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f^~ The above Works, lo ated on the N. Y. G. R. R., near the centre of tho State, possess superior facilities for forwarding work to any part of the country.

Leather Hose.

A. Carr New York See Page 244

Bickford, Curtiss & Deming Buffalo, N. Y "136

Darrow, Turner & Co New York "62

Vose, Dinsmore & Co "" "60

Leather of All Kinds. Wm. Green & Co Wilmington, Del See Page 248

ADHESIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES.

Adhesion per Ton of Load on the Driving Wheels:

When the rails are very dry..., GOO lbs. per ton.

When the rails are very wet 550""

In misty weather if the rails are greasy.. 300""

In frosty or snowy weather 200""

In coupled engines the adhesive force is due to the load on all wheels coupled to the driving wheels.

I he adhesive power must exceed the tractive force of an engine on the rails, otherwise the wheels will slip. For loads on driv ng wheels, see below.

DISTRIBUTION OF WEIGHT IN LOCOMOTIVES.

The average distribution of the weights of a six-wheeled locomotive on its wheels is:

Assuming the total weight of the engine in wrorking order to be 1;

Passenger Freight

Engines. Engines.

Load on leading wheels " .32 34

"driving wheels .48 36

"trailing wheels .20 30

Total weight of engine 100 100

Passenger engines, narrow gauge, average... from 20 to 30 tons.

Freight engines..., "24 to 32"

Broad-gauge engines, first class "35"

Incline engines "40 to 47"

. TRACTIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES.

Let D = Diameter of cylinder in inches.

*' P = Mean pressure of steam in cylinders in lbs. per square inch.
"L = Length of stroke in inches.
"W = Diameter of driving wheel in inches.

D2PL

Tractive force on rails in lbs. will equal .

W

EFFECTIVE PRESSURE OF STEAM ON PISTON.

With Different Rates of Expansion.Boiler Pressure being assumed at 100 lbs. per

square inch.

Effective pressure.
Steam cut off at % of stroke = 90

[table]

TO FIND THE LOAD WHICH AN ENGINE WILL TAKE ON A GIVEN INCLINE.

LetG = Resistance-due to gravity on the steepest gradient in lbs. per ton. See

page 151. "R = Resistance due to assumed velocity of train in lbs. per ton. See page 151. "T = Tractive power of engine in lbs. as found above. "W = Weight of engine and tender in tons.

The load the engine can take in tons, including the weight of th« waggons,

T

but not that of engine and tender will equal = W.

G + R

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Levels.

F. Eckel New York

Kuebler & Seelhorst Philadelphia, Pa..

Wm, J. Young & Sons ""...

...Seepage 76

216

"138

Lightning Rods*

J. D. West & Co New York * See Page 56

Light Locomotives.

Porter, Bell & Co Pittsburgh, Pa See Page 128

Lime Kiln Blocks. Philip Neukumet Philadelphia, Pa See Page 104

Linen Hose.

A. Carr New^York See Page 244

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RESISTANCE OF TRAINS, ON A LEVEL.

At Different Speeds, In Lbs. per Ton Of Load.

(Molesworth.)

V = Velocity in miles per hour.

R = Resistance in lbs. per ton of train.

V2

R = (_8.

171 The resistance of curves may be reckoned as 1 per cent, for each degree of thr curve occupied by the train.

Imperfections of road vary from 5 to 40 per cent.

Strong side winds 20"

Velocity of train in ) 1Q lg 20 ^ 4Q 5Q 60

miles per hour j

Do., with sharp curvesj lg u _ lhy ... 20 ... 26 ... 34 ... 43^ ... 55

and strong wind*.... j /z /J'

* 50 per cent added to resistance on straight line.

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HERMANN BORER & (XX

PROPRIETORS OF

THE TRENTON VISE and TOOL WORKS,

AND IMPORTERS OP

German and English Hardware,

101 & 103 DUANE STREET,

AND

91 & 93 THOMAS STREET, NEW YORK.

Coil and Cable Chains, Spiegeleisen,

Steel Tyres, Files and Tools'

F. & E. Steel Rails, Fish Bars, C Steel Bells for

Anvils. Stations, Ferries and Towers.

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE

H. BOKER'S Unrivalled Scissors, Pocket Cutlery & Hardware.

Sole Agent of the Celebrated Gimlet Bit, No. 679. PETER WRIGHT'S Anvils, Trace and Coil Chains. STUBS' Taper Saw Files, Adams' Punches. BUTCHERS' Files, Tools and Razors, "Coodlad" Files. BRADE'S Trowels, Hedge Shears, Spurs, Curry Combs. MANHATTAN Cutlery and "O. K." Razors. LAMSON &. COODNOW M'F'G CO,, Table & Butchers' Knives. WILSON'S Butcher Knives and Steels. LINACRE'S Grass Hooks and Grain Sickles. T. WALDRON'S Scythes and Stra* Knives. ENGLISH and GERMAN Guns, Caps, Ac. GERMAN Halter and Coil Chains.

SEND FOR AN ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST.

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