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Lard Oil. F. S. Pease...... § to & © to e o & e o so o e o e o to e o e o s e o 'o o to o to o & so e o e g o os of g o .....Buffalo, N. Y....... to g o is to $ so it is to e See Page 100 P. H. Moffat.................................................. Chicago, Ill.................... “ 190 Lathe Centre Crinders. D. Brewer & Co.................................. e e g to go to e ... Philadelphia, Pa.............See Page 246 Lathe Chucks. D. Brewer & Co......... to o to e o 'o e o os e o 'o & to e o e o e s e s e o e s is a to e o e e o 'o e Philadelphia, Pa....... ......See Page 246 lathe Dogs,

Champlin & Rogers....................................... Chicago, Ill.................... See Page 192 The Worcester Machine Screw Co.; H. B. New-

hall, Agent................................. ..............New York..................... See Page 160

Lathes. Bolen, Crane & Co................... ..................... Newark, N. J.................. See Page 62 Isaac H. Shearman........................................ Philadelphia, Pa............. { % 80 L. W. Pond......... s . Worcester, Mass.............. & & I58 Phelps & Sanger........................................... Cleveland, Ohio............... & & 120 The Buffalo Machinery Agency............... .......Buffalo, N. Y.............. .. “ 160 The Pratt & Whitney Co................................ Hartford, Conn............... {{ 142 Wm. B. Bement & Son g & e o os e o 'o e o s e e o e o 'o e & e e o e s Philadelphia, Pa............. { % I68 Wm. Sellers & Co * * * * s is so { % “............. {{ 64 Lead.

Bruce & Cook................................................ New York........... to e s is o is e ...See Page 112 E. W. Blatchford & Co............................. ......Chicago, Ill................... & 6 124 Holmes & Lissberger........... & e e o a to e o os e a e o os e o e o e o o is e is s a New York............ * * * * * * s e is {{ 84. Philadelphia Smelting Co.................... to o go on to e o e o 'o Philadelphia, Pa............. “ 134

STANDARD SIZES OF WASHERS.

* Slze of Thickness. Size of ro, Size of Thickness, Size of Diam. Hole. Wire Guage. jit." | Diam, j. Wire Guage. Bolt,

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iy; ... . . . . if ... j. & Co o o

ić . ; to e s & se ... : :"... à | 8% “.... 1% ...... “ ...... 1%

1% ...... § . “ i3 ... }.

NUMBER OF WASHERS IN 100 POUNDS.

Size. No. to 100 lbs. Size. No. to 100 lbs.
% “.... 5715 l .................. 940
# “.... 4010 1% .................. 510
§ . 2235 is? ... ........... 415
3: ... 1450 1% .................. 335
% . 1185

TEMPERING STEEL. (Haswell.)

Steel in its hardest state being too brittle for most purposes, the requisite strength and elasticity are obtained by tempering—or letting down the temper, as it is termed—which is performed by heating the hardened steel to a certain degree and cooling it quickly. The requisite heat is usually ascertained by the color which the surface of the steel assumes from the film of oxide thus form, ed. The degrees of heat to which these several colors correspond are as follows:

At 430°, a very faint yellow s Suitable for hard instruments; as hammer-faces, At 450°, a pale straw color.. drills, &c.

At 470°, a full yellow........ ... s For instruments requiring hard edges without elastic-
At 490°, a brown color........ ity; as shears, scissors, turning tools, &c.
O g -

*. brown, with purple spor tools for cutting wood and soft metals; such as
Ağ...] planeirons, knives, &c. e
At 550°, dark blue .............. s For tools requiring strong edges without extreme
At 560°, full blue............... & hardness; as cold-chisels, axes, cutlery, &c.
At 600°, grayish-blue, verg-s For spring-temper, which will bend before breaking;

ing on black................... as saws, sword-blades, &c.

If the steel is heated higher than this, the effect of the hardening process is destroyed.

Ro GER's & Co.

DEALERS IN

Wrought Iron Beams,
G IRD E R s,
T and Angie Iron,
M E/P C A/A W 7” S BA F //? O/W,

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Scotch Pig,
La/ce Superior Charcoal,

Missouri Charcoal, and

- Bitwanimous Pig Iron.

In urn p In e high Go a 1,

(FOR FOUNDRY USE.)

