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Or swims along the fluid atmosphere,

Make nature still encroach upon his plan,
Once brightest shined this child of heat and air. And shove him off as far as e'er we can:
I saw, and started from its vernal bower

Thrust some mechanic cause into his place,
The rising game, and chased from flower to flower. Or bind in matter, or diffuse in space.
It tied, I follow'd ; now in hope, now pain ; Or, at one bound, o'erleaping all his laws,
It stopp'd, I stopp'd; it moved, I moved again. Make God man's image, man the final cause :
At last it fix'd, 'twas on what plant it pleased, Find virtue local, all relation scorn,
And where it fix'd, the beauteous bird I seized; 430 See all in self, and but for self be born :

480 Rose or carnation was below my care;

Of nought so certain as our reason still, I meddle, goddess ! only in my sphere.

Of nought so doubtful as of soul and will. I tell the naked fact without disguise,

Oh hide the God still more! and make us see And to excuse it, need but show the prize; Such as Lucretius drew, a god like thee : Whose spoils this paper offers to your eye, Wrapp'd up in self, a god without a thought, Fair e'en in death! this peerless buttertiy.'

Regardless of our merit or default.
*My sons!' she answer'd, “both have done your Or that bright image to our fancy draw
parts :

Which Theocles in raptured visions saw
Live happy both, and long promote our arts. Wild through poetic scenes the genius roves,
But hear a mother, when she recommends Or wanders wild in academic groves ;

To your fraternal care our sleeping friends. 440 That nature our society adores,
The common soul, of Heaven's more frugal make, Where Tindal dictates, and Silenus snores.'
Serves but to keep fools pert and knaves awake; Roused at his name up rose the bowzy sire,
A drowsy watchman, that just gives a knock, And shook from out his pipe the seeds of fire ;
And breaks our rest to tell us what's a clock. Then snapp'd his box, and stroked his belly down,
Yet by some object every brain is stirr'd; Rosy and reverend, though without a gown.
The dull may waken to a humming-bird ; Bland and familiar to the throne he came,
The most recluse, discreetly open'd, find

Led up the youth, and call'd the goddess dame. Congenial matter in the cockle kind;

Then thus: From priestcraft happily set free, The mind in metaphysics at a loss,

Lo! every finish'd son returns to thee: 500 May wander in a wilderness of moss ; 450 First, slave to words, then, vassal to a name, The head that turns at superlunar things,

Then, dupe to party; child and man the same; Poised with a tail, may steer on Wilkins' wings. Bounded by nature, narrow'd still by art,

‘O! would the sons of men once think their eyes A trifling head, and a contracted heart. And reason given them but to study flies !

Thus bred, thus taught, how many have I seen, See nature in some partial narrow shape,

Smiling on all, and smiled on by a queen! And let the author of the whole escape ;

Mark'd out for honours, honour'd for their birth, Learn but to trifle; or, who most observe,

To thee the most rebellious things on earth :
To wonder at their Maker, not to serve.'
Be that my task,' replies a gloomy clerk,

Sworn foe to mystery, yet divinely dark ;

460 Whose pious hope aspires to see the day

Ver. 492. Where Tindal dictates, and Silenus snores.) When moral evidence shall quite decay,

It cannot be denied but that this fine stroke of satire against

atheism was well intended. But how must the reader smile And damns implicit faith, and holy lies,

at our author's officious zeal, when he is told, that at the Prompt to impose, and fond to dogmatize :

time this was written, you might as soon have found a wolf

in England as an atheist? The truth is, the whole species Let others creep by timid steps and slow,

was exterminated. There is a trifling difference, indeed, On plain experience lay foundations low,

concerning the author of the achievement. Some, as Dr. By common sense to common knowledge bred,

Ashenhurst, gave it to Bentley's Boylean Lectures. And

he so well convinced that great man of the truth, that And last, to nature's Cause through nature led. wherever afterwards he found atheist, he always read it All-seeing in thy mists, we want no guide,

A theist. But, in spite of a claim so well made out, others Mother of arrogance, and source of pride!

470 gave the honour of this exploit to a later Boylean lecturer.

A judicious apologist for Dr. Clarke against Mr. Whiston, We nobly take the high priori road,

says, with no less elegance than positiveness of expression, And reason downward till we doubt of God; It is a most certain truth, that the Demonstration of the

Being and Attributes of God, has extirpated and banished atheism out of the Christian world, p. 18. It is much to be

lamented, that the clearest truths have still their dark side. REMARKS.

