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were compelled to support railways which they did not use. may some families engage tutors, and others frequent select schools, and we do not see why such should contribute to the maintenance of common schools, otherwise than as forming a part of the nation.

Many think that teachers should be paid by the State; but it cannot be held that they occupy a position in any way analogous to that of other classes thus remunerated. They are not like clergymen whose office forbids mere mercenary competition, and who can make no distinctions in the quality of the services they render. With soldiers and sailors they have still less in common, for there is no opposition army or navy, nor indeed can be. There are no adventure corps—if there be adventure churches, they are not so avowedly. With schools the case is far otherwise; the principles of free trade are quite applicable to them, nor does this in any way degrade the teacher's office. It is a profession, quite true; but is there not a legal—is there not a medical profession--and do not lawyers and doctors engage in competition? Government might just as reasonably enter into some abstruse investigation to discover what would be commensurate pay for them, and on making provision for the legal and medical requirements of the nation, and endow all and sundry with these emoluments so deduced; as endeavour to make a like discovery in the case before us, and apply it to all the teachers it appoints. The effects of such a measure would assuredly be discontent on one side or other, on the part of the teachers or of the public; whereas if the teachers be willing to supply the demand for their services on advantageous, or, again, if only on disadvantageous terms, it remains a matter between them and the public. If it be reasonable that the rates should be low, opposition will be induced; but if that they should be high, the public will have to submit. It may be well to conclude our remarks on this subject, by reminding the reader that we have only advocated the limitation of the teacher's salary-as regards the maximum-to protect the public against the possible consequences of a monopoly; and the minimum-on account of the necessity of maintaining schools, even in unremunerative districts. In this case, however, a livelihood is the desideratum, while the margin between the extremes would leave ample scope for the influence of superior qualifications and greater merit.




(Concluded from page 130.) WITHIN the castle of Burgdorf was begun that realisation of a true natural method of education which has endeared the memory of Pestalozzi to every lover of humanity. His simple intuitional genius was supported and aided by men of shrewd observation, deep reflection, and sound judgment, that willingly followed his diviner light. Such assistants were indispensably necessary to him, for they did work which his progressive spirit was apt to leave undone through oversight caused by excessive ardour. Niederer, in particular, served him and his method well, by counteracting his tendency to delay too long the developing of the mind to abstract thinking. Others, by their knowledge of things of which he was ignorant, and their criticism of his method from their varied intellectual standpoints, fenced in and strengthened it by making it more tangibly practical. The homage and obedience they paid to his genius is

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remarkable; and as he was no ordinary man who possessed that genius, so were they, too, no ordinary men who recognised and attached themselves to it. Buss thus describes his first interview with him :

“I went to Burgdorf. I cannot describe the feelings I had at our first interview. He came down from an upper room with Ziemssen, who was just then on a visit with hira, his stockings hanging down about his heels, and his coat covered with dust. His whole appearance was so miserable that I was inclined to pity him, and yet there was in his expression something so great that I viewed him with astonishment and veneration. This, then, was Pestalozzi! His benevolence, the cordial reception he gave to me, a perfect stranger, his unpretending simplicity, and the dilapidated condition in which he stood before me the whole man taken together, impressed me most powerfully. I was his in one instant. No man had ever so sought my heart; but none, likewise, has ever so fully won my confidence."

It was about this time that he wrote those valuable letters to his friend Gessner, a son of the poet, which he afterwards published under the title of ‘How Gertrude Teaches her Little Ones.” They contain an account of his experiments up to this time, with the progress of his method.

The institution was prospering in all save its pecuniary department —the bane of many a noble enterprise. To complete its fate, the Central Government—the main source of its expenditure—was dissolved; and, though the Government of Berne, in which canton Burgdorf was situated, was rich enough to support it, so far from entertaining such a philanthropic idea, they ordered him to remove his establishment elsewhere. In this they acted from mainly political motives, Berne being aristocratic, and Pestalozzi having all along prufessed democratic principles. But the change turned out for the better. He received two invitations of settlement, one from the Government of the Canton de Vaud, the other from Emmanuel de Fellenberg, a noted patron of education. Willingly, and yet afraid to trust his establishment so near the influence of such a man, he determined upon settling chiefly in the Canton de Vaud for the present, and sending part of it to Munchen Buchsee, the estate of Fellenberg. The result showed that he had acted wisely. Fellenberg's method would not suit with Pestalozzi's. So after a twelve months' trial, that part was united to the principal establishment which had settled at Yverdon.

