre-eminently sacred to Venus, who hence bore the surname Idalia. — 682. Qua. See on v. 18. Dolos the plot. Mediusne occurrere to present himself in the midst of it; i. e. to interfere with it. — 683. Faciem. See on v. 658.- Noctem ... amplius. Gr. 378; 417.3. A. & S. 236; 256, R. 6. — 684. Falle dolo personate. Notos; not known to Cupid, but solitos. — 686. Laticemque Lyaeum=vinum. See on G. II. 229. — 688. Fallasque veneno; i. e. poison her unobserved. Veneno; i. e. of love. - 689. Carae. See on v. 646. 690. Gressu, with incedit. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Gaudens, like laetus in v. 696, expresses the sly pleasure with which he enters into his part. Incedit. Cf. vv. 46, 405. - 691. Ascanio. Gr. 398. 5; 392. I. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (1). — 692. Irrigat diffuses. Cf. V.854. Gremio. Gr. 422. A. & S. 254, R. 3. Dea. See on v. 412. 693. Idaliae; the same as Idalium, v. 681. — 694. Floribus... umbra; with complectitur. — 697. Venit. Tense? Aulaeis... suberbis = with rich tapestries. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6.698. Aurea; here a dissyllable. Composuit... locavit. Gr. 471. I. A. & S. 258, A. Sponda; properly the open side of the couch, here the couch itself. Mediam in the centre; i. e. of the triclinium, or table-couch, which extended on three sides of the table. This seems to have been the host's place. -700. Super may be taken either as a preposition (comp. fronde super viridi, E. I. 81) or adverbially-on purple spread over (the couch), a view supported by v. 708.701. Cererem; for panem. Cf. v. 177. Canistris expediunt =serve out from baskets. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (b). 702. Tonsis . . . villis with shorn nap; i. e. smooth, soft. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 703. Intus; i. e. in the inner apartment where the culinary operations were carried on. Famulae. Gr. 460. 3. A. & S. 209, R. 4. Quibus; sc. est. Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Ordine in turn; referring to

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the division or course of labor among the servants. Cf. V. 102. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Ordine longo is the common reading. Longam. penum = the long store of food: longam referring either to the arrangement of the dishes in long rows or to the quantity; i. e. a store that will last for a long time. A passage of Ausonius (Idyll. 3. 27) seems to confirm the latter explanation: Conduntur fructus geminum mihi semper in annum. Cui non longa penus, kuic quoque prompta fames. Serv., too, confirms it in his explanation of the difference between penus and cellarium. He says that cellarium is paucorum dierum, penus temporis longi. Struere will then have nothing to do with the office of structor, the arranger of the dishes, but will be the same as instruere to furnish, or replenish. — 704. Cura. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. Flammis - Penates probably refers to the burning of incense for the worship of the Penates. Some understand it of keeping up the fires for cooking.—706. Qui Gr. 439. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 2 (1). Onerent... ponant. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 5.-708. Toris—pictis is merely a poetical phrase for, bidden to the banquet.—710. Flagrantes = glowing. — 711. Pictum. Cf. v. 649.712. Pesti = exitio. Cf. IV. 90.-713. Mentem. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. —715. Complexu ... colloque in the embrace and on the neck. — 716. Falsi = pretended. 718. Gremio fovet cherishes in her bosom. He was probably reclining next to her at table. This explains interdum.—719. Insideat is resting upon (thee). — 720. Acidaliae; an epithet of Venus, derived from Acidalius, a spring in Boeotia, where the Graces, the attendants of Venus, used to bathe. -721. Praevertere = prepossess. Vivo... amore; i. e. for a living object.—722. Desueta = (long) unused (to it); i. e. to love. 723. Mensae the courses. See on v. 216. — 724. Crateras. Gr. 98. A. & S. 85, Ex. 2. These were vessels in which the wine, according to the custom of the ancients, who very seldom drank it pure, was mixed with water, and from which the cups were filled. Vina coronant. See on G. II. 528.—725. Fit strepitus. The noise (i. e. of conversation and festivity) begins again after the pause made by clearing away the food. — 726. Aureis. See on v. 698. 727. Funalia appear to be tapers formed of a twist (funes) of some fibrous plant covered with wax. 728. Hic; of time. Cf. II. 122; III. 369. Gemmis auroque. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. –729. Quam; sc. implere mero. —730. A Belo; sc. orti. Cf. v. 160, G. II. 243. Belus here is not Dido's father (v. 621), but the supposed founder of the Tyrian dynasty. 733. Velis = grant. Gr. 488 and I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Hujus; sc. diei. Gr. 406. II. A. & S. 216.-734. Bona Juno Juno, the giver of blessings; sc. adsit. Wr. says, join adsit bona.-735. Coetum... celebrate

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solemnize the festive gathering. Faventes. She first bespeaks the favor of the gods, and then of the people. — 736. In mensam; the altar, as it were, of Hospitable Jove. Laticum... honorem = a libation of wine. -737. Libato (sc. honore) = the libation having been made. Libato may perhaps be the impersonal participle used absolutely. Gr. 431. 5. A. & S. 257, R. 9 (1) (c). Summo ore; i. e. she barely tasted the remaining contents of the bowl. -738. Increpitans challenging; not implying reproach, but merely invitation. Impiger not slow. Hausit and se proluit are opposed to summo tenus attigit ore. -739. Se proluit drenched himself. Auro. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2.- – 740. Crinitus. The bards used to wear their hair long, in imitation of Apollo. -741. Personat fills the hall. Docuit; not to play the harp, but the natural sciences referred to in the following lines. Atlas. See on IV. 247.—742. Labores. See on G. II. 478. — 744. Arcturum. See on Ov. M. II. 176. Hyadas. See on Ov. M. III. 595. Geminosque Triones. See on Ov. M. II. 171.—745. Tinguere soles. See on G. II. 481.—747. Ingeminant; absolute. Cf. G. I. 333.—751. Aurorae ... filius. See on v. 489. Armis. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.-752. Diomedis. See on v. 97. Quantus. The notion of bulk is prominent, but not the only one. -753. Immo=nay rather; i. e. instead of answering more questions in detail, tell us the whole story from the first.—754. Casus tuorum; referring to those who perished at Troy. 755. Nam; i. e. you have the experiences of seven years to tell; it will be better, therefore, that we should hear them continuously.

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THE AENEID. Book II.

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THE voice of criticism has unanimously fixed on this book, along with the Fourth and Sixth, as affording the best evidence of the true greatness of Virgil. Donatus says that the poet himself chose these three books to read to Augustus as a specimen of his work. This may or may not be true, but it indicates at any rate the judgment passed by antiquity; and modern opinion has not been slow to ratify the verdict.

The subject of the present book is the capture and sack of Troy; and its conception is eminently fortunate. Homer had made Ulysses tell the story of his wanderings to Alcinous, and so had supplied the

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