Here we gee it becomes a doubt which of the two Hercules

was the monster-queller. But what of that? Since the Ver. 452. Wilkins' wings.] One of the first projectors thing is done, and ihe proof of it so certain, there is no ocof the Royal Society, who, among many enlarged and use-casion for so nice a canvassing of circumstances. Scribl. ful nations, entertained the extravagant hope of a possibility Ver. 492. Silenus.) Silenus was an Epicurean philosoto fly to the moon; which has put some volatile geniuses pher, as appears from Virgil, Eclog: vi. where he sings the opon making wings for that purpose.

principles of that philosophy in his drink. Ver. 462. When moral' evidence shall quite decay.] Ver. 501. Firsi slave to words, &c.] A recapitulation Alluding to a ridiculous and absurd way of some mathemu- Jof the whole course of modern education described in this ticians, in calculating the gradual deeny of moral evidence book, which confines youth to the study of words only in bor mathematical proportions : according to which calcula- schools; subjects them to the authority of systems in the tion, in about fifty years it will be no longer probable that universities ; and deludes them with the names of party disJalus ('esar was in Gaul, or died in the senate house. See tinctions in the world; all equally concurring to narrow the Craig's 'Theologiæ Christianae Principia Mathematica. But, understanding, and establish slavery and error in literature, as it dem evident, that facts of a thousand years old, for philosophy, and politics. The whole finished in modern instance, are now as probable as they were five hundred free-thinking: the completion of whatever is vain, wrong, years ago; it is plain, that if in fifty more they quite disap- and destructive to the bappiness of mankind; as it estapear, it must be owing, not to their arguments, but to the blishes self-love for the sole principle of action. extraordinary power of our goddess; for whose help, there Ver. 506. Smiled on by à queen!' i.e. This queen or føre, they have reason to pray.

Igoddess of Dulness.

Now to thy gentle shadow all are shrunk,

Others the syren sisters warble round,
All melted down in pension, or in punk ! 510 And empty heads console with empty sound.
So K*, so B**, sneak'd into the grave,

No more,

alas ! the voice of fame they hear, A monarch's half, and half a harlot's slave.

The balm of Dulness trickling in their ear. Poor W***, nipp'd in folly's broadest bloom, Great C**, H**, P**, R**, K*, Who praises now ? his chaplain on his tomb. Why all your toils ? your sons have learn'd to sing. Then take them all, oh take them to thy breast, How quick ambition hastes to ridicule! Thy Magus, goddess! shall perform the rest.' The sire is made a peer, the son a fool. With that, a wizard old his cup extends ;

On some, a priest succinct in amice white Whichrwhoso tastes, forgets his former friends. Attends; all flesh is nothing in his sight! 550 Sire, ancestors, himself. One casts his eyes Beeves, at his touch, at once to jelly turn, Up to a star, and like Endymion dies : 520 And the huge boar is shrunk into an urn: A feather, shooting from another's head,

The board with specious miracles he loads, Extracts his brain ; and principle is fed ;

Turns hares to larks, and pigeons into toads Lost is his God, his country, every thing;

Another (for in all what one can shine ?)
And nothing left but homage to a king !

Explains the seve and verdeur of the vine.
The vulgar herd turn off to roll with hogs, What cannot copious sacrifice atone ?
To run with horses, or to hunt with dogs;

Thy truffles, Perigord ! thy hams, Bayonne ?
But, sad example ! never to escape

With French libation, and Italian strain, Their infamy, still keep the human shape.

Wash Bladen white, and expiate Hay's stain. 500 But she, good goddess, sent to every child Knight lifts the head: for what are crowds undone, Firm impudence, or stupefaclion mild ; 530 To three essential partridges in one ? And straight succeeded, leaving shade no room, Gone every blush, and silent all reproach, Cibberian forehead, or Cimmerian gloom.

