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for The above Works, located on the N. Y. C. R. R., near the centre of the Leather Hose,

State, possess superior faculties for forwarding work to any part of the country.

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A. Carr.............................. . . . . ..................... New York.............. * * * * * * e & See Page 244
Bickford, Curtiss & Deming............... to e e o e g o is e e s e Buffalo, N. Y.......... © to s is to o g o o “ 136
Darrow, Turner & Co........................... to p & & 9 & © to ge New York..... * & © to e o 'o e to to g o e os e o e $6 62
Vose, Dinsmore & Co..................................... {{ “ ......... & to * * * * * * * * * * 66 60
Leather of All Kinds.
Wm. Green & Co........................ .. * * e o 'o e o 'o e o $ to do e o e Wilmington, Del............. See Page 248

ADHESIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES.
Adhesion per Ton of Load on the Driving Wheels:

When the rails are very dry.................. 600 lbs. per ton.
When the rails are very wet.................. 550 “ {{
In misty weather if the rails are greasy... 300 “ {{
In frosty or Snowy Weather................... 200 “ & 4

In coupled engines the adhesive force is due to the load on all wheels coupled to

the driving wheels. 'I he adhesive power must exceed the tractive force of an engine on the rails, otherwise the wheels will slip. For loads on driv ng wheels, see below.

DISTRIBUTION OF WEIGHT IN LOCOMOTIVES.

The average distribution of the weights of a six-wheeled locomotive on its

wheels is :
Assuming the total weight of the engine in working order to be 1;

Passenger Freight
Engines. Engines.
Load on leading wheels....... .32 ...... .34
“ driving wheels...... .48 ...... .36
“ trailing wheels...... .20 ...... .30
Total weight of engine...... 100 ...... I00
Passenger engines, narrow gauge, average... from 20 to 30 tons.
Freight engines............ . . . . . . . . . . . . & e is e s e o e s e o e o e o & e “ 24 to £ 6
Broad-gauge engines, first class.................. {{ 35 “
Incline engines............................... & so e o e o a s a s go “ 40 to 47 “

TRACTIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES.
Let D = Diameter of cylinder in inches.
* P = Mean pressure of steam in cylinders in Ibs. per square inch.
“ L = Length of stroke in inches.
“ W = Diameter of driving wheel in inches.
D2 PL
Tractive force on rails in lbs. will equal ——.
W

EFFECTIVE PRESSURE OF STEAM ON PISTON. With Different Rates of Expansion.—Boiler Pressure being assumed at 100 lbs. per square inch. Effective pressure. Steam cut off at 34 of stroke = 90 . &é - 2 {&

– 8:0 & 4 1 ${ & 6 * 46 - o £6 % {{ F 40 To FIND THE LOAD which AN ENGINE WILL TAKE ON A GIVEN - - INCLINE. Let G = Resistance. due to gravity on the steepest gradient in lbs. per ton. See

. page 151. “ R = Resistance due to assumed velocity of train in lbs. per ton. See page 151. “ T = Tractive power of engine in lbs. as found above. “ W = Weight of engine and tender in tons. The load the engine can take in tons, including the weight of the waggons, T

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Pittsburgh stEEL works.

AND ER so N & W o O DS, PITT's E J R. G. H., P.A.

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O U R F R O C s -
A RE NOW IN USE on the FOLLOWING ROADS:
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad.
New York Central & Hudson River Railroad.
Allegheny Valley Railroad.
Pittsburgh, Washington & Baltimore Railroad.
Wisconsin Central Railroad.

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oillolii Louisville & Nashville Railroad. o o Oil Creek & Allegheny River Railroad. #

|Union Railway.
Houghton & Ontonagon Railroad.
St. Louis & Iron Mountain Railroad.
Atlantic & Pacific Railroad.

