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fession that he was defeated. — 25. Tu illum; sc. vicisse te ais. The fistula, or shepherd's pipe, was constructed either of cane (arundo), reed (calamus), or hemlock (cicuta). In general seven hollow stems of these plants, cut to the proper lengths and adjusted so as to form an octave, were fitted together by means of wax. — 26. In triviis; i. e. to vulgar ears. Trivium, a place where three roads meet, came to mean any place of public resort, especially for the lower orders. - 27. Stridenti = stridula. Miserum... disperdere carmen to murder a wretched strain. The tune was a bad one, and vilely played at that. Stipula is a single reed, opposed to fistula cera juncta.-28. Vis implies a challenge, while visne simply asks for information. Inter nos... vicissim. The former expresses that there is to be a contest, the latter refers to the kind of contest; i. e. amoebean. Possit can do. 29. Experiamur. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. Vitulam = juvencam. Recuses. Gr. 489 and I. A. & S. 262. — 31. Depono= lay down as a wager, stake. Quo — certes with what wager thou wilt contend. Gr.

525. A. & S. 265. Quo pignore may be taken as an ablative of manner, or, which is really the same thing, as an ablative absolute. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7.—32. Non ausim I dare not. Gr. 239. 4; 485. A. & S. 162. 9; 260, R. 4. Tecum like you; i. e. as you have done. 33. Mihi. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Injusta = harsh, severe. The word belongs to both pater and noverca. See on Hor. C. I. 2. I. —-34. Bisque die; i. e. both morning and evening. Alter one or the other.-35. Id refers to pocula. Tute. Gr. 184. 3. A. & S. 133, R. 2.—36. Pocula... fagina a pair of beechen cups. Drinking-cups were usually in pairs, one for wine and one for water. See v. 44. Ponam deponam. - 37. Alcimedontis. Alcimedon is nowhere else mentioned. 38. Quibus - superaddita=superadded to which by the skilfully handled graving tool. Quibus; sc. poculis. Torno; lit. the lathe, for scalpro.-39. Diffusos

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- corymbos: = covers (with its foliage) the scattered clustering berries of the yellow ivy. Both the vine and the ivy were emblems of Bacchus, and so fit ornaments for a drinking cup. Hedera pallente is probably for hederae pallentis, a use of the material ablative for the genitive not uncommon in Virgil. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Some connect the ablative with diffusos.

40. In medio; i. e. in the space enclosed by the vine and ivy. So in v. 46. Conon: a famous astronomer in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, B. C. 283-222. Alter. The other, whose name the shepherd forgets, was probably Eudoxus, a celebrated astronomer of Cnidus, who lived about B. C. 366. —41. Radio; the rod with which the geometrician drew his diagrams upon the sand. Cf. A. VI. 851. Totum . . . orbem the whole circle (of the heavens).

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42. Tempora quae:

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Gentibus for mankind. (showing) what seasons. Curvus; i. e. bending over the plough. Haberet should observe. -45. Molli flexible. -46. Orphea. Gr. 46. 3. 5). A. & S. 54 5 and 86. See on Ovid, M. X. Introduction, p. 415. — 48. Si-spectas if thou (once) lookest at the heifer; i. e. compared with the heifer, the cups deserve no praise. Gr. 669. I. A. & S. 305 (4). Nihil... laudes. Gr. 501. I. 1. A. & S. 264. 7 and N. 3.-49. Menalcas, in his turn, insinuates that Damoetas wishes to get off. Veniam; i. e. I will come to your terms, whatever they may be. – 50. Audeat. Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Vel — Palaemon. Vel goes rather with qui venit than Palaemon. Menalcas begins as if he wished for some particular arbiter, but corrects himself, and offers to take the chance of a man just then approaching, whom he identifies at the end of the verse as Palaemon: "The man who is coming up- there! it is Palaemon."-51. Posthac; with lacessas. Voce lacessas challenge in singing; i. e. challenge to sing. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1.-52. Quin age = come on then. Si quid habes: if thou hast anything (to sing), if thou canst sing at all. Cf. IX. 32; V. 10. 53. Nec — fugio: = nor do I shun any one. Some critics make quemquam mean any opponent; others, any judge. — 54. Sensibus haec imis these things (i. e. which we are about to sing) in thy deepest thoughts. Res - parva refers to the importance of the contest rather than to the value of the wager, as some make it. Reponas. Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. 55. Dicite=canite, as often. 56, 57. Et- annus. Cf. G. II. 323, 330. Annus for anni tempus, the season of the year. 58. Deinde. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 306. I and (1). — 59. Alternis - responsively. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247. 2. Alterna responsive songs. Camenae; Latin deities nearly identical with the Muses of the Greeks. —60. Ab — principium (sc. mei carminis sit); i. e. I begin with celebrating the praises of Jupiter. Musae is the vocative. 61. Colit fertilizes. Cf. G. II. 325, 326, and see on Hor. C. I. I. 25. Illi- curae; i. e. because Jupiter cares for the earth, and renders it fruitful, therefore those who cultivate the earth, and shepherds and their songs, are pleasing to him. Gr. 390. A. & S. 227. -62. Phoebus. Menalcas replies: Apollo, the poet's patron, is my friend: for him I rear bays and hyacinths in my garden. Phoebo. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Sua; i. e. which are pleasing to him. Gr. 449. 2. A. & S. 208 (8). — 63. Suave suaviter. Gr. 335. 4. 1). A. & S. 205, R. 10. 64. Malo me petit throws an apple at me. Apples were sacred to Venus; whence, to throw an apple at one was a mode of flirting. -65. Se cupit videri. Gr. 551. II. 1. (she hides herself). — 66. Ignis

