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Picks. England & Bindley...................... ............... Pittsburgh, Pa........... ....See Page 162 G. B. Walbridge........ to e o 'o - to e a g o e s e o e o 'o e o 'o - * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * New York...................... “ 130 Geo. Worthington & Co................................. Cleveland, Ohio.............. “ 100 Hermann Boker & Co...... to e o 'o e o & o g o e o e o o f * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * New York............. See Pages 152, 154 Nelson Tool Works....... - * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * { % “. ........ & © to o o 4 & 3 & 4 & © e See Page 30 Providence Tool Co.; H. B. Newhall, Agent.... “ “ ......... ... ...... & & 166 T. B. Bickerton & Co...................................... Philadelphia, Pa............. {{ 138 Pig Iron. Chas. W. Matthews ....................................... Philadelphia, Pa............. See Page 38 Collier & S ranton ; Oxford Iron Co............... New York...................... {{ 122 E. L. Hedstrom ....... to e o 'o e s is e e o e o e o 'o e o 'o e o e < e < * * Buffalo, N. Y.................. $o 202 Holmes & Lissberger...................... .............. New York......... ....... § { 84 John A. Griswold & Co......................... ........ Troy, N. Y..................... {{ 50 Jonas S. Heartt & Co..... ... ............................ * { “ ..................... § { 134 John W. Quincy....................... ..................... New York..................... {{ 178 Miller & Smith......... e e s - e o e o e e s to e s e e o se e o e < * * * * * * * * * * * * * & 4 “ ..................* * * {{ 112 Posts & Kalkman ......................................... {{ “ ..................... { { 266 Pratt & Co........................ • * * ~ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * g c e o so & © 9 Buffalo, N. Y................. o {{ 132 Rhodes & Bradley.......................................... Chicago, Ill.................... to 6 192 Rogers & Co.................................................. %6 “. .................... {{ 144

INSTRUCTIONS FOR HANDLING AND USING
MOWIBRAY'S TRI-NITRO-GLYCERIN.

1. Hondle carefully, avoiding a sudden jar or concussion, and be very careful, if any is spilt outside the can, to avoid striking it against any hard substance. 2. When solid, thaw out by placing the cans in a tub of warm water, not hotter than the wrist can bear, first pouring warm water into the can, and always remove the can before adding more hot water to the tub. 3. To fill Cartridges, &c.—Hold the cartridge to be filled over a tray, say two feet by three feet, the bottom of which should be overed with Plaster of Paris (which will not readily explode when Saturated with Nitro-Glycerin.) The soiled Plaster of Paris should be frequently renewed. - 4. If the Nitro-Glycerin in a liquid state is kept in store or magazine for some time, the c rk should be loosely inserted, and a pint of cold water poured in each can, to be frequently poured off and replaced with fresh cold water in warm weather, taking care to retain the bladder under the cork. It is preferable, when ice can be procured, to congeal the Nitro-Glycerin. 5. Use Funnels (gutta-percha if it can be had) for filling water holes. Under no circumstances whatever attempt to tamp the drill holes; it is unnecessary, and may kill the n.an who attempts it. 6. Hot irons to warm the water, or soldering the cabs, will be sure to cause ea:plosions. 7. Never sledge or attempt drilling in a hole or seam where Nitro-Glycerin has been spilled; fire an exploder, which will effectually clear it up. 8. Never pour Nitro-Glycerin into a hole unless perfectly sure that it is a sound hole, or will hold water; if seamy always use cartridges. 9. To obtain the best results with Nitro-Glycerin, drill deep holes, 6 feet or more. Use powerful exploders and well insulated wires, It is cheaper to fire by electric battery with simultaneous explosion, than to fire several holes with tape fuse. 10. Look out after a blast for any unexplo 'ed cartridges lying around. 11. Never allow any but the most careful persons to handle or have charge of the Nitro-Glycerin, and insist upon the use of every precaution to prevent an accident or explosion. Pl: Never allow empty Glycerin cans to be used for any other purpose, but destroy them by a fuse and exploder, or building a fire under them, first, however, removing them to a safe distance. 13. Examine your cans from time to time, and notice if, at the level of the Nitro-Glycerin, any pin-ho'es have eaten through ; in such case procure a new can, or stone jar, and empty the contents out, not trusting your hold to the upper part of the can, lest it may give way. 14. When solid, or congealed, it is absolutely safe ; if possible, therefore, any surplus should be stored surrounded with ice, Since no explosion can take place whn it is solid.