The Government of the Canton was poor, and could only grant him the free use of the Castle of Yverdon. This affected the institution much at first, but gradually it became self-supporting as a boardingschool. In the end it operated towards its permanent establishment in making Pestalozzi and his friends concentrate their management upon this scheme alone, and leave out of consideration for the present his favourite schemes of an orphan asylum and a teachers' seminary.

The Castle of Yverdon was beautifully situated at the south end of the lake of Neufchatel. We cannot resist quoting Biber's beautiful description of its situation, and the use made of it by Pestalozzi and his pupils :

“The town is situated in a valley of from six to eight miles in breadth,

between the extreme western terrace of the Alps, and the first or eastern ridge of the Jura. In its immediate vicinity there are vast morasses, which have been laid dry by canals, cut in every direction, so as to render the soil fertile and the air salubrious. The well-cultivated plain is watered by the river Orbe, which, issuing from the caverns of the Jura, at the distance of no more than a day's journey from Yverdon, and descending through the romantic scenery of Valorbe, forins a superb cascade about the middle of its rapid course, where the whole river, swelled in the early part of summer, by the thaw of the mountain snows, into a majestic torrent, precipitates itself with a sudden fall of about twenty feet over a mass of steep rocks, and fills the neighbouring forest with the echoes of its never-ceasing thunders. From thence its turbulent waves roll on over their rough bed, now expanding over a verdant plain, closely surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills and woods ; and now again narrowly hemmed in between crags which descend perpendicularly upon the margin of the floods, and whose corresponding angles testify that, united in one mountain in ages unrecorded, they were rent asunder on one of those days when the foundations of the hills moved and were shaken.' A gradual ascent of successive terraces leads from the plain of Yverdon to the eminence which, at a terrific depth beneath, the Orbe is seen bathing with the foam of its mouth the foot of the immovable rocks, and at last working out his passage into the plain through which, as if conscious of his triumph, he proceeds in a slow and circuitous course, to blend his pale waters with the deep azure of the lake. This fine landscape in the back-ground is beautifully contrasted by the prospect of a longitudinal sheet of water, of from six to ten miles in breadth, extending in the direction of N.N.E. to a distance at which the opposite shore can only be distinguished in a perfectly clear state of the atmosphere. The eastern border is formed by several chains of hills, covered with wood, which run parallel to each other, and whose promontories, projecting into the lake, break the uniformity of their gloomy aspect. Violent hurricanes, descending from time to time with a sudden gust from the opposite heights of the Jura, where they are generated by conflicting currents of air in the narrow mountain passes, and stirring up the waters to the very depth, have heaped up the sands on this side, and created extensive shoals, which render navigation, even in still weather, impracticable. The opposite shore, on the contrary, presents a fine coast, rising in an easy slope from the water's edge, whose laughing vineyards, interrupted only by gay villages, are overshadowed by the dark firs with which the Jura is girded round its breast, while its broad front presents, in the region of the clouds, long tracts of rich pasture, with now and then a small hamlet boldly hanging on the brow. To complete the magnificence of this scene, one-half of the horizon, from northeast to south-west, is crowned with the snowy pinnacles of the Alps, raised above one another; and, towering above them all, the giant Mont Blanc, with his everlasting pillars of ice.

“Such was the school in which the pupils of Pestalozzi learned how the earth is fashioned, and what is the appointed course of the waters. He taught them to watch the gathering up of the morning mists, and the shadows of the early clouds, which, passing over the glittering lake, hid for a moment, as with a veil of dark gauze, its streams of undulating gold. He directed their eyes to the flaming characters with which the sun writes the farewell of day on the trackless surface of eternal snow-he stood listening with them to the majestic voice of Nature, when the autumnal gale, howling on the floods, rolled billow after billow to the bleak shore—he guided their steps to the mountain caves, from whose deep recesses the stately rivers draw their inexhaustible supplies. Wherever he found a leaf in the mysterious book of creation laid open, he gave it them to read ; and thus, within the narrow sphere of their horizon, taught

1 them more of earth and earth-born beings than they could have learned by travelling, in the pages of a heavy volume, all round the globe.”

Though Pestalozzi's method was organised into a system, it was not sacrificed to system, like many similiar institutions, but kept up through Pestalozzi's vigorous lifetime its essentially intuitional

character. Its normal constitution was altogether subordinate to this, what may be termed the spiritual life which gave that constitution vitality. In the hands of many who imitated him, however, it degenerated into a dead normal factory, where educational fabrics were woven to clothe the nakedness of ignorance, exciting a negative heat, and neglecting the true internal source—the living thoughtwhich never shall be cast off, but shall pass with us, as part of our eternal garmentry, to heaven. Pestalozzi was no scholar, but he was what was infinitely better-a thinker. He required but the elements of knowledge for his purpose, for he used them but as materials for thinking, and the young minds he was training could only digest elementary knowledge. We must not, however, deem Pestalozzi a superficial thinker. He thought for himself, and that, with much natural power, made him a strong and penetrating thinker.