Contending princes mount them in their coach. Kind self-conceit to some her glass applies, Next, bidding all draw near on bended knees, Which no one looks in with another's eyes ; The queen confers her titles and degrees. But, as the flatterer or dependant paint,

Her children first of more distinguish'd sort,
Beholds himself a patriot, chief, or saint,

Who study Shakspeare at the inns of court,
On others, interest her gay livery flings,
Interest, that waves on party-colour'd wings :

Turn'd to the sun, she casts a thousand dyes,

510 And, as she turns, the colours fall or rise.

Ver. 553. The board with specious miracles he loads, &c.] Scriblerus seems at a loss in this place. Speciosa miracula (says he) according to Horace, were the mon

strous fables of the Cyclops, Læstrygons, Scylla, &c. Whal REMARKS.

relation have these to the transformation of hares into larks, Ver. 517. With thai, a wizard old, &c.) Here beginneth or of pigeons into loads? I shall tell thee. The Lastry the celebration of the greater mysteries of the goddess, which gons spitted men upon spears as we do larke upou skewers; the poet, in his invocation, ver. 5, promised to sing.

and the fair pigeon turned to a toad, is similar to the fair Ver. 518...-forgets his former friends.] Surely there virgin Seyila ending in a filthy beast. But here is the diffilittle needed the force of charms or magic to set aside a use- culty, why pigeons in ko shucking a shape should be brought Jews friendship. For of all the accommodations of fashiona- to a table. Hares, indeed, mighi be cut into larks, at a seble life, as there are none more reputable, so there are none cond dressing, out of frugalily: yet that seems no probable of so little charge as friendship. It fills up the void of life motive, when we consider the extravagance before menwith a name of dignity and respect: and at the same time tioned, of dissolving whole oxen and boars into a small sial is ready to give place to every passion that offers to dispute of jelly; nay, it is expressly said, that all flesh is nothing in possession with it.


his sight. I have searched in Appicos, Pliny, and the feast Ver. 523, 524. Lost is his God, his country--and nothing of Trimalchio, in vain; I can only resolve it into some piyaleft but homage to a king!) So strange as this may scem io terious en perstitious rile, as it is said to be done by a priest, a mere English reader, the famous Mons, de la Bruyere de- and soon after called a sacrifice, attended (as all ancient

Scribl. clares it to be the character of every good subject in a mo- sacrifices were) with libation and song. narchy: Where,' says he, there is no suc thing as love This good scholiast, not being acquainted with modern of our country, the interest, the glory, and service of the luxury, was ignorant that these were only the miracles of prince, supply its place.' De In République, chap x.

French cookery, and that particularly pigeons en crapeau Of This duty another celebrated French author'speaks in were a common dish. deed a little more disrespectfully; which for that reason we

Ver. 556. Seve and verdeur] French terme relating to shall not translate, but give in his own words: “L'amour de wines, which signify their flavour and poignancy. la patrie, le grand motif des premiers heros, n'est plus re Et je gagepois que chez le commandeur, garde que comme une chimêre; l'idée du service du roi, Villandri priseroit sa seve et sa verdeur. etendue jusqu'à l'oubli de tout autre principe, tient lieu de

Desprearr. ce qu'on appelloit autrofois grandeur d'ame et fidélité.' - St. Evremont has a very pathetic letter to a nobleman in Boulninvilliers Hist. des Anciens Parlements de France, &c. disgrace, advising him to seek comfore in a good table, aod

Ver. 528. Still keep the human shape.) The effects of particularly to be attentive to these qualities in his chamthe Magus's cup, by which is allegorized a to al corruption puigne. of heart, are just contrary to that of Circe, which only represents the sudden plunging into pleasures. Hers, therefore, is a black man.

Ver. 560. Bladen--Haye.) Names of gamesters. Bladen

Robert Knight, Cashier of the South Sea took away the shape, and left the human mind; his takes Company, who fled from Englund in 1720, (afterwards paraway the mind, and leaves the human shape. Ver. 529. But she, good goddess, &c.] The only com- Jae Paris, and kept open tables frequented by patrons of the

doned in 1742) These lived with the utmost magnificence for people can receive, must be owing in some shape or first quality io England, and even by princes of the blood of other to Dulness; which makes some stupiel, others impa France. dent, gives self-conceit to some, upon the latteries of their

Ibid. Bladen, &c.) The former note of Bladen is a black dependonts, presents the false colours of interest to others, man,' is very absurd. The manuscript here is partly obliand busies, or amuses the rest with idle pleasures or senterated, and doubtless could only have been, Wash blacksuality, till they become easy under any inlamy. Each of moors white, alluding to a known proverb.

