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is essential to eloquence, and its inspira- against this barbarity, the prophet says tions are communicated principally by unto him, “Thou art the man." means of moral painting.

Similar methods are pursued in the But we are stopped by the inquiry, common concerns of life. When a soliWhat is all this to the preacher? of what citor pleads against a criminal at the bar use is moral painting in sermons? Much he does not think it sufficient to state the every way. To keep a congregation evidence merely. He calls in the aid of awake. How painful for the preacher imagination ; conveys you to the place who has toiled through the week in pre- where the murder was commited; paints paring an elaborate discourse, to look the horrid transaction before your eyes ; round on an audience whose minds if until you see the unprovoked assault, the not bodies are asleep. Yet he should not unequal struggle, the imploring look, the be surprised :

death-blow; and if this is not sufficient * The clear harangue, and cold as it is clear,

to excite your indignation, he points you Falls soporific on the listless ear.”

to the agonizing widow and the weeping

orphan. Is this necessary to give truth It is granted that the ambassador of its proper influence when no prejudice heaven is not sent to amuse men with exists against it, and its novelty alone tropes and figures. He is to instruct secures attention? How much more nethem, to “sanctify them through the cessary, then, is it for the preacher, who truth.” But he presents the truth in exhibits truths not only trite but unwelvain, unless it is seen, unless it is felt. come! Men are not all intellect; on the con- But, if a cold statement, or mathematitrary, while few have a cultivated under- cal demonstration, be sufficient, let the standing, all have a heart ; while few preacher take his Bible, and read his can, and fewer will, follow an involved message; it matters not how he reads it, argument, all readily apprehend a com- if he only is understood. Let there be parison. Ask a man after he has heard no feeling tones, no animated gestures, a sermon, what he remembers? Is it a no grace of delivery. If anything is syllogism? No; an imagethe shocking obscure, he may explain it; if anything spectre of his own deformity; and it needs proof, he may bring forward his haunts him at midnight so that he can- strong reasons. Are men, however, thus not rest.

converted? Tell a man that after death The preacher who employs the imagin- comes the judgment; he has heard it before. ation in preparing the way for truth, fol. Prove to him that there will be, that there lows the example of the sacred writers. must be a day of judgment; he believes it Almost every page of the Bible abounds already, but it is a thing of no concern to with images which would almost electrify him. Describe to him some of the revealed us were we not so familiar with them. scenes of the day of judgment; show him When Nathan is called upon to reprove the graves opening, the dead rising, the David, observe how he arms the royal world on fire, his Judge in the clouds of sinner against himself :—There was a heaven, seated on a great white throne, poor man who had a single ewe-lamb, and appalled millions (himself among the which he had nourished, and which he number) trembling before this Judge, in had grown up with his children. It ate expectation of their doom: he looks at of his own meat, drank of his own cup, the tremendous scene with dismay, and lay in his bosom, and was to him as feels he must prepare to meet his God. a daughter. But a rich neighbour, who The whole fault is not in the hearers had abundance of flocks and herds, pass- when sermons do not interest or affect. ing by them, took this single ewe-lamb, Were the preacher, instead of dealing and killed it for his luxurious table. When in chopped-logic and wire-drawn metathe indignation of the king was excited physics, more frequently to employ Scripture history and the objects around him; songs of heaven, and now downward to were he to argue less from principles, hear the clanking chains of hell. Witness and more from facts; to seek his proofs, the effect on Chesterfield. This sceptic not in the schools, but in the study of was present when the preacher representhuman nature; to find his arms not so ed the votary of sin, under the figure of much in his own head as in the hearts of a blind beggar led by a little dog. The his hearers, we should hear less said dog had slipped from his string. The about sleepy congregations. Masillon's poor man, unconscious, came to the congregations did not sleep. He believed brink of a precipice. A torrent foamed that men have an imagination. Through below. As he felt his way along, with this he sought an avenue to their affec- his staff between both hands, to support tions. He reasoned, but his reasoning his trembling limbs, it slipped upon the was like his eloquence, that of the rock. He poised for a moment, and then soul. His hearers felt the hand of the fell headlong. As he fell, Chesterfield preacher probing their hearts. Conscience sprang from his seat, exclaiming, “ By was roused, and when at one time he heavens he is gone!" stopped, and after a death-like pause, Let me not be understood to recomadded, " I fancy now is your last hour, mend gaudy decorations. It is beneath and the end of the world, and that the the dignity of the pulpit, and it is a most heavens are opening over your heads," wretched substitute for thought. Nor the whole audience rose involuntarily yet do I recommend any painting adfrom their seats. Whitefield's hearers did dressed merely to the imagination. This not sleep. By his power of moral paint may do for the poet, but the orator has ing, in which consisted the chief magic a higher aim. He must paint to the of his eloquence, he carried men where heart. His images must speak to the he chose, with a touch more effective soul. If he do this, his style will be as than that which is fancied of a fairy's different from the rainbow colouring of a wand; and, annihilating everything but vaporing fancy as the steady sun is the scene he would present, he drew from the shooting meteor, which aside as it were the veil of eternity; now “Leads to bewilder, and dazzles to blind." led his audience upward to catch the


