The Effects of a Magnetic Field on Radiation: Memoirs by Faraday, Kerr, and Zeeman
Preface -- Faraday, M. On the magnetization of light and the illumination of magnetic lines of force -- Faraday, M. On the magnetic affection of light -- Faraday, Biographical sketch of -- Kerr, J. On rotation of the plane of polarization by reflection from the pole of a magnet -- Kerr, J. On reflection of polarized light from the equatorial surface of a magnet -- Kerr, Biographical sketch of -- Zeeman, P. On the influence of magnetism on the nature of light emitted by a substance -- Zeeman, P. Doublets and triplets in the spectrum produced by external magnetic forces -- Zeeman, Biographial sketch of -- Bibliography.
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Seite 4 - I have long held an opinion," says that illustrious experimentalist, " almost amounting to a conviction, in common, I believe, with many other lovers of natural knowledge, that the various forms under which the forces of matter are made manifest have one common origin ; or, in other words, are so directly related and mutually dependent, that they are convertible, as it were, into one another, and possess equivalents of power in their action.
Seite 6 - ... the lamp-flame became visible, and continued so as long as the arrangement continued magnetic. On stopping the electric current, and so causing the magnetic force to cease, the light instantly disappeared; these phenomena could be renewed at pleasure, at any instant of time, and upon any occasion, showing a perfect dependence of cause and effect.
Seite 14 - The magnetic forces do not act on the ray of light directly and without the intervention of matter, but through the mediation of the substance in which they and the ray have a simultaneous existence; the substances and the forces giving to and receiving from each other the power of acting on the light.
Seite 5 - Nichol's eye-piece revolving on a horizontal axis, so as to be easily examined by the latter. Between the polarizing mirror and the eye-piece, two powerful electro-magnetic poles were arranged, being either the poles of a horse-shoe magnet, or the contrary poles of two cylinder magnets ; they were separated from each other about...
Seite 14 - It cannot be doubted that the magnetic forces act upon and affect the internal constitution of the diamagnetic, just as freely in the dark as when a ray of light is passing through it; though the phenomena produced by light seem, as yet, to present the only means of observing this constitution and the change. Further, any such change as this must belong to...
Seite 73 - Kelvin (now 40 years ago*) gave the solution of the following problem : — Let the two ends of a cord of any length be attached to two points at the ends of a horizontal arm made to rotate round a vertical axis through its middle point at a constant angular velocity, and let a second cord bearing a material point be attached to the middle of the first cord. .The motion now is investigated in the case when the point is infinitely little disturbed from its position of equilibrium.
Seite 3 - illumination of the lines of magnetic force" has been understood to imply that I had rendered them luminous. This was not within my thought. I intended to express that the line of magnetic force was illuminated as the earth is illuminated by the sun, or the spider's web illuminated by the astronomer's lamp. Employing a ray of light, we can tell, by the eye, the direction of the magnetic lines through a body; and by the alteration of the ray and its optical effect on the eye, can see the course of...
Seite 77 - By a rotation of the analyser over 90° the light that was first extinguished will he transmitted, and vice versa. Or, if first the right edge of the line is visible in the apparatus, a reversal of the direction of the current makes the left edge visible. The cross-wire of the eyepiece was set in the bright line. At the reversal of the current the visible line moved! This experiment could be repeated any number of times.
Seite vi - ... or in the contrary direction. But the elastic reaction of the medium must be the same for the same displacements, whatever be the velocities and directions of the particles ; that is to say, the forces which are balanced by centrifugal force of the circular motions are equal, while the luminiferous motions are unequal. The absolute circular motions being therefore either equal or such as to transmit equal centrifugal forces to the particles initially considered, it follows that the luminiferous...
Seite 77 - It thus appears that e/m is of the order of magnitude 107 electromagnetic CGS units. Of course this result from theory is only to be considered as a first approximation. 24. It may be deduced from the experiment of §20 whether the positive or the negative ion revolves. If the lines of force were running towards the grating, the right-handed circularly-polarized rays appeared to have the smaller period. Hence in connexion with §18 it follows that the positive ions revolve, or at least describe the...