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A. & S. 271, R. 4. Ante before beloved. Cf. the English flame.

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–67. Delia is Menalcas's mistress. Damoetas had boasted that he was beloved by Galatea. Menalcas replies that he is beloved by two persons, and that they each come so often to his cottage that they are no longer barked at by his dogs. -68. Veneri=beloved. Notavi I observed. - 69. Ipse denotes that he has observed it himself,

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so that he will be sure to remember it. Aëriae high in air. Cf.
I. 59. Congessere; for nidum congessere, as we say "to build."
Palumbes. Wood-pigeons were sacred to Venus. 70. Quod
potui what I could; i. e. since I had to pick them from the lofty
branches of the tree. The expression corresponds to aëriae, both
denoting difficulty. It is explanatory of the following sentence. Gr.
445. 7. A. & S. 206. 13 (a). Puero; Amyntas. Gr. 384. 2. 1).
A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. Silvestri - lecta = picked from a tree in
the wood. 71. Aurea; i. e. ripe. Altera (sc. decem) · a second ten.
-73. Partem aliquem some small part; since even that would
charm the gods themselves. Divum. Gr. 45. 5. 4). A. & S. 53.
Referatis. Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. -74. Quid. Gr. 380. 2.
A. & S. 232 (3). Quod-servo. He complains that he is sepa-
rated from Amyntas, who takes the more attractive and dangerous
part of the adventure; and this is opposed to ipse — spernis. "What
is your affection to me if you will not give me your company?" Servo
observo; i. e. to watch for game. -76. Phyllida. Gr. 93. I.
A. & S. 80. I. Phyllis seems to be either the female slave or mistress
of Iollas, whom we may suppose to be a neighboring farmer who has
joined the company since the musical contest began. Natalis. The
birthday was a season for merry-making and love; whereas the fes-
tival, called Ambarvalia, referred to by quum-frugibus, was a time
of abstinence from such pleasures. When this shall arrive, he de-
risively invites Iollas to come himself. On the occasion of this fes-
tival (G. I. 338-350) the victim to be sacrificed was led three times
round the cornfields before the sickle was put to the corn.
It was
accompanied by a crowd of merry-makers, the reapers and farm ser-
vants dancing and singing the praises of Ceres, and praying for her
favor and presence, while they offered her the libations of milk, honey,
and wine. This festival took place towards the end of April, when
'the harvest in Italy began. - 78. Menalcas retorts in the person of
Iollas. Me-flevit. Gr. 551. III. A. & S. 273. 5, N. 7. 79.
Longum in prolonged accents. Longum goes with inquit rather
than vale, denoting reluctance to part. Valē, vālē. Gr. 669. I. 2
and IV. A. & S. 305. 1 and (2). — 80. Triste. Gr. 438. 4; 441.
A. & S. 204, R. 9; 205, R. 7 (2). So dulce, v. 82. Cf. A. IV. 569. Da-
moetas says, "everything in nature has its bane: mine is the wrath of
Amaryllis." Menalcas replies, "everything in nature has its delight:
mine is Amyntas." It will be observed that Damoetas continually