To the Editor of the Evangelical Magazine. MY DEAR SIR,-Shortly after midsum- / portrait of the deceased pastor, I remer before last, on resigning a pastoral mained for some time after service, and charge, of more than five years' continu- read the following inscription :- Dediance, in Staffordshire, I paid a visit to cated, by filial affection, to the venerated my relatives in the county of York, and memory of the Rev. Samuel BOTTOMspent a few days at Scarborough. While LEY, fifty-seven years the beloved, revered, there, I went, on a week-day evening, to and highly useful minister of the congrethe chapel formerly occupied by the Rev. gation worshipping here. His devout Samuel Bottomley, (under whose minis- and catholic spirit, his sound understandtry I used occasionally to sit with much ing, and feeling heart, eminently qualified satisfaction, and, I hope, with spiritual him for the pastora 'office, in the exercise benefit,) and heard an excellent sermon of which, his public discourses were reby his successor, the Rev. G. B. Kidd, markable for the evangelical strain, from Jer. xxxi, 35, 36, Observing, on sententious style, and animated expresthe left-hand side of the pulpit, a hand- siop. In his private ministrations he was some monument, bearing a medallion | a judicious and familiar instructor, a

prudent adviser, a sympathising friend in not to use presumptuously, he was known sickness and distress, and the minister of to many, especially to the poor, as the peace to the departing spirit. As his good Samaritan, and, at the same time, strength failed, his confidence increased as the faithful and sympathising pastor, in his Redeemer, who received him to who was well qualified to instruct the glory on the morning of his own day, ignorant, and 'to speak a word in season February 13, A.D. 1831, after sojourning to them that were weary and distressed on earth eighty years." The counten- in spirit.' ance of my venerable friend appeared to “No wonder that such a man was held be faithfully represented by the artist, in general and high estimation, even by and to every word of the inscription I those from whom he differed in opinion. could unhesitatingly assent; and now In him the poor have lost a benevolent that I have a little leisure, I cheerfully and active friend; his children have lost transcribe the following passages from a father, whose presence and conversaMr. Bottomley's funeral sermon, deli- tion they appreciated as the first and vered at Scarborough, March 15, 1831, chief endearment of their domestic union ; by his intimate friend, the late Rev. Ed- and you will feel that you have sustained ward Parsons, of Leeds, which, I am a great loss as a congregation. To some persuaded, will be found interesting to of you he has proved a wise teacher and many of your readers, and not unworthy a paternal guide, from your earliest days. the attention of our younger brethren in As you esteemed him very highly in love the ministry :