Scribd which species is here shadowed under allegorical persons.

Ver. 567. Ver. 532. Cibberian forehead, or Cimmerian gloom.] i. e.

Her children first of more distinguish'd sort, she communicates to them of her own virtue, or of her roval colleagues. The Cibberian forehead being to fit thein for

Who study Shakspeare at the inns of court,) self-conceit

, self-interest, &c. and the Cimmerian gloom, for Ill would that scholinst discharge his duty, who should the pleasures of opera and the table.

Scribl. loeglect to honour those whom Dulness has distinguished; or



Impale a glow-worm, or virtu profess,

The cap and switch be sacred to his grace; Shine in the dignity of F. R. S.

570 With staff and pumps the marquis leads the race; Some, deep free-masons, join the silent race From stage to stage the licensed earl may run, Worthy to fill Pythagoras's place:

Pair'd with his fellow-charioteer the sun. Some botanists, or florists at the least,

The learned baron butterflies design, Or issue members of an annual feast.

Or draw to silk Arachne's subtile line; 590 Nor pass'd the meanest unregarded : one

The judge to dance his brother sergeant call, Rose a Gregorian, one a Gormogon:

The senator at cricket urge the ball; The last, not least in honour or applause,

The bishop stow (pontific luxury!)
Isis and Cam made Doctors of her laws.

A hundred souls of turkeys in a pie;
Then blessing all, 'Go, children of my care, The sturdy 'squire to Gallic masters stoop,
To practice now from theory repair.

580 And drown his lands and manors in a soup.
All my commands are easy, short, and full : Others import yet nobler arts from France,
My sons ! be proud, be selfish, and be dull. Teach kings to fiddle, and make senates dance.
Guard my prerogative, assert my throne;

Perhaps more high some daring son may soar, This nod confirms each privilege your own. Proud to my list to add one monarch more. 600

And, nobly conscious, princes are but things

Born for first ministers, as slaves for kings,

Tyrant supreme! shall three estates command, suffer them to lie forgotten, when their rare modesty would And make one mighty Dunciad of the land!' bare left them nameless. Let us noi, therefore, overlook More she had spoke, but yawn'd-All nature nods : the services which have been done her cause, by one Mr. What mortal can resist the yawn of gods ? Thomas Edwards, a gentleman, as he is pleased to call himsl. of Lincoln's-ion; but in reality, a gentleman only of Churches and chapels instantly it reach'd : the Duneiad; or, to speak hin better, in ihe plain language (St. James's first, for leaden G- preach'd:) of our honest ancestors to such mushrooms, a gentleman of Then catch'd the schools; the Hall scarce kept the last edition: who, nobly eluding the solicitude of his careful father, very early retained himself in the cause of

awake; Duloess against Shakspeare, and with the wit and learning The convocation gaped, but could not speak : 610 of his ancestor Tom Thimble in the Rehearsal, and with the air of good nature and politeness of Caliban in the Tempest, hath now happily finished the Dunce's progress, in sonal abuse. For a libeller is nothing but a Grub-street critic run to seed.

Ver. 585. The cap and switch, &c.) The goddess's poLamentable is the Dulness of these gentlemen of the Dun- lirical balance of favour, in the distribution of her rewards, cad. This Fungoso and his friends, who are all gentlemen, deserves our notice. It consists of joining with those hohave exclaimed much against us for reflecting his birth, in nours claimed by birth and high place, others more adapted the words, ' a gentleman of the last edition,' which we here to the genius and talents of the candidates. And thus her by declare concern not his birth, but his adoption only; and great forerunner, John of Leyden, king of Munster, entered mean no more than that he is become a gentleman of the on his government by making his ancient friend and comlast edition of the Duaciad. Since gentlemen, then, are sopanion, Knipperdolling, general of his horse, and hangman. captious, we think it proper to declare, that Mr. Thomas And had but fortune seconded his great schemes of retorThimble, who is here said to be Mr. Thomas Edward's an- mation, it is said he would have established his wholo ces!or, is only related to him by the Muse's side. Scribl. household on the same reasonable footing. Scribl.