Bloss burg Goal,

(FOR BLACKSMITH'S USE.)

In a G Raw an in a Go al.,
Wut, Range, Smass Egg and Large Egg,

FIRE BRICK AND FIRE CLAY COAL FACING.

144 Market Street, CHICAGO, ILL.

Lead Pipe.
Bruce & Cook.................. .New York.....................
E. W. Blatchford & Co............................. ......Chicago, Ill....................

Learners’ Telegraph Instruments.

ANGLE AND T IRON.—2 PAGES.
Weight of Running Foot in Pounds.

M. A. Buell a s is a s s o is s e : * * * * * * * * * Cleveland, Ohio...............

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Weights of . , (channel) and H iron may be found from the Table of Angle and T iron in the following manner, provided the web and flanges are of the samo

mean thickness:

Let the number of the side column referred to equal half the sum of the depth of web and breadth of both flanges; then twice the weight corresponding thereto will be the weight per lineal foot, according to the thickness, of the channel

or H iron required.

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E S T A B L IS H E D 1845. GEO. C. FISK, President, H. S. H. PDE, Treasure?".

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Ho Particular attention paid to the Shipment of Cars, and Materials for Cars, to all parts of the world.

Leather Belting.

A. Carr....... ..New York..................... See Page 244 Bickford, Curtiss & Deming........................... Buffalo, N. Y.................. { % 136 Buffalo Machinery Agency............................. Buffalo, N. Y.................. {{ 160 Darrow, Turner & Co........................ New York..................... {{ 62 J. J. Walworth • e g = g o e s so e o a Chicago, Ill.................... {{ 124 N. H. Gardner & Co....................................... Buffalo, N. Y................., {{ 254. Radley & McAlister Mfg. Co New York...................... 66 25() Wose, Dinsmore & Co............ * * * * to e o os o 'o e o g o e o g g g o e o g to “. ...................... § { 60 William Green & Co..................................... Wilmington, Del. ........... “ 248

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Ins. #6 % % % % 9% # 34 7% 1 7 | 6.97 ... 8.28 ... 9.57 ... 10.83 ... 12.07 ... 13.28 ... 14.47 ... 15.62 ... 17.86 ... 20.