for his work's sake while he lived, for “From my occasional interviews with your own sakes you will lament and him, and all I have known of him, for mourn the dispensation that has nummore than forty years, I should ascribe bered him with the dead. And there are greater uniformity to his character than many, of various religious denominations, is common to man in general. If the accustomed to visit this place on the virtues which formed the most prominent annual return of the season, who will feature of his life as a Christian and a feel, with you, the absence of one whose minister, are estimated as they deserve, name and presence they formerly identifew men can be found whose names pos- fied with Scarborough itself, sess a higher claim to public veneration. "His preaching was peculiarly plain In the habitual frame of his mind, he and simple, bearing more of the character was placid and cheerful, affectionate and of an easy, familiar, conversational style, candid. In his conversation and man- than of studied method, or laborious comners he was simple, easy, ingenuous, position. He affected nothing. He was familiar, lively, and engaging. Every always seen in his own mental dress, and one was at home and happy in his com. heard in his own unlaboured language, pany. He knew nothing of the studied Though his style was not without its decorums of a cold, freezing civility; and attractions to more cultivated minds, though he had his trials, and felt them there was no display of intellectual supeas he ought, I never saw his animal riority, no parade of logical reasonings, spirits in a state of perturbation. In the no attempt to excite attention and apgeneral tenor of his deportment, at home plause by the blandishments of eloquence. or abroad, he was vigilant and judicious, He understood the art of descending to regular and punctual, beneficent and libe- the lowest rank of intellect-to the caparal. When in health, bis days were spent city of childhood. Though some, of a in going about doing good; and, like more fastidious cast, might think that he his great Master, in administering relief, was in the extreme of plainness, I would both to the maladies of the body and the rather recommend and imitate that exsoul. Possessing some useful portion of treme, than its opposite. Were we to medical knowledge, which he was careful | divest some sermons of their gorgeous apparatus, their conceited exhibitions of Divine Providence, and knew how to superior intelligence, their witty allu- improve passing events, and the common sions, their shining tropes and figures, | incidents of life, in the illustration and their ingenious illustrations, their harmo- application of evangelical truth. He was nious periods, what would there be left habitually sensible of his dependence to meet and satisfy the desires of a mind upon the Holy Spirit for aid and effect in hungering and thirsting after the bless his ministerial labours;-labours in which ings of life and salvation? I would not he took great delight, and in which he speak invidiously of my younger bre- was often refreshed, even in the decline thren in the ministry; but when I think of his strength, and when sinking under of the foppish tinsel finery, and the the infirmities of age. Whatever were meagre starving legality, which, in so his imperfections as a man, a Christian, many instances, prove the bane of the or a minister, there was in his character pulpit, I turn to such men as your des such an admirable combination of excelparted minister with the reverence due to lence, as seldom appears in the person of evangelical truth, though presented to any individual." me in the simplest attire.

At the ordination of the Rev. Benja“Sermons, as well as men, have their min Hobson, (then of Great Driffield, temper, and his sermons were good-tem- now of Welford, Northamptonshire,) I pered. A good temper in the pulpit is was favoured with such a specimen of everything. A preacher rises or sinks, Mr. Bottomley's “sententious style" of stands or falls, in the approbation of God, preaching as I could never afterwards and in the estimation of man, by the forget. His was the first discourse delicharacter of his temper in the adminis- vered on that interesting and memorable trations of the sanctuary. In his admi- occasion, the introductory part of which nistrations the house of God was the was as follows:-" I need not inform you scene of peace and good-will The bitter that many gentlemen, of family and forinvectives of party animosity, the angry tune, come annually to Great Driffield, retaliating ebullitions by which the pulpit to fish for trout. Now we, too, are come has been so often degraded, and minis- on a fishing business: we are come to set terial usefulness so often obstructed, had our dear brother apart to be 'a fisher of no place here. He never wielded the men,'—not to catch them in his net in weapons of hostility; it was his delight order to make them his prey, but to be to bear in your presence, and put into the instrument of drawing them out of your hands, the olive branch of peace. the lake of sin, that they may live in the