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Are now prepared to receive orders for the erection of their Improved and Perfected ELECTRIG SIGNALS, manufactured under the patents of F. L. POPE and S. G. HENDRICKSON. Our Improved

ELECTRIC SEMIAIPHORIE

can be operated at any distance, and its indications are instantly and infallibly REPEATED BACK to the signalman on the same wire. For Stations, TUNNELs, BRIDGES, and SECTIONs of SINGLE TRACK, this Signal is invaluable. We also furnish an

AUTOMATIC block system,

which is operated by the trains themselves, a section of the track being brought into the electric circuit. This system is the ON Y RELIABLE one for working automatic signals, and is covered by the original patent of F. L. Pope, July 16, 1872. off"Our Signals have been thorougly tested in Aractical service... go. We also design and erect to order, special Signals for

Draw-Bridges, Crossings, Station-Yards, Etc., Eto, J. N. AsHLEY, F. L. POPE,

Business Manager. Superintendent.

J. W. STOVER,
Agent for the New England States.

F. L. PO PIE & C O.
194 Fulton Street, New York,

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS,

APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES,

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

We invite the attention of PURCH ASING AG ENTS and RAILROAD TELEGRAPH SUPERINTENDENTS to our new patterns of

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS,

which have been designed EXPRESSLY FOR RAILROAD SERVICE. They are of novel and elegant design, superior finish, and especially constructed for S T RENCTH and DUrz AB 11-iTY. of Our magnets are all wound with t s: 3d copper w re of 95 PER CENT conduct vity, and by a patented process which adds 20 per ce t to their working strength.

of Send for our Illustrated Catalogue and Price List of Instruments, s Supplies and Material. ...o

194 FULTON ST., NEW YORK. [P. 0. Box 6010.]

. Pig Lead. E. W. Blatchford & Co................................... Chicago, Ill.................. ..See Page 124 Lucius Hart & Co.......................... ............... New York...................... {{ 56 Pipe Tongs. Barwick Wrench Co...................................... Boston, Mass...... * * * * * * * * * * * * See Page 60 WEIGHTS.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

The Grain is the same in Troy, Apothecaries and Avoirdupois Weights.

The standard avoirdu o's pound is the weight of 27.7015 cubic inches of distilled water weighed in the air, at 35 85 degrees Fahr., barometer at 30 inches. 27.343 grains = 1 drachm.

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The jeweler's Carat is equal, in the United States, to 3.2 grains; in London, to 3.17 grains; in Paris, to 3.18.

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20 grains........................ 1 scruple.

3 Scruples ..................... 1 dram = 60 grs.

8 drams ....................... 1 ounce = 24 scruples = 480 grs.
12 ounces........................ 1 pound = 96 drams = 288 scruples = 576 grains.

In Troy and Apothecaries' weights, the grain, ounce, and pound are the same.

Frt ENCH WEIGHTS,
Equivalent in Avoirdupois.

Tons. Grains. Ounces. Pounds. 2240 lbs.

Milligramme ..... to $ to e o e o 'o & © to e o e s e .0154°33 ..... o & o & © to go Centigramme..................... .l 43 1 ..... . .000352 ...... .000022 ...... sa-mosoms Decigramme....................... 1.54331 ...... .003527 ...... .000220 ...... — Gramme............................ 15,4331 ...... .035275 ...... .002204 ...... Decagramme ..................... 1 4.331 ...... .352758 ...... .02.2047 ...... Hectogramme.................... 1543.31 ...... 3,52758 ...... .220473 ...... .000 98 Kilogramme...................... 15433.1 ...... 35.2758 ...... 2.20473 ...... .000984 Myriogramme.................... — ...... 3.32.758 ...... 22.0473 ..... .009°42 Quintal.............................. — . . . . . . 3527.58 ...... 22 \.473 ..... . .098425 Millier or Tonne................. -------- , . . . . . 35275.8 ...... 2204.73 ...... .984258

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

30 CORTLAND STREET, NEW YORK.

HAMILTON E. TOWLE, Treas. WM. UNGER, Sup’t. MANUE"ACTURERS OF ALL RINDS OF

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Sent to any address on receipt of price, $15.00. Send for descriptive circular.