7.10 ... 8.44 ... 9.75 ... 11.04 ... 12.3 ... 13.54 ... 14.75 ... 15.93 ... 18.23 ... 20.42
7.23 ... 8.59 ... 9.93 ... 11.25 ... 12.54 ... 13.8 ... 15.04 ... 16.25 ... 18.59 ... 20.83
7 36 ... 8.75 ... 10.12 ... 11.46 ... 12.77 ... 14.05 ... 15.33 ... 16.56 ... 18.96 ... 21.25
7.49 ... 8.91 ... 10.3 ... 11.67 ... 13.01 ... 14.32 ... 15.61 ... 16.87 ... 19.32 ... 21.67
.62 ... 9.06 ... 10.48 ... 11.87 ... 13.24 ... 14.58 ... 15.9 ... 17.19 ... 19.69 ... 22.08
7.75 ... 9.22 ... 10.66 ... 12.08 ... 13.48 ... 14.84 ... 16.18 ... 17.5 ... 2 .05 ... 22.5
7.88 ... 9.37 ... 10.85 ... 12.29 ... 13.71 ... 15.1 ... 16.47 ... 17.81 ... 20.42 ... 22.92
8.01 ... 9.53 ... 11.03 ... 12.5 ... 13.94 ... 15.36 ... 16.76 ... 18.12 ... 20.78 ... 23.33
8.14 ... 9.69 ... 11.21 ... 12.71 ... 14.18 ... 15.62 ... 17.04 ... 18.44 ... 21.15 ... 23.73
8.27 ... 9.84 ... 11.39 ... 12.92 ... 14.41 ... 15.88 ... 17.33 ... 18.75 . . 21.51 ... 24.16
8.40 ... 10. ... 11.57 ... 13.12 ... 14.65 ... 16.15 ... 17.62 ... 19.06 ... 21.87 ... 24.58
8.53 ... 10.16 ... li.76 ... 12.33 ... 14.88 ... 16.41 ... 17.9 ... 19.37 ... 22.24 ... 25.
8.66 ... 10.31 ... 11.94 ... 13.54 ... 15.12 ... 16.67 ... 18.19 ... 19.69 ... 22.6 ... 25.41
8.79 ... 10.47 ... 12.12 ... 13.75 ... 15.35 ... 16.93 ... 18.47 ... 20. ... 22.97 ... 25.83
8.92 ... 10.62 ... $2.3 ... 13.96 ... 15.58 ... 17.19 ... 18.76 ... 20.31 ... 23.33 ... 26.25
9.05 ... 10.78 ... 12.49 ... 14.17 ... 15.82 ... 17.45 ... 19.05 ... 20.62 ... 23.7 ... 26.66
9.31 ... 11.09 ... 12.85 ... 14.58 ... 16.29 ... 17.97 ... 19.62 ... 21.25 ... 24.42 ... 27.50
9.57 ... 11.41 ... 13.22 ... 15. ... 16.76 ... 18.49 ... 20.19 ... 21.87 ... 25.15 ... 28.33
9.83 ... 11.72 ... 13.58 ... 15.42 ... 17.23 ... 19.01 ... 20.77 ... 22.50 ... 25.88 ... 29.16
10.09 ... 12.03 ... 13.95 ... 15.83 ... 17.7 ... 19.53 ... 21.34 ... 23.12 ... 26.61 ... 30.
10.35 ... 12.34 ... 14.31 ... 16.25 ... 18.16 ... 20.05 ... 21.91 ... 23.75 ... 27.34 ... 30.83
10.61 ... 12.66 ... 14.67 ... 16.67 ... 18.63 ... 20.57 ... 22.49 ... 24.37 ... 28.07 ... 31.67
10.87 ... 12.97 ... 15.04 ... 17.08 ... 19.1 ... 21.09 ... 23.06 ... 25. .... 28.8 ... 32.5
11.13 ... 13.28 ... 15.4 ... 17.5 ... 19.57 ... 21.61 ... 23.63 ... 25.62 ... 29.53 ... 33.33
11.39 ... 13.59 ... 15.77 ... 17.92 ... 20.04 ... 22.13 ... 24.2 ... 26.25 ... 30.26 ... 34.17
11.65 ... 13.91 ... 16.13 ... 18.33 ... 20.51 ... 22.66 ... 24.78 ... 26.87 ... 30.99 ... 35.
11.91 ... 14.22 ... 16.5 ... 18.75 ... 20.98 ... 23.18 ... 25.35 ... 27.5 ... 31.72 ... 35.83
12.17 ... 14.53 ... 16.86 ... 19:17 ... 21.44 ... 23.7 ... 25.92 ... 28.12 ... 32.45 ... 36. 7
... 14.84 ... 17.23 ... 19.58 ... 21.91 ... 24.22 ... 26.5 ... 28.75 ... 33.17 ... 37.5
... 15.16 ... 17.59 ... 20. ... 22.38 ... 24.74 ... 27.07 ... 29.37 ... 33.9 ... 38.33
to o os ... 17.96 ... 20.42 ... 22.85 ... 25.26 ... 27.64 ... 30. ... 34.63 ... 39.16
e e & ... 18.32 ... 20.83 ... 23.32 ... 25.78 ... 28.22 ... 30.62 ... 35.36 ... 40.
to e & to e o e ... 26.3 ... 28.79 ... 31.25 ... 36.09 ... 40.83
• ... 26.82 ... 29.36 ... 31.87 ... 36.82 ... 41.67
to e se ... g o o ... 22.08 ... 24.73 ... 27.34 ... 29.93 ... 32.5 ... 37.55 ... 42.5
*-* * * * * * * * ... 22.5 ... 25.19 ... 27.86 ... 30.51 ... 33.12 ... 38.28 ... 4333
* & e to to o ... 22.92 ... 25.66 ... 28.38 ... 31.08 ... 33.75 ... 39.01 ... 44.17
... 23.33 ... 26.13 ... 28.91 ... 31.65 ... 34.37 ... 39.74 ... 45.
to $ ... 26.6 ... 29.43 ... 32.22 ... 35. ... 40.47 ... 15.83
... 24.17 ... 27.07 ... 29.95 ... 32.8 ... 35.62 ... 41.2 : ...:46.67

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