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The time shall come, when free as seas or wind, By music, minds an equal temper know,
L'nbounded Thames shall flow for all mankind, Nor swell too high, nor sink too low.
Whole nations enter with each swelling tide,

If in the breast tumultuous joys arise,
And seas but join the regions they divide ;

Music her soft, assuasive voice applies; Earth's distant ends our glory shall behold,

Or, when the soul is press'd with cares, And the new world launch forth to seek the old. Exalts her in enlivening airs. Then ships of uncouth form shall stem the tide, Warriors she fires with animated sounds ; And feather'd people crowd my wealthy side, Pours balm into the bleeding lover's wounds, And naked youths and painted chiefs admire

Melancholy lifts her ad, Our speech, our colour, and our strange attire!

Morpheus rouses from his bed, Oh, stretch thy reign, fair peace! from shore to Sloth unfolds her arms and wakes, shore,

Listening envy drops her snakes, Till conquest cease, and slavery be no more ;

Intestine war no more our passions wage,
Till the freed Indians in their native groves

And giddy factions bear away their rage.
Reap their own fruits, and woo their sable loves;
Peru once more a race of kings behold,

But when our country's cause provokes to arms, And other Mexicos be rooff'd with gold.

How martial music every bosom warms !

So when the first bold vessel dared the seas,
Esiled by thee from earth to deepest hell,
In brazen bonds shall barbarous discord dwell:

High on the stern the Thracian raised his strain, Gigantic pride, pale terror, gloomy care,

While Argo saw her kindred trees And mad ambition shall attend her there:

Descend from Pelion to the main. There purple vengeance bathed in gore retires,

Transported demi-gods stood round, Her weapons blunted, and extinct her fires;

And men grew heroes at the sound, There hateful envy her own snakes shall feel,

Inflamed with glory's charms :

Each chief his sevenfold shield display'd and persecution mourn her broken wheel: There faction roar, rebellion bite her chain,

And half unsheathed the shining blade : And gasping furies thirst for blood in vain.'

And seas, and rocks, and skies rebound Here cease thy flight, nor with unhallow'd lays

To arms, to arms, to arms! Touch the fair fame of Albion's golden days;

But when through all the infernal bounds, The thoughts of gods let Granville's verse recite,

Which flaming Plegethon surrounds, And bring the scenes of opening fate to light ;

Love, strong as death, the poet led My humble muse, in unambitious strains,

To the pale nations of the dead, Paints the green forests and the flowery plains,

What sounds were heard, Where peace descending, bids her olive spring,

What scenes appear’d, And scatters blessings from her dove-like wing.

O'er all the dreary coasts! E'en l more sweetly pass my careless days,

Dreadful gleams, Pleased in the silent shade with empty praise;

Dismal

screams, Enough for me, that to the listening swains

Fires, that glow,
First in these fields 1 sang the sylvan strains.

Shrieks of woe,
Sullen moans,

Hollow groans,
ODE

And cries of tortured ghosts :

But, hark! he strikes the golden lyre:
ON ST. CECILIA'S DAY,

And see! the tortured ghosts respire.
MDCCVIII.

See, shady forms advance!
And other Pieces for Music.

Thy stone, O Sisyphus, stands still,

Ixion rests upon his wheel, DESCEND, ye Nine: descend and sing:

And the pale spectres dance ! The breathing instruments inspire ;

The Furies sink upon their iron beds, Wake into voice each silent string,

And snakes uncurl'd hang listening round their heads And sweep the sounding lyre !

By the streams that ever flow, In a sadly-pleasing strain

By the fragrant winds that blow
Let the warbling lute complain ;

O'er the Elysian flowers ;
Let the loud trumpet sound,

By those happy souls, who dwell
Till the roofs all around

In yellow meads of asphodel,
The shrill echoes rebound:

Or amaranthine bowers!
While, in more lengthen'd notes and slow

By the hero's armed shades,
The deep, majestic, solemn organs blow.