“He was also a good-tempered hearer, atmosphere of heaven. On occasions a character to which very few preachers like the present, it is usual to say somecan prefer an unpresumptuous claim. But thing on the nature of a Christian church, this, was eminently his character. His and this part of the service has been devout attention, when a silent worship- allotted to me. Now if, in the days of per, was truly exemplary. The sermon my ignorance and folly, I had been quesmight be very inferior as a composition, tioned about the nature of a church, I and unpleasing in the manner of its deli- should have been able to think of nothing very; but if it was evangelical, and he more than a venerable building, with a saw that its tendency, and the sole aim steeple and a ring of bells, where people of the preacher, were to promote the in- | were christened, and married, and where, struction and happiness of the people, he when dead, they were buried; whereas, would always express his approbation, if I had only looked into my prayer-book, and make some acknowledgment of be- | I might have found that the visible nefit received by himself, with a devout church of Christ' is a congregation of wish that it might be useful to others. faithful men, in which the pure word of

“He was a devotional observer of God is preached, and the sacraments duly

administered according to Christ's ordi- , I hope that a change for the better has nance.' of the Congregational church taken place, and that, “ by works” faith at Great Driffield I was then a member, is “made perfect." Remember them who and one, I trust, whose heart had been have spoken unto you the word of God : opened, to attend, with the other mem- whose faith follow, considering the end bers, to the important things then spoken, of their conversation.” Such is the into remind us of our relative character, junction of an inspired apostle ; and to and excite us to discharge the various obey this injunction, may “the memory duties incumbent upon us. As a church, of the just” be made instrumental by the we were then few in number, and not so grace of the Holy Spirit in every reader! prosperons as we might have been, in

Yours truly, consequence of the hyper-calvinistic sen- 1, Windsor-terrace, John BULMER. timents which some had embraced. But St. Paul's, Bristol.


Heb. xi. 24.


the heart; a sword, to conquer their ene

mies; a spear, to quicken them to duty; Wuen Moses “was come to years,"—to and a cordial, to refresh them under all years of discretion and experience—when the difficulties of doing and suffering he was great, or come to maturity, at the work. age of forty years, he made this choice. Verse 27.–Observe the principle upon It is an enhancement of the honour of which the faith of Moses acted in these his self-denial, and victory over the motions : “he endured, as seeing him world; he was grown ripe for judgment that was invisible.” He bore up with and enjoyment, able to know what he invincible courage under all danger, and did, and why he did it.

endured all the fatigue of his employObserve what it was that supported and ment which was very great; and this, by strengthened the faith of Moses'; "he had seeing the invisible God. respect to the recompense of reward :" Now remark, first, the God with whom that is, say some, the deliverance out of we have to do, is an invisible God; he is Egypt; but doubtless it means much so to our senses, to the eye of our body; more-the glorious rewardof faith and fide- and this shows the folly of those who lity in the other world. Remark, then, (1) | pretend to make images of God, whom that heaven is a great reward, surpassing no man hath seen, or can see. But, senot only all our deservings, but all our condly, by faith we may see this invisible conceptions. It is a reward suitable to God; we may be fully assured of his exthe price paid for it-the blood of Christ; istence of his providence-and of his suitable to the perfections of God, and gracious and powerful presence with us. fully answering to all his promises. It is And, thirdly, such a sight of God will a recompense of reward, because given by enable believers to endure to the end, a righteous Judge, for the righteousness whatever they may meet with in the of Christ, to righteous persons, according way. to the righteous rule of the covenant of grace. (2) Believers may, and ought to have respect to this recompense of reward: they should acquaint themselves with it, The spiritual man is born, as it were, approve of it, and live in the daily and into a new world. He has a new taste, delightful expectation of it.

and savours “the things of the Spirit.” Thus it will prove a landmark to di- | He turns to God, as the needle to the rect their course; a loadstone, to draw pole. But there are many who want




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