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translation of that fine old Roman, “its tides mighty, the winds puissant and forcible, and, more than that, ores and sails withal to help forward the rest are mighty and powerful; and yet there is one little sillie fish, Echeneis, * that checketh, scorneth, and arresteth them all. Let the winds blow as much as they will, rage the storms and tempests never so strong, even yet this little fish commandeth their fury, restraineth their puissance, and, maugre all their force, as great as it is, compelleth the ships to stand still! Why should our ships and armadas at sea make such turrets on the walls and forecastles, when one little fish, (see the vanitie of man!) is able to arrest and stay perforce our goodly and tall ships? Certes, reported it is that in the navall battle before Actium, wherein Anthony and Cleopatra were defeated by Augustus, one of these fishes staid the admirall ship whereon M. Anthony was, at what time hee made all the haste and means hee could devise, with help of ores, to encourage his people from ship to ship, and could not prevail, until hee was forced to abandon the same admirall
, and goe into another galley. Meanwhile, the armada of Augustus Cæsar, seeing the disorder, charged with greater violence, and soon invested the fleet of Anthony. Of late days, also, and within our remembrance, the like happened to the roiall ship of the Emperor Caius Caligula, at what time as hee rowed back and made sail from Astura to Antium, and as soon as the vessel (a gallien; it was furnished with five banks of ores to a side) was perceived alone in the fleet to stand still, presently a number of bold fellows leapt out of their ships into the sea, to search after the said galley what the reason might bee that it stirred not, and found one of these fishes sticking fast to the vere helme, which being reported to C. Caligula, hee fumed and sware as an emperor, taking a great indignation that so small a thing as this should hold her back perforce, and check the strength of all his warriors, notwithstanding there were no fewer than four hundred lustie men in his galley that laboured at the ore all that ever they could do to the contrary. This fish presaged an unfortunate event, for no sooner was hee arrived at Rome, but some souldiours, in a mutinie, fell upon him, and stabbed him to death."
The same writer, a little further on, tells us, on the authority of one Statius Libonius, an anecdote of certain worms or serpents seen by his informant "withiu Ganges, a river of India,” which we take to have been lampreys, viewed " through the microscope of a warm imagination, and therefore highly magnified.” “Within Ganges, a river of India, there be fishy, snouted, and tailed dolphins, fifteen cubits long, called Platanistce; and Statius Libonius reporteth as strange a thing besides, namely, that in the said river there bee certain worms or serpents with two fins of a side, sixty cubits long, of colour blue, which bee so strong, that when the elephants come into the river for drink, they catch fast hold with their teeth by their trunks or muzzles, and, maugre their hearts, force them down under the water, of such force and power they are." Alas and alas! for the credulity of mankind, who, “ever sceptical in the wrong place,” have in all ages
" Swallowed nonsense and a lie
With greediness and gluttony!" If we may believe all that ichthyologists assert, the lamprey has fully sustained in modern times his ancient reputation. Rondolet—but we prefer relating the anecdote in the language of one, of whom it may be said, as he-although for very different reason-hath himself said of Oppian, that he appears to have been born as much a fish as a poet, so felicitous is
* Echeneis, literally Stay-Ship, the Greek naine of the lamprey.
his diction, and so profound his knowledge of piscine economy. dolet," then, “ informs us that he himself met with an adventure very like to that of Caius Caligula. He was going to Rome in the suite of Cardinal Tournon, in a fine ship, which was scudding glibly before the wind, when she suddenly came to a standstill, and, after much wonderment and investigation as to the nature of the impediment, a lamprey was found fixed to the helm, which was removed not without difficulty,* when the vessel, freed from the incumbrance, proceeded on her course. Rondolet invokes the whole crew to attest his veracity and their cognizance of a fact which we would not believe though it were down in the captain's logbook."
All the world has heard of that “ Roman gentleman," as Pliny calls him, Vedius Pollio by name, who, either to feed his anger, or feed his fish, was in the sportive habit of causing offending slaves to be thrown into the stews where he kept his muræna—“Not,” says Pliny's quaint translator, “ that there were not wilde beastes ynow upon lande for this feate, but because hee tooke pleasure to beholde a manne torn and plucket in pieces all at once, which pleasaunt sight hee could not see upon any other beastes upon lande." It is of this fish, the pet and the delight of the Roman Apicii, who, according to Juvenal,
“Would for its shining scales a sum devote
More than would buy nets, fisherman, and boats,"
that Theophrastus relates the pleasant fable, that being able, like the common eel, to exist for a considerable time out of water, the female occasionally avails herself of the privilege to take a moonlight excursion upon terra firma, in order to hold a little loving confabulation with the male viper, who, however, “ before joining company, takes the laudable precaution of depositing his venom unde a stone, and as soon as his fishy friend has wished him good night, recovers and carefully reabsorbs it." Of the same fish Kiranides reports that she has three mortal foes, the crab, the cuttle, and the conger, and that to immerse either of these in the same water with her, “no wise man would any longer make the mistake, the experiment having been made over and over again, and always with one result, namely, that, on removing the lid of the stewpan, one or other of the combitants has been invariably found amissing, and, notwithstanding its fierceness and superior strength, generally the muræna.” 0, Kiranides! Kiranides !