This tribe of men, which Scriblerus has here so well ex Ver. 59). Arachne's subtile line;) This is one of the eainlified, our poet haih elsewbere admirably characterized most ingenious employments assigned, and therefure recomin that happy line,

mended only to peers of learning. Of weaving stockings of A brain of feathers, and a heart of lead.

the web- of spiders, see the Phil. Trans.

Ver. 591. "The judge to dance his brother serjeant call;] For the satire extends much farther than to the person who Alluding perhaps so that ancient and solemn dance, entitled, cerasioned il, and takes in the whole species of those on A call of mergeants. whom a good education (to fit them for some useful and Ver. 598. Teach kings to fiddle.) An ancient amuseLearned profession) has been bestowed in vain. That worth- ment of sovereign princes (viz.) Achilles, Alexander, Nero; less band

though despised by Themistocles, who was a republican.Of ever-listless loiterers, that attend

Make senateg dance, either alter their prince, or to Poin

toise, or Siberia. No cause, no trust, no duty, and no friend;

Ver. 606. What mortal can resist the yawn of gods?) who, with an understanding too dissipated and futile for the This verse is truly Homerical; as is the conclusion of the offices of civil life; and a heart too lumpish, narrow, and action, where the great mother composes all, in the same coalracted for those of social, become fit for nothing; and manner as Minerva at the period of the Odyssey. It may, so turn wits and critics, where sense and civility are neither indeed, seem a very singular epitasis of a poem, to end as required nor expected.

this does, with a great yawn; but we must consider it as the Ver. 571. Some, deep free-masons, join the silent race. yawn of a god, and of powerful effects. It is not out of naThe poet all along expresses a very particular concern for ture; most long and grave councils concluding in this very this silent race. He has here provided, that in case they manner: nor without authority, the incomparable Spenser will not waken or open (as was before proposed) to a hum-having ended one of the most considerable of his works ming-bird or a cockle, yet at worst they may be made free-with a roar; but then it is the roar of a lion; the effects Basons; where taciturnity is the only essential qualifica- thereof are described as the catastrophe of the poem. tion, as it was the chief of the disciples of Pythagoras. Ver 607. Churches and chapels, &c.) The progress of

Ver. 576. A Gregorian, one a Gormogon: A sort of lay-lihe yawn is judicious, natural, and worthy to be noted. bro'bers, slips from the roots of the free-masons.

First it seizelh the churches and chapels, then carchith the Per. 524. Each privilege your own, &c.). This speech schools, where, though the boys be unwilling to sleep, the of Dulness to her sons at parting, may possibly fall short masters are not. Next Westminster ha!), inuch morr hard, of the reader's expectation; who may imagine the goddess indeed, to subdue, and not totally put to silence even by thó might give them a charge of more consequence, and, fiom goddess. Then the convocation, which though extremcly such a theory as is before delivered, incite them to the prac-desirous to speak, yet cannot. Even the bouse of comtice of something more extraordinary, than to personate mons, justly called the sense of the nation, is lost (that is to tunning footmen, jockeys, stage coachmen, &c.

say suspended) during the yawn; (far be it from our author But if it be well-considered, that whatever inclination to suggest it could be lost any longer!) but it spreadeth at they might have to do mischief, ber sons are generally ren- large over all the rest of the kingdom to such a degree, that dered harmless by their inability; and that it is the common Palinurus himself (though as incapable of sleeping as Jopieffect of Dulness (even in her greatest efforts) to defeat her ter) vet noddeth for a moment; the effect of which, though own design; the poet, I am persuaded, will be justified, and ever so momentary, could not but causo some relaxation, it will be allowed that these worthy persons, in their several for the time, in all public affairs.

Scribl. ranks, do as much as can be expected from them.

Ver. 610.' The convocation gaped, but could not speak;]

Lost was the nation's sense, nor could be found, Before her, fancy's gilded clouds decay,
While the long solemn unison went round: And all its varying rainbows die away.
Wide, and more wide, it spread o'er all the realm, Wit shoots in vain his momentary fires,
E'en Palinurus nodded at the helm ;

The meteor drops, and in a tlash expires.
The vapour mild o'er each committee crept; As one by one, at dread Medea's strain,
Unfinish'd treaties in each office slept;

The sickening stars fade off the ethereal plain;
And chiefless armies dozed out the campaign! As Argus' eyes, by Hermes' wand oppress'd,
And navies yawn'd for orders on the main. Closed one by one to everlasting rest ;
O muse! relate (for you can tell alone,