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Levels, F. Eckel................................................ ......New York............... ... ...See Page 76 Kuebler & Seelhorst............ to s to so o to o to g a s s e o e o so e s to 9 & © to to e Philadelphia, Pa...... & e o $ & e 4 & “ 216 Wm. J. Young & Sons ................................. & 6 “.............. “ 138 Lightning Rods. J. D. West & Co.......... to € e o is to e o & e i t e o a to e o e o e o o to it e o e o 6 & © e eNew York...... ...............See Page 56 Light Locomotives. Porter, Bell & Co Pittsburgh, Pa............... See Page 128 Linne Kiln Blocks. . Philip Neukumet Philadelphia, Pa............. See Page 104 Linen Hose,

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(Haslett.) Wertical Rise. Qi) Wertical Rise. Six

* 3 c. $2 of S # #3 C É §§ †: z. # 5 o: >. # 5 so & 3 & || Po § 3 & On 6 IIl feet lbs. On 6 RIl feet lbs. 100 ......... 52.8 ....... to o 22.4 60 ......... 88 to e o e o e e o e 37.3 98 ......... 53.9 ......... 22.8 58 ......... 91. ......... 38.6

96 ......... 55. ......... 23.3 56 ......... 94.2 ........ & 40 94 ......... 56.1 ......... 23.8 54 ......... 97.7 ......... 41.4

92 ......... 57.5 ......... 24.3 52 ......... 101.5 ......... 43 90 ......... 58.6 ......... 24.9 50 ........ © 105.6 ......... 44.8 88 ......... 60. ......... 25.4 48 ......... 110. ......... 46.6 86 ......... 61.3 ......... 26. 46 ......... 115. ......... 48.6 84 ......... 62.8 ......... 26.6 44 ......... 120. ......... 50.9 82 ......... 64.3 ......... 27.3 42 to . o e o e g o & 125.7 ......... 53.3

8) ......... 66. ......... 28. 40 ......... 132. ......... 56. 78 ......... 67.6 ......... 28.7 38 ......... 138.9 ......... 58.9 76 ......... 69.4 ......... 29.4 36 ......... 146.6 ......... 62.2 74 ........ & 71.3 ......... 32.2 34 ......... 155.3 ......... 65.8

72 ......... 73.3 ......... 31.1 32 ......... 165. ........ 70. 70 ......... 75.4 ......... 32. 30 ......... 176. ......... 74.6

68 ......... 77.6 ......... 32.9 28 ......... 188.5 ......... 80. 66 ......... 80. ......... 33.9 26 ......... 203. ......... 86.1 64 ......... 82.5 ......... 35. 24 ......... 220. ......... 93.3 62 ......... 85.1 ......... 36.1 22 ......... 240. ......... 101.8.

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The resistance of curves may be reckoned as 1 per cent. for each degree of the curve occupied by the train.

Imperfections of road vary from 5 to 40 per cent.

Strong side winds..................... 20 $&

Velocity of train in }10 ... 15 ... 20 ... 30 ... 40 ... 50 ... 60 ... 70 miles per hour.....

Resistance on straight I I I l l 1. 12. line in lbs. per ton... 8% ... 9% ... 10% ... 13% ... 17% ... 22% ... 29 ... 36%

Do., with sharp curves rol 1. r: and strong wind”.... 13 ... 14 ... 15% ... 20 ... 26 ... 34 ... 43% ... 55 * 50 per cent added to resistance on straight line.

HERMANN BOKER & Co.

PROPRIETORS OF

THE TRENTON WISE and TUDL WORKS,

AND IMPORTERS OF

|H|| All Ellis HällwäTH,

101 & 103 DUANE STREET,

AND

91 & 93 THOMAS STREET,

Coil and Cable Chains, Spiegeleisen,

Steel Tyres, Files and Tools, o
t F. & E. Steel Rails,
Fish Bars, 0 Steel Bells for
Anvils, Stations, Ferries and Towers,

SOLE A G ENTS FOR THE

H. BOKER'S Unrivalled Scissors, Pocket Cutlery & Hardware.
Sole Agent of the Celebrated Cinnlet Bit, No. 679.
PETER WRICHT'S Anvils, Trace and coil chains.
STUBS' Taper Saw Files, Adams' Punches.
BUTGHERS' Files, Tools and Razors, “ coodlad " Files.
BRADE’s Trowels, Hedge Shears, spurs, Curry Combs.
MANHATTAN Cutlery and as O. K.” Razors.
LAMSON & GOODNOW M'F'C co, Table & Butchers' Knives.
WILSON'S Butcher Knives and steels.
L-1RAGRE'S Grass Hooks and Crain Sickles.
T. WALDRON'S Scythes and Straw Knives.
ENCLISH and CER MAN Guns, Caps, &c.
GERMAN Halter and Coil chains.

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