His heart, too, was as sound and as great as his intellect. Power and simplicity were alike characteristic of him. He was earnest, and that was much. His own description of himself we had realised ere we had read its confession :

“Thousands pass away, as nature gave them birth, in the corruption of sensual gratification, and they seek no more.

“Tens of thousands are overwhelmed by the burdens of craft and trade, by the weight of the hammer, the ell, or the crown, and they seek no more.

" But I know a man who did seek more. The joy of simplicity dwelt in his heart, and he had faith in mankind such as few men have; his soul was made for friendship: love was his aliment, and fidelity his strongest tie.

“ But he was not ma by this world, nor for it; and wherever he was placed in it, he was found unfit.

“And the world that found him thus, asked not whether it was his fault, or the fault of another; but it bruised him with an iron hammer, as the bricklayers break an old brick to fill up crevices.

“But though bruised, he yet trusted in mankind more than in himself; and he proposed to himself a great purpose, which to attain, he suffered agonies, and learned lessons such as few mortals had learned before him.

“He could not, nor would he become generally useful, but for his purpose he was more useful than most men are for theirs, and he expected justice at the hands of mankind, whom he still loved with an innocent love. But he found

Those that erected themselves into his judges, without further examina tion, confirmed the former sentence, that he was generally and absolutely useless.

“This was the grain of sand which decided the doubtful balance of his wretched destines.

“He is no more; thou woulust know him no more; all that remains of him are the decayed remnants of his destroyed existence.

“He fell as a fruit that falls before it is ripe, whose blossom has been nipped by the northern gale, or whose core is eaten out by the gnawing worm.

Stranger that passest by, refuse not a tear of sympathy; even in falling, this fruit turned itself towards the stem, on the branches of which it lingered through the summer, and it whispered to the tree, “Verily, even in my death will I nourish thy roots.'

“Stranger that passest by, spare the perishing fruit, and allow the dust of its corruption to nourish the roots of the tree on whose branches it lived, sickened, and died.'

But though Pestalozzi had the gratification of proving the practicability of his scheme, he had to submit to the pain of seeing his institution ruined by internal discord, caused by one of his assistants, Joseph Schmid. This cast a gloom over the last days of his life


darker than he had ever felt before, and that, when his years precluded the buoyant indulgence of hope. A mind, however, such as his must have felt a serious satisfaction in having worked out to the utmost of his ability that mission which the extent and character of his capacities so well qualified him to undertake as the distinctive duty he was called upon by the terms of his existence to perform. He died at Brugg, in the Canton of Basle, on Feb. 17, 1827. He was one of those few great original thinkers, who seem born specially for their time to direct the current of civilisation into its true channel.

'Twas calm : 'twas stilly calm; beneath the eye
The unruffled lake a mighty mirror lay
Of molten silver, whilst on either side
The mountains sloped with an uncertain swell
Into the azure sky, where the bright moon,
Like some fond mother o'er her slumbering child,
With wakeful eye smiled on the scene beneath.
No sound disturbed the stillness of the scene,
Save on the lone hill-side the leveret's cry
Broke now and then; the porpoise on the lake
Breathed hard and low; and nearer still
The regal salmon sprang into the air
In all the pride of his high-vaulting strength,
And in the golden beauty of the hour
Bathed for one little moment, and then dropped
With sunken plash into the deep again.
In the clear moonlight you could trace full well
The varied windings of the pebbly bays,
That silver-fringed the outline of the lake.
Far in the distance, Gourock's glimmering lights
Shone faint and dim. Oft in the stormy night
They've been the guide of him who braves the main
To earn a scanty pittance from its depths.
Far down the coast stood Clutha's sentinel *
With ever-wakeful eye-the rock-bound shore
Faithfully guarding through the watch of night,
Lest in the darkness, or the maze of mist,
The toil-worn sailor, in his battered ship,
Miss his true path, and on the sunken reef
Shatter his bark and sink in sight of home!
On such a night as this, its constant light
Seemed useless; for the brighter lamp above
Diffused a universal light around,
Eclipsing all, save her own children fair-
The bright-eyed stars that form her glorious train,
And with the sweetness of their mother's smile,
Shed a new beauty o'er the entrancing scene.

Across the bosom of the silent lake
Sped a light bark with outspread bank of oars,
Dashing to either side the silver spray
With steady buoyant prow, urged by the nerve
Of four stout seamen, who, with measured chant,
Winnowed the yielding deep with ceaseless stroke-

* The Cloch Lighthouse.

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