There is a passage in Daniel's Rural Sports which, when placed side by side with a passage from Theophrastus, as quoted by Pliny, will perhaps satisfy some at least of our readers that what may at first sight look marvellously like a fable is not necessarily fabulous. We allude to the Greek naturalist's account of living subterranean fish. wonders," saith Master Holland, whom we shall take as a substitute for Pliny, "hee (Theophrastus) tells of certaine kinds of fishes, which are about Babylon, where there bee many places subject to the inundations of the Euphrates and other rivers, and wherein water standeth after that the rivers are returned within their bankes, in which the fishe remain in certain holes and caves. Some of them (saith he) used to issue forth on lande for foode and releafe, going upon their finnes in lieu of feete, and wagging their tailes ever as they goe; and if any chase them, or come to take them, they will retire into their ditches aforsaide, and there make heade, and stande against them.
* “This part of the recital is probably correct, no bull-dog, badger, or limpet being more adhesive than a lamprey. Once fastened to an object, he will not sutier it to escape. Pennart cites an instance of the lamprey, which weighed eight pounds, adhering to a body of twelve pounds so firmly as to raise it when he himself was raised into the air."
Moreover, that about Heraclea, and Cromna, and, mainly, near the river Lycus, and in many other quarters of the kingdome of Pontus, there is one kinde above the reste that haunteth river sides and the utmost edge of the water, making herselfe holes under the bankes, and within the lande wherein shee liveth, yea, even when the banks are drie, and the rivers gathered into narrowe channels. By reason thereof, they are digged forth of the earth, and, as they say that finde them, alive they bee, as may appear by moving and stirring of their bodies.” The same author avoucheth that, “ in Paphlagonia there bee digged out of the grounde certain lande fishes that .bee excellent goode meat, and most delicate, but they bee founde in drie places remote from the river, and whither no waters flow, whereby they are forced to make the deeper trenches for to come by them. Himselfe marvelleth how they should engender without the helpe of moisture; how beit, hee supposeth there bee a certaine minerall and naturall force therein, such as wee see to sweat out in pits, forasmuch as divers of them have fishes found within them." Now, compare this passage from Pliny with the following from Daniel: “A piece of water, which had been ordered to be filled up, and into which wood and rubbish had been thrown for years, was directed to be cleaned out. Persons were accordingly employed; and, almost choked up by weeds and mud, so little water remained that no person expected to see any fish except a few eels, yet nearly two hundred brace of tench of all sizes, and as many perch, were found. After the pond was thought to be quite free, under some roots there seemed to be an animal, which was conjectured to be an otter. The place was surrounded, and, on opening an entrance among the roots, a tench was found of most singular form, having literally assumed the shape of the hole in which, of course, he had been for many years confined. Ile weighed eleven pounds nine ounces; his colour was singular-his belly being that of ochre or vermilion." This extraordinary fish, after having been inspected by many gentlemen, was carefully put into a pond, and, at the time the account was written, was alive and well. To this startling anecdote we shall only add what George Agricola, in his Treatise on Subterranean Animals, and Fabricius, in a letter to Gesner, relate of these burrowing fish, which, in the latter's time, were found in two several localities in the vicinity of the Elbe, and then leave the reader to draw his own conclusion. After giving the dimensions of the fish, which averaged, he says, about a foot in length and an inch in thickness, its colour "above, being of deep cerulean, lighter on the under side, and having certain oral appendages, porrect when
immersed, and retracted when taken from the water," Fabricius adds that the Saxon peasants during dry weather dig them up for household provision, and in wet weather the pigs feed upon them in the fields, “where they lie, after the subsidence of a flood, littered over the ground like worms.” Agricola is rather more explicit. He agrees with Fabricius in his statement as to the dimensions of the fish, but distinguishes two distinct species-one scaleless and shaped like an eel, the other possessed of scales and resembling the gudgeon in form. He further agrees with Fabricius in saying that the peasantry, “to whom they furnish but a poor, sorry fare, dig them up abundantly in divers places” which he names, but adds, “ that they not unfrequently penetrate far through the earth, and bore their way generally from some neighbouring stream into deep caves and wine cellars, though at other times they are exhumed in parts sufficiently remote from all running water to make their gité or genesis equally hopeless problems."