Glittering through the gloomy glades;
Hark! the numbers ft and clear

By the youths that died for love,
Gently steal upon the
ear;

Wandering in the myrtle grove,
Now louder, and yet louder rise,

Restore, restore Eurydice to life :
And fill with spreading sounds the skics; Oh take the husband, or return the wise!
Exulting in triumph now swell the bold notes

He sung, and hell consented
In broken air trembling, the wild music floats,

To hear the poet's prayer ;
Till, by degrees, remote and small,

Stern Proserpine relented,
The strains decay,

And gave him back the fair.
And melt away,

Thus song could prevail
In a dying, dying fall,

O’er death and o'er hell;

A conquest how hard and how glorious !

Antistrophe 1. Though fate had fast bound her

Oh heaven-born sisters ! source of art! With Styx nine times round her,

Who charm the sense, or mend the heart; Yet music and love were victorious.

Who lead fair virtue's train along, But soon, too soon the lover turns his eyes :

Moral truth and mystic song ! Again she falls, again she dies, she dies !

To what new clime, what distant sky, How will thou now the fatal sisters move?

Forsaken, friendless, shall ye fly? No crime was thine, if 'tis no crime to love. Say, will ye bless the bleak Atlantic shore ? Now under hanging mountains

Or bid the furious Gaul be rude no more? Beside the falls of fountains,

Strophe 2. Or where Hebrus wanders,

When Athens sinks by fates unjust,
Rolling in meanders,

When wild barbarians spurn her dust!
All alone,

Perhaps e'en Britain's utmost shore
Unheard, unknown,

Shall cease to blush with stranger's gore:
He makes his moan,

See arts her savage sons controul,
And calls her ghost,

And Athens rising near the pole!
For ever, ever, ever, lost !

Till some new tyrant lifts his purple hand, Now with furies surrounded,

And civil madness tears them from the land Despairing, confounded,

Antistrophe 2. He trembles, he glows,

Ye gods! what justice rules the ball ?
Amidst Rhodope's snows:

Freedom and arts together fall;
See, wild as the winds, o'er the desert he flies; Fools grant whate'er ambition craves,
Hark! Hæmnus resounds with the Bacchanals' cries And men once ignorant are slaves.
Ah see, he dies !

O cursed effects of civil hate,
Yet e'en in death Eurydice he sung :

In every age, in every state ! Eurydice still trembled on his tongue:

Still, when the lust of tyrant power succeeds, Eurydice the woods,

Some Athens perishes, some Tully bleeds.
Eurydice the floods,
Eurydice the rocks and hollow mountains rung. CHORUS OF YOUTHS AND VIRGINS.
Music the fiercest grief can charm,

Semichorus.
And Fate's severest rage disarm;

On tyrant Love! hast thou possess'd
Music can soften pain to ease,

The prudent, learn'd, and virtuous breast ?
And make despair and madness please :

Wisdom and wit in vain reclaim,
Our joys below it can improve,

And arts but soften us to feel thy flame.
And antedate the bliss above.

Love, soft intruder, enters here,
This the divine Cecilia found,

But entering learns to be sincere. And to her Maker's praise confined the sound,

Marcus, with blushes owns he loves, When the full organ joins the tuneful quire,

And Brutus tenderly reproves. The immortal powers incline their ear :

Why, virtue, dost thou blame desire, Borne on the swelling notes our souls aspire,

Which nature hath impress'd? While solemn airs improve the sacred fire;

Why, nature, dost thou soonest fire And angels lean from heaven to hear.

The mild and generous breast ?

Chorus.
Of Orpheus now no more let poets tell;
To bright Cecilia greater power is given :

Love's purer flames the gods approve;
His numbers raised a shade from hell,

The gods and Brutus bend to love :
Hers lift the soul to heaven.

Brutus for absent Porcia sighs,
And sterner Cassius melts at Junia's eyes.

What is loose love? a transient gust,

Spent in a sudden storm of lust;
TWO CHORUSSES

A vapour fed from wild desire;
TO THE TRAGEDY OF BRUTUS,

A wandering, self-consuming fire.

But Hymen's kinder flames unite,
Altered from Shakspeare by the Duke of Buckingham: And burn for ever one;

at whose desire these two Chorusses were composed, Chaste as cold Cynthia's virgin light,
to supply as many wanting in his Play. They were Productive as the sun.
set many years afterwards by the famous Bononcini,

Semichorus. and performed at Buckingham house.