Thus at her felt approach, and secret might,
Wits have short memories, and dunces none) 620 Art after art goes out, and all is night:
Relate who first, who last resign'd to rest ; See skulking truth to her old cavern fled,
Whose heads she partly, whose completely blessid: Mountains of casuistry heap'd o'er her head !
What charms could faction, what ambition lull, Philosophy, that lean'd on Heaven before,
The venal quiet, and entrance the dull;

Shrinks to her second cause, and is no more.
Till drown'd was sense, and shame, and right, and Physie of metaphysic begs defence,

And metaphysic calls for aid on sense! O sing, and hush the nations with thy song! See mystery to mathematics fly!

In vain! they gaze, turn giddy, rave, and die. In vain, in vain, the all-composing hour

Religion, blushing, veils her sacred tires, Resistless falls ! the muse obeys the power. And unawares morality expires.

650 She comes ! she comes ! the sable throne behold Nor public flame, nor private dares to shine; Of night primeval, and of Chaos old!

630 Nor human spark is left, nor glimpse divine !

Lo! thy dread empire, Chaos! is restored ;

Light dies before thy uncreating word:

Thy hand, great Anarch ! lets the curtain fall
Implying a great desire so to do, as the learned scholiast on
the place rightly observes. Therefore, beware, reader, lest And universal darkness buries all.
thou take this gape for a yawn, which is attended with no
desire but to go to rest, by no means the disposition of the
convocation ; whose melancholy case in short is this: she
was, as is reported, infected with the general intluence of the

REMARKS. goddess: and while she was yawning carelessly at her ease, soareth again to the skies. As prophecy hath ever been one a wanton courtier took her at advantage, and in the very of the chief provinces of poesy, our poet here forelels from nick clapped a gag into her chops. Well, therefore, may we what we feel, what we are to fear; and, in the style of other know her meaning by her gaping; and this distressful pos: prophets, hath used the future tense for the preterit; since ture our poet here describes, just as she stands at this day, a what he says shall be, is already to be seen in the writings sad example of the effects of Dulness and Malice, uncheck of some even of our most adored authors, in divinity, phied and despised.

Ver. 615, 618. These verses were written many years losophy, physics, metaphysics, &c. who are too good, inago, and may be found in the state poems of that time. So deed, to be named in such company. that Scriblerus is mistaken, or whoever else have imagined Night and Chaos, here represented as advancing to extin

Ibid. The sable throne behold] The sable thrones of this poem of a fresher date. Ver

. 620. Wits have short memories,)] This seems to guish the light of the sciences, in the first place blot out the be the reason why the poets, when they give us a catalogue, colours of fancy, and damp the fire of wit, before they pro

Ceed to their work. constantly call for help on the muses, who, as the daughters of memory, are obliged not to forget any thing. So Homer, the saying or Deniocritus, that Truth lay at the bottom of a

Ver. 641. Truth to her old cavern fled,] Alluding to Iliad B. II.

deep well, from whence he had drawn her;' though Butler Πληθυν δ' ουκ αν εγω μυθησομαι ουδ' ! Ovok,


He first put her in, before he drew her out.'
Ει μη 'Ολυμπιαδες Μουσαι, Διoς αιγοχειο

Ver. 649. Religion, blushing, veils her sacred fires,]
Θυγατέρες, μνησαιας –

Blushing as well at the inemory of the past overtlow of DulAnd Virgil, Æn. VII.

ness, when the barbarous learning of so many ages was Et meministis enim, divæ, et memorare potestis :

wholly employed in corrupting the simplicity, and defiling Ad nos vix tenuis famæ perlabitur aura.

the purity of religion, as at the viow of these ber false sup

ports in the present; of which it would be endless to recount But our poet had yet another reason for putting this task ihe particulars. However, amidst the extinction of all other upon the muse, that, all besides being asleep, she only could lighis, she is said only to withdraw bers! as hers alone in relate what passed.


its own nature is unextinguishable and eternal. Ver. 624. "The venal quiet, and, &c.] It were a problem Ver. 650. And unawares morality expires.] It appears worthy the solution of Mr. Ralph and his patron, who had from hence that our poet was of very different sentiments lights that we know nothing of, which required the greatest from the author of the Characteristics, who has written a effort of our goddess's power-to entrance the dulí, or to formal treatise on virtue, lo prove it not only real, but duraquiet the venal. For though the venal may be more unruly ble without the support of religon. The word Unawares than the doll, yet, on the other hand, it demands a much alludes to the confidence of those men, who suppose that greater expense of her virtue to entrance than barely to morality would flourish best without it, and consequently to quiet.