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Piston Rods.

Anderson & Woods....................................... Pittsburgh, Pa............ ...See Page 150 Jones & Laughlins....................................... “. ............... “ . .32 Pit Car Wheels. The Atlas Works.......................................... Pittsburgh, Pa............... See Page 172 Pivot Bridges. Wm. Sellers & Co.......................................... Philadelphia, Pa............. See Page 64 Planes. England & Bindley.............................. ........ Pittsburgh, Pa................ See Page 162 Planing Machines. Isaac H. Shearman ....................................... Philadelphia, Pa............. See Page 80 L. W. Pond................................... * es e e s e e o e o e s e s e Worcester, Mass.............. {{ 158 The Pratt & Whitney Co...... ........................ Hartford, Conn............... $6 142 Wm. B. Bement & Co..................................... Philadelphia, Pa............. & 6 168 Wm. Sellers & Co.......................................‘e e e “. ........ # 8 to s to ( & 64 Planing MIIIs. C. B. Rogers & Co.......................................... New York...................... See Page 210 MEASURES.–4 PAGES. - LONG MEASURE. e French ins. feet. yards. fath. poles. furl. mile. mêtres. 1 = .083 = .02778 = .0139 = .005 = .000126 = .0000158 = .0254 12 – 1 = .333 = .1667 = .06.06 = .00151 = .0001894 = .3048 36 = 3 = 1 = .5 = .182 = .00454 = .000568 = .9144 72 – 6 = 2 = 1 = .364 = .0091 = .001136 = 1.8287 198 = 16% = 5% = 2% = 1 = .025 = .003125 = 5,0291 7920 – 660 = 220 = 110 T = 40 = 1 = .125 – 201.16 63360 = 5280 = 1760 = 880 = 320 = 8 = 1 = 1609,315 A palm = 3 inches. A span = 9 inches. A hand = 4 “ A cable's length = 120 fathoms. SURVEYING MEASURE (Lineal). * * ~ I- e g French 1I].S. links. feet. yards. chains. mile. mêtres. 1 — .126 – .0833 = .0278 = .00126 = .0000158 = .0254 7.92 = 1 = .66 = .22 = .0 = .000125 — .2012 12 – 1.515 – 1 = .333 = .01515 = .000189 = .3048 36 = 4.545 = 3 = I = .045 5 = .000568 = .9144 792. = 100 – 66 = 22 = 1 = .0125 = 20.116 63360 = 8000 = 5280 = 1760 = 80 = 1 = 1609,315

I knot or geographical mile = 6082.66 feet = 1851 métres = 1.152 statute mile. 1 Admiralty knot = 1.1515 = 6080 feet.

FRIENCH LONG MEASURE.

Inches. Feet. Yards. Miles.

Millimetre...... ... ......... .03986 ......... .00328 ......... — ......... Centimetre......... ......... .39368 ......... .0328 ......... — ......... smosomsomosome Decimetre ......... ......... 3.9368 ......... .32807 ......... .109357 ......... wome ossomso Me" re................ ......... 39.368 ......... 3.2807 ......... 1.09357 ......... Decametre ........ ......... 393.68 ......... 32.807 ......... 10.9357 ......... Hectometre....... ......... - e s s a e s e s e 328.07 ......... 109.357 ......... .0:52.1347 Kilometre ......... ......... - - , , , , , , s , 3280.7 ........ 1093.57 ......... .6213466 Myriametre ....... ......... -- e, , , , , ... 32807. ......... 10935.7 --------- 6.2134.36

. Time.

Seconds. Minutes. Hours. Days. Weeks.
60 — 1.
3600 – 60 — 1.
86400 = 1440 = 24 = 1
604800 – 10080 – 168 7 = 1

Sidereal Day = 23 h., 56 m., 4.092 sec., in solar or mean time.

Solar Day (mean) = 24 h., 3 m., 56.555 sec., in sideral time.
Sideral year, or revolution of the earth, 365.25635 solar days.

Solar or Calendar Year, 365,24224 solar days.

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