Oh source of every social tie,

United wish, and mutual joy!
CHORUS OF ATHENIANS.

What various joys on one attend,
Strophe 1.

As son, as father, brother, husband, friend.
Ye shades, where sacred truth is sought; Whether his hoary sire he spies,
Groves, where immortal sages taught;

While thousand grateful thoughts arise ;
Where heavenly visions Plato fired,

Or meets his spouse's fonder eye ; And Epicurus lay inspired !

Or views his smiling progeny ; In vain your guiltless laurels stood

What tender passions take their turns. Unspotted long with human blood.

What home-felt raptures move! War, horrid war, your thoughtful walks invades, His heart now melts, now leaps, now burns, And steel now glitters in the muses' shades.

With reverence, hope, and love.

Chorus.
Hence, guilty joys, distates, surmises;
Hence, false tears, deceits, disguises,
Dangers, doubts, delays, surprises,

Fires that scorch, yet dare not shine:
Parest Love's unwasting treasure,
Constant faith, fair hope, long leisure ;
Days of ease, and nights of pleasure,

Sacred Hymnen! these are thine.

with some taste, but spoiled by false education, ver. 19 to 25. The multitude of critics, and causes of thm, ver 26 to 45. That we are to study our own taste, and know the limits of it, ver. 46 to 67. Nature the best guide of judgment, ver. 68 to 87. Improved by art and rules, which are but methodized nature, ver. 88. Rules derived from the practice of ancient poets, ver. 88 to 110. That therefore the ancients are neceg. sary to be studied by a critic, particularly Homer and Virgil, ver. 120 to 138. Of licenses, and the use of them by the ancients, ver. 140 to 180. Reverence due to the ancients, and praise of them, ver. 181, &c.

ODE ON SOLITUDE.

'Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill Written when the Author was about twelve Years old. Appear in writing, or in judging ill; ILAPPY the man whose wish and care

But of the two, less dangerous is the offence A few paternal acres bound,

To tire our patience, than mislead our sense.
Content to breathe his native air

Some few in that, but numbers err in this;
In his own ground.

Ten censure wrong for one who writes amiss;
Whose herds with milk, whose fields with bread,

A fool might once himself alone expose; Whose flocks supply him with attire;

Now one in verse makes many more in prose. Whose trees in summer yield him shade,

'Tis with ou: judginents as our watches; none

10 In winter fire.

Go just alike, yet each believes his own. Bless'd, who can unconcernedly find

In poets as true genius is but rare,

True taste as seldom is the critic's share; Hours, days, and years, slide soft away, la bealth of body, peace of mind,

Both must alike from Heaven derive their light;

These born to judge, as well as those to write.
Quiet by day.

Let such teach others who themselves excel,
Sound sleep by night : study and ease,

And censure freely, who have written well : Together mix'd ; sweet recreation,

Authors are partial to their wit, 'tis true;
And innocence, which most does please

But are not critics to their judgment too?
With meditation.

Yet, if we look more closely, we shall find
Thux let me live, unseen, unknown;

Most have the seeds of judgment in their mind: 20 Thus unlamented, let me die,

Nature affords at least a glimmering light ; Steal from the world, and not a stone

The lines, though touch'd but faintly, are drawn right.
Tell where I lie.

But as the slightest sketch, if justly traced,
Is by ill-colouring but the more disgraced,

So by false learning is good sense defaced :
ODE.

Some are bewilder'd in the maze of schools,

And some made coxcombs nature meant but fools. The dying Christian lo his Soul.

In search of wit these lose their common sense, VITAL spark of heavenly flame!

And then turn critics in their own defence : Quit, oh quit this mortal frame:

Each burns alike, who can, or cannot write, 30 Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying Or with a rival's or an eunuch's spite. Oh the pain, the bliss of dying!

All fools have still an itching to deride, Cease, fond Nature, cease thy strife,

And fain would be upon the laughing side. And let me languish into life.