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changes the subject. — 82. Depulsis (sc. a lacte) = weaned. Cf. VII. 15.83. Salix. Cf. I. 79. — 84. Pollio (C. Asinus), a distinguished orator, poet, and historian. He was the friend and patron of Virgil and Horace and other great writers, and was the first to found a public library at Rome. He also had great reputation as a critic. "Pollio," says Damoetas, " is my patron, and the prince of critics." "Pollio is more," replies Menalcas, striving to outdo his rival," he is the prince of poets." Musam - 85. song, poetry. Cf. I. 2. Pierides Muses. See on Ov. M. V. Introduction, p. 403. Vitulam... taurum. These may be the prizes of different kinds of poetry, the value of the prize rising with the rise from critic and patron to poet. Some, however, regard them as sacrifices for Pollio's welfare. Lectori; Pollio. Vestro; because you (the Muses) inspire the verses which he reads. -86. Nova carmina. Some understand these words to refer to tragedies of a new kind; i. e. whose subjects were not borrowed from the Greek, but taken from Roman story. Nova may, however, mean original; or it may merely carry out the notion of ipse; he makes verses himself, is a poet as well as a critic. Others, with Heyne, make nova = unrivalled, matchless. -87. Qui... petat... spargat. Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. I (6). The relative clauses denote the age of the bull. -88. Veniat - gaudet may he attain to (the same happy lot) which he rejoices that thou also (hast reached). Te; sc. pervenisse. Some critics understand the happiness to be that of political preferment, others of poetic renown; but it would seem from v. 89 that the allusion is to the golden age (cf. IV. 25–30; G. I. 131 ; Ov. M. I. 89 foll.); and that the wish is that Pollio's admirers may enjoy with him the same dreamy felicity of the golden age that he enjoys. -89. Amomum; a fragrant oriental shrub; also the balsam made from it. Here it is the latter; in IV. 25, the former. -90. Bavium; i. e. his poems. Bavius and Maevius were envious poetasters who attacked Virgil and Horace. Amet. Gr. 367. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 2, N. 3. TuaMaevi. It is intimated that Maevius is a worse poet even than Bavius. Gr. 45. 5. 2). A. & S. 52. — 91. Jungat; i. e. for ploughing. Jungere vulpes and mulgere hircos appears to be a sort of comic purgatory opposed to the paradise of v. 89. 93. Frigidus herba. Gr. 672. 2. A. & S. 310. 2.94. Parcite nolite. Non bene creditur it is not safe to trust. -95. Ipse; i. e. though the most wary of the flock. - 96. Tityre. See on v. 20. Pascentes; i. e. qua pascuntur. Reice; poetical for rejice. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 283. IV. N. 1; 306. 1.—98. Cogite oves = = drive the sheep (into the shade); to shelter them from the midday heat. Praeceperit shall have dried up; i. e. before the time of milking. 100: Quam with macer. Pingui= making fat, nutritious. Ervo;

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a species of tare. 101. Exitium pecori. Gr. 390. 2. A. & S. 227, R. 4-102. His; sc. agnis. Neque etiam non, ne... .quidem.-103. Nescio quis... oculus some (evil) eye. - 104107. D. "Guess my riddle, and you shall be my Apollo." M. "Guess mine, and you shall have Phyllis to yourself." -104. Apollo was the god of divination. Mihi. Gr. 390. 2. A. & S. 227, R. 4. 105. Tres-ulnas. According to Servius, Asconius Pedianus heard Virgil say that he had intended in this passage to set a trap for the critics; and that the real answer was the tomb of Coelius, a Mantuan who had squandered his estate, and left himself only land enough for a tomb. This traditional solution is now generally followed, though various others have been proposed; such as a well, an oven, the shield of Achilles, the pit called mundus in the Comitium, which was opened but three days each year. Coeli, the poetical form of the genitive of Coelius, is the same as the genitive of coelum, heaven; but in the absence of certain knowledge on the subject, we cannot do better than translate it as the latter. Amplius ulnas. Gr. 417. 3; 378. A. & S. 256, R. 6 (a) and (b); 236. — 106. Inscripti nomina regum having the names of princes inscribed upon them; lit. inscribed as to the names of princes. Gr. 380 and 1. A. & S. 234. II. The flower meant is the hyacinth, which was inscribed with Aï, Ai (alas! alas!) to express the grief of Apollo at the death of Hyacinthus, whom he accidentally killed with a quoit, or, as others say, to express the name of Ajax (Aïas), of which they are the first two letters; or according to others, with the letter Y for 'Yákıvðos (Hyacinthus). 108. Non nostrum (sc. est) = it is not in my power. Gr. 404. I. A. & S. 211, R. 8 (3) (a). Componere = to decide. 109. Vitula. Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 244. Both ultimately wagered a heifer. See v. 49. Quisquis―amaros. This is obscure, but the general sense no doubt is, as Serv. says, et tu et hic digni estis vitula et quicumque similis vestri est; i. e. any one who can feel love as you have shown you can, the alarm which attends its enjoyment, and the pangs of disappointment. -111. Rivos the sluices. This verse admits of either a literal or a metaphorical interpretation. According to the former, Palaemon had gone into the fields in order to direct his slaves to open the sluices for irrigating his grounds, when he was called upon by the two shepherds to act as umpire in their singing match; and now that the contest has ended, he turns his attention to the slaves and tells them to close the sluices. According to the latter, the allusion is to the stream of bucolic verse. The two interpretations may be combined, and the passage may be understood in both

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