REFORMATORIES FOR THE DESTITUTE AND THE FALLEN.* CHRISTIAN civilisation is a great and glorious work in active operation around us. Public and private establishments have been formed to conduct, with constant assiduity, the grand divine mission of Love. To its progressive, and, at the same time, truly conserving spirit, this nation owes its present ever-outspreading vitality. Christianity is so expansive in its nature, that it outbounds the speculations of the loftiest intellect, and yet satisfies the capacities of the humblest peasant. It adapts itself to every honest grade of life. But though the moving power and the essential parts of its machinery are divine, and therefore perfect in action, many of the appliances are human, and therefore, from the imperfection of humanity, liable to do wrong. Now, Christian civilisation has had, and still has, a serious and most important work to perform—a most legitimate work, too—the reforming of those who, through no crime of their own, have been born and are being brought up in a tainted atmosphere of ignorance, crime, and brutality. Christianity is the only power
. efficacious enough to reclaim them. Upon this point most of us are agreed. But how are we to apply it ? Upon that, great diversity of opinion exists. Habit, it has been said, is second nature. More properly it may be called confirmed nature; for it is our constitutional capability to act, which by repetition has converted itself into a power to act, and that with readiness and facility. Habit can only be educed by training; so training is what we require. By the way, there is an important consideration here to which we must advert. We commonly speak of inducing, not educing, habit. That generally used term, inducing, is the exponent of a very general error—that training induces from without, whereas the truth is, as we have said, it educes from within, and that is the reason why we call the process not inducation but education, To resume: those whom we wish to reform possess bad habits, for which, by adequate and proper training, we desire to substitute those that are good. But a condition of training is the time to do it in. Are two hours of Sabbath evening enough, where mere instruction (let alone training) is given by very incompetent, because inadequately-trained, teachers, to children who, during the rest of the week, are constantly being trained by the debasing circumstances in which they find themselves inevitably placed ? Far be it from us to inveigh against the spirit of the Sabbath-school system. We only mean to mark out its necessarily limited influence and power as at present constituted and conducted, and warn the admirers and supporters of this assuredly meritorious and well-intentioned institution from trusting too much to it, and
* On “Reformatories for the Destitute and the Fallen ;” being the substance of a Paper read at the Statistical Section of the British Association. By James M'Clelland, F.E.S., &c. To which is appended Report on Agricultural Colonies, by M. Demetz, Honorary Councillor of the Imperial Court of Paris.
expecting too much from it. We would embrace much of its machinery, but expect from it only its proper and legitimate work. Nor will extending the hours of instruction to the other days of the week suffice, for what is done at school may be undone at home; and there are, besides, other practical difficulties in this plan which seriously affect its operations among the lowest in the community. After all, however, the best Sabbath-school for children is home, and their best instructors their parents. To illumine the humble dwelling and the lordly mansion with the comliness of the Christian virtues and the beauty of Christian holiness—to impress the heads of families, of every grade, with their religious duties and responsibilities—is the true mission of the clergyman.
The ragged school and penitentiary approach nearest to what is required; but these we deem still essentially inefficient. We are, in fact, behind the spirit the age in his matter. Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, Prussia, France, can boast of more efficient institutions for raising the moral status of the degraded classes of the community. It is to interest the public in the establishment of such institutions, that our liberal-minded and philanthropic townsman, Mr M'Clelland, has published his pamphlet. In a simple and straightforward manner he describes the constitution and practical working of several philanthropic institutions of this character, conducted by De Fellenberg, Wichern, Demetz, Kuratli, Suringar, and deduces the following conclusions, in which we heartily concur :
“1. That the union of labour, and especially agricultural lab with learning and constant occupation, and work in the open air and field, are the best calculated to promote, in an efficient and economical manner, the steady and successful reclamation and reform of the majority of the criminal and destitute among the young.
“2. That under the operation of the recent legislation upon Reformatory Schools, the course which should be recommended to be followed is, to plant and encourage Reformatories upon small farms; and by following out the family system, to apportion the children in such small sections, or groups, as will be effectually managed (under a head teacher or director), by house or family fathers, apportioned in cottages upon the farm, fitted to contain each family, and living continually under their care and control.
“3. That to carry the work efficiently into operation, that the director, and house or family fathers, should be thoroughly and practically trained to the calling, and should only be employed on their evincing, under a probationary test, their love for the work, and on giving proof of their intellectual, moral, and religious capacity for the calling.
“4. That from the foregoing views, it seems to follow, that the erection and foundation of Reformatory institutions within the precincts of cities or towns, will not serve the end in view of the promoters with so much efficiency or economy as the adoption of the family system upon small farms; and that such institutions now situated in cities or towns should be gradually removed, and located in districts of the country favourable in soil, situation, and proximity to railways."
Here is exhibited a great practical principle in our nature—that the most effectual moral training is educed through judiciously blending it with the daily activities of life. The selection of these activities, too, is properly guided by the obvious dictate of nature—work in the open air among the fields, and the hills, and the woods, where