If Mævius scribble in Apollo's spite, Hark! they whisper : angels say,

There are who judge still worse than he can write. Sister spirit, come away.

Some have at first for wits, then poets pass'd; What is this absorbs me quite,

Turn'd critics next, and proved plain fools at last. Steals my senses, shuts my sight,

Some neither can for wits nor critics pass, Drowns my spirits, draws my breath ?

As heavy mules are neither horse nor ass. Tell me, my soul, can this be death?

Those half-learn'd witlings, numerous in our isle, 40 The world recedes; it disappears!

As half-form'd insects on the banks of Nile; Heaven opens on my eyes! my ears

Unfinish'd things, one knows not what to call, With sounds seraphic ring:

Their generation's so equivocal : Lend, lend your wings ! I mount ! I Ay?

To tell them would a hundred tongues require, Oh grave! where is thy victory ?

Or one vain wit's, that might a hundred tire.
Oh death! where is thy sting?

But you, who seek to give and merit fame,
And justly bear a critic's noble name,

Be sure yourself and your own reach to know, AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM. Launch not beyond your depth, but be discreet, How far your genius, taste, and learning, go ;

50 Written in the Year 1709.

And mark that point where sense and dulness meet.

Nature to all things fix'd the limits fit,
PART I

And wisely curb'd proud man's pretending wit: Introduction. That it is as great a fault to judge ill, as

As on the land while here the ocean gains, to write ill, and a more dangerous one to the public, In other parts it leaves wide sandy plains; war. I. That a true taste is as rare to be found as a Thus in the soul while memory prevails, true genius, ver. 9 to 18. That most men are born The solid power of understanding fails ;

H

Where beams of warm imagination play,

Be Homer's works your study and delight, The memory's soft figures melt away.

Read them by day, and meditate by night : One science only will one genius fit;

60 Thence form your judgment, thence your maxims So vast is art, so narrow human wit:

bring, Not only bounded to peculiar arts,

And trace the muses upward to their spring : But oft in those confined to single parts.

Still with itself compared, his text peruse; Like kings, we lose the conquests gain’d before, And let your comment be the Mantuan Muse. By vain ambition still to make them more:

When first young Maro, in his boundless mind 130 Each might his several province well command, A work t' outlast immortal Rome design'd, Would all but stoop to what they understand. Perhaps he seem'd above the critic's law,

First follow nature, and your judgment frame And but from nature's fountains scorn'd to draw: By her just standard, which is still the same: But when to examine every part he came, L'nerring nature, still divinely bright,

70 Nature and Homer were, he found, the same. One clear, unchanged, and universal light,

Convinced, amazed, he checks the bold design,
Life, force, and beauty, must to all impart,

And rules as strict his labour'd work confine,
At once the source, and end, and test of art ; As if the Stagyrite o'erlooked each line.
Art from that fund each just supply provides; Learn hence for ancient rules a just esteem,
Works without show, and without pomp presides : To copy nature, is to copy them.

140 In some fair body thus the informing soul

Some beauties yet no precepts can declare,
With spirit seeds, with vigour fills the whole, For there's a happiness as well as care.
Each motion guides, and every nerve sustains; Music resembles poetry; in each
Itself unseen, but in the effects remains.

Are nameless graces which no methods teach,
Somne, to whom Heaven in wit has been profuse, 80 And which a master-hand alone can reach.
Want as much more, to turn it to its use;

If, where the rules not far enough extend For wit and judgment often are at strife,

(Since rules were made but to promote their end, Though meant each other's aid, like man and wisc. Some lucky license answer to the full "Tis more to guide, than spur the muse's steed; The intent proposed, that license is a rule. Restrain his fury, than provoke his speed:

Thus Pegasus, a nearer way to take,

150 The winged courser, like a generous horse, May boldly deviate from the common track; Shows most true mettle when you check his course. From vulgar bounds with brave disorder part,

Those rules of old discover’d, not devised, And snatch a grace beyond the reach of art, Are nature still, but nature methodized :

Which, without passing through the judgment, gains Nature, like liberty, is but restrain'd

90 The heart, and all its ends at once attains. By the same laws which first herself ordain'd. In prospects thus, some objects please our eyes,

Hear how learn'd Greece her useful rules indites, Which out of nature's common order rise, When to repress, and when indulge our flights: The shapeless rock, or hanging precipice. Iligh on Parnassus' top her sons she show'd, Great wits sometimes may gloriously offend, And pointed out those arduous paths they trod; And rise to faults true critics dare not mend. 160 Hled from afar, aloft, the immortal prize,

But though the ancients thus their rules invade And urged the rest by equal steps to rise.