Scribl. the surprise such would be in (if any such there are) who, Ver. 629. She coines ! she comes ! &c.] Here the muse, indeed, love virtue, and yet do all they can to root out the like Jove's eagle, after a sudden stoop at ignoble game, religion of their country.





PREFACE. HOMER is universally allowed to have had the are not coldly informed of what was said or done as greatest invention of any writer whatever. The from a third person ; the reader is hurried out of praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with himself by the force of the poet's imagination, and him, and others may have their pretensions as to par- turns in one place to a bearer, in another to a specticular excellences; but his invention remains yet tator. The course of his verses resembles that of the unrivalled. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been army he describes, acknowledged the greatest of poets, who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry.

Οι δ' αρ' ισαν, ασιι τε πυρι χθων πασα νεμοιτο. It is the invention that in different degrees distin- •They pour along like a fire that sweeps the whole guishes all great geniuses: the utmost stretch of earth before it.' It is, however, remarkable that his human study, learning, and industry, which masters fancy which is every where vigorous, is not discoevery thing besides, can never attain to this. It fur- vered immediately at the beginning of his poem in its nishes Art with all her materials, and without it Judg- fullest splendour : it grows in the progress both upon ment itself can at best but steal wisely: for Art is himself and others, and becomes on fire, like a chaonly like a prudent steward, that lives on managing riot-wheel, by its own rapidity. Exact disposition, the riches of Nature. Whatever praises may be just thought, correct elocution, polished numbers, given to works of judgment, there is not even a single may have been found in a thousand ; but this poetic beauty in them to which the invention must not con- fire, this 'vivida vis animi,' in a very few. Even in tribute: as in the most regular gardens, Art can only works where all those are imperfect or neglected, reduce the beauties of Nature to more regularity, and this can overpower criticism, and make us admire such a figure, which the common eye may bet- even while we disapprove. Nay, where this appears, ter take in, and is therefore more entertained with. Ithough attended with absurdities, it brightens all the And perhaps the reason why common critics are in-/rubbish about it, till we see nothing but its own splenclined to prefer a judicious and methodical genius to donr. This fire is discerned in Virgil, but discerned a great and fruitful one, is, because they find it easier an through a glass, reflected from Homer, more shifor themselves to pursue their observations through ning than fierce, but every where equal and constant : an uniform and bounded walk of Art, than to com- in Lucian and Statius it bursts out in sudden, short, prehend the vast and various extent of Nature. and interrupted flashes : in Milton it glows like a

Our author's work is a wild Paradise, where, if we furnace kept up to an uncommon ardour by the force cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an or- of art: in Shakspeare, it strikes before we are aware, dered garden, it is only because the number of them like an accidental fire from heaven; but in Homer, is infinitely greater. It is like a copious nursery, and in him only, it burns every where clearly, and which contains the seeds and first productions of every where irresistibly. every kind, out of which those who followed him I shall here endeavour to show how this vast inhave but selected some particular plants, each accor- vention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of cording to his fancy, to cultivate and beautify. If any poet, through all the main constituent parts of some things are too luxuriant, it is owing to the rich his work, as it is the great and peculiar characteristic ness of the soil; and if others are not arrived to per- which distinguishes him from all other authors. fection or maturity, it is only because they are over This strong and ruling faculty was like a powerful run and oppressed by those of a stronger nature. star, which, in the violence of its course, drew all

It is to the strength of this amazing invention we things within its vortex. It seemed not enough to are to attribute that unequalled fire and rapture which have taken in the whole circle of arts, and the whole is so forcible in Homer, that no man of a true poetical compass of nature, to supply his maxims and reflecspirit is master of himself' while he reads him. What tions : all the inward passions and affections of manhe writes, is of the most animated nature imaginable; kind, to furnish his characters; and all the outward every thing moves, every thing lives, and is put in forms and images of things for his descriptions; but. action. If a council be called, or a battle fought, you wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in, he a Ꭰ


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