(As kings dispense with laws themselves have made,) Just precepts thus froin great examples given, Moderns, beware! or, if you must oflend She drew from them what they derived from Hea- Against the precept, nc'er transgress ils end

Let it be seldom, and compell’d by need; The generous critic fann'd the poet's fire, 100 And have, at least, their precedent to plead. Aud taught the world with reason to admire. The critic else proceeds without remorse, Then criticism the muse's handmaid proved, Seizes your fame, and puts his laws in force. To dress her charms, and make her more beloved : I know there are, to whose presumptuous thoughts But following wits from that intention stray'd; Those freer beauties, e’en in them, seem faults, 170 Who could not win the mistress, woo'd the maid; Some figures monstrous and mis-shaped appear, Against the poets their own arms they turn'd, Consider'd singly, or bebeld too near, Sure to hate most the men from whom they learn'a. Which, but proportion'd to their light or place, So modern 'pothecaries, taught the art

Due distance reconciles to form and grace. By doctor's bills to play the doctor's part,

A prudent chief not always must display Bold in the practice of mistaken rules,

110 His powers in equal ranks, and fair array, Prescribe, apply, and call their masters fools. But with the occasion, and the place comply, Some on the leaves of ancient authors prey, Conceal his force, nay seem sometimes to fly. Nor time nor moths e'er spoild so much as they :

Those oft are stratagems which errors srem, Some drily plain, without invention's aid,

Nor is it Homer nods, but we that dream. 180 Write dull receipts how poems may be made. Still green with bays each ancient altar stands, These leave the sense, their learning to display, Above the reach of sacrilegious hands; And those explain the meaning quite away.

Secure from tames, from envy's fiercer rage, You then, whose judgment the right course would Destructive war, and all-involving age. steer,

See from each cime the learn'd their incense bring ! Know well each ancient's proper character : Hear, in all tongues consenting Paans ring! His fable, subject, scope in every page : 120 In praise so just let every voice be join'd, Religion, country, genius of his age:

And fill the general chorus of mankind. Without all these at once before your eyes, Hail! bardz triumphant! born in happier days; Cavil you may, but never criticise.

Immortal heirs of universal praise!

190

ven.

Whose bosours with increase of ages grow,

| "Tis not the lip, or eye, we beauty call,
As streams roll down, enlarging as they flow; But the joint force and full result of all.
Nations unborn your mighty names shall sound, Thus when we view some well-proportion'd dome,
Ami xorlds applaud that must not yet be found ! (The world's just wonder, and e'en thine, oh Rome!)
Onay some spark of your celestial fire,

No single parts unequally surprise ;
The last, the meanest of your sons inspire, All comes united to the admiring eyes :

250 (That, on weak wings, from far pursues your flights ; No monstrous height, or breadth, or length appear : Glows while he reads, but trembles as he writes,) The whole at once is bold, and regular. To teach vain wits a science little known,

Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see,
To admire superior sense, and doubt their own! 200 Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be.

In every work regard the writer's end,
PART II.

Since none can compass more than they intend; Crises hindering a true judgment. 1. Pride, ver. 201. And if the means be just, the conduct true, 2. Imp-rfect learning, ver. 215. 3. Judging by parts. Applause, in spite of trivial faults, is due. and not by the whole, ver. 233 to 8. Critics in wit, As men of breeding, sometimes men of wit, language, versification, only, 28, 305, 339, &c. 4. To avoid great errors, must the less commit; 260 Bring wo hard to please, or too apt to admire, ver. 384. Neglect the rule each verbal critic lays; 5 Partiality—too much love to a wct--to the ancients For not to know some trifles, is a praise. or morers, ver. 394. 6. Prejudice or prevention, ver. Most critics, fond of some subservient art, O. 7. Singularity, ver. 424. 8. Inconstancy, ver. Still make the whole depend upon a part : 43. 9. Party spirit, ver. 452. &c. 10. Envy, ver. 466. Against envy, and in praise of good-nature, ver. 503: They talk of principles, but notions prize, &c. When severity is chiefly to be used by the critics,

And all to one loved folly sacrifice. ver. 53, &c.

Once on a time, La Mancha's knight, they say,

A certain bard encountering on the way, Of all the causes which conspire to blind

Discoursed in terms as just, with looks as sage, Man's erring judgment, and misguide the mind, As e'er could Dennis, of the Grecian stage ;

270 What the weak head with strongest bias rules, Concluding all were desperate sots and fools, k pride; the never-failing vice of fools.

Who durst depart from Aristotle's rules. Whaterer nature has in worth denied,

Our author, happy in a judge so nice, She gives in large recruits of needful pride! Produced his play, and begg'd the knight's advice; For as in bodies, thus in souls, we find

Made him observe the subject, and the plot, What wants in blood and spirits, swell’d with wind: The manners, passions, unities; what not? Pride, where wit fails, steps in to our defence, All which, exact to rule, were brought about, And fills up all the mighty void of sense. 210 Were but a combat in the lists left out. If once right reason drives that cloud away, What! leave the combat out ? exclaims the knight. Truth breaks upon us with resistless day.

'Yes, or we must renounce the Stagyrite.'— 280 Trust not yourself; but, your defects to know, • Not so, by heaven! (he answers in a rage) Make use of every friend and every foe.

|' Knights, squires, and steeds, must enter on the stage.' A little learning is a dangerous thing!

* So vast a throng the stage can ne'er contain.'Druk deep, or taste not the Pierian spring; • Then build a new, or act it on a plain.' There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,

Thus critics of less judgment than caprice,
And drinking largely sobers us again.

Curious, not knowing, not exact, but nice,
Fired at first sight with what the muse imparts, Form short ideas; and offend in arts
In fearless youth we tempt the height of arts, 220 (As most in manners) by a love to parts.
While from the bounded level of our mind,

Some to conceit alone their taste confine,
Short views we take, nor see the lengths behind; And glittering thoughts struck out at every line; 290
But more advanced, behold with strange surprise Pleased with a work where nothing's just or fit;
New distant scenes of endless science rise ! One glaring chaos and wild heap of wit.
So, pleased at first, the towering Alps we try, Poets, like painters, thus unskill'd to trace
Mount o'er the vales, and seem to tread the sky! The naked nature and the living grace,
The eternal snows appear already passid,

With gold and jewels cover every part,
And the first clouds and mountains seem the last : And hide with ornaments their want of art.
Bat, those aitain'd, we tremble to survey

True wit is nature to advantage dress’d,
The growing labours of the lengthen'd way: 230 What oft was thought, but ne'er so well express'd;
The increasing prospect tires our wandering eyes, Something, whose truth convinced at sight we find;
Hlis peep o'er hills, and Alps on Alps arise! That gives us back the image of our mind. 300

A perfect judge will read each work of wit As shades more sweetly recommend the light,
With the same spirit that its author writ:

So modest plainness sets off sprightly wit;
Sarrey the whole, nor seek slight faults to find For works may have more wit than does them good,
Where nature moves, and rapture warms the mind; As bodies perish through excess of blood.
or lose, for that malignant dull delight,

Others for language all their care express, The generous pleasure to be charm'd with wit. And value books, as women men, for dress: Bax, in such lays as neither ebb nor flow,

Their praise is still,--the style is excellent; Correctly cold, and regularly low,

240 The sense, they humbly take upon content. That, shunning faults, one quiet tenor keep; Words are like leaves; and where they most abound, We cannot blame indeed—but we may sleep. Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found. 310 la wit, as nature, what affects our hearts

False eloquence, like the prismatic glass, la no: the exactness of peculiar parts;

Its gaudy colours spreads on every place;

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