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Book XI. Let the solid parallelepipeds AH, AK be upon the same base
AB, and of the same altitude, and let their insisting straight lines See the AF, AG, LM, LN be terminated in the same straight line FN, figures and CD, CE, BH, BK be terminated in the same straight line below.
DK; the solid AH is equal to the solid AK.
First, let the parallelograms DG, HN, which are opposite to the base AB, have a common side HG: then, because the solid AH is cut by the plane AGHC passing through the diagonals
AG, CH of the opposite planes ALGF, CBHD, AH is cut into a 28. 11. two equal parts a by the plane AGHC: therefore the solid AH is
double of the prism which is contained betwixt the triangles
K cut by the plane LGHB through
G the diagonals LG, BH of the op
N posite planes ALNG, CBKH, the solid AK is double of the
L is equal to the solid AK.
But, let the parallelograms DM, EN opposite to the base,
have no common side : then, because CH, CK are parallelob 34. 1. grams, CB is equal b to each of the opposite sides DH, EK;
wherefore DH is equal to EK: add, or take away the common
part HE; then DE is equal to HK: wherefore also the tri. c 38. 1. angle CDE is equalc to the triangle BHK: and the parallelod 36. 1. gram DG is equal d to the parallelogram HN: for the same
reason, the triangle AFG is equal to the triangle LMX, and e 24. 11. the parallelogram CF is equal e to the parallelogram BM, and D H E
K D E H K
CG to BN; for they are opposite. Therefore the prism which is contained by the two triangles AFG, CDE, and the three
parallelograms AD, DG, GC, is equalf to the prism containC. 11. ed by the two triangles LMN, BHK, and the three parallelo.
grams BM, MK, KL. If therefore the prism LMNBHK be taken from the solid of which the base is the parallelogram AB, Book XI. and in which FDKN is the one opposite to it; and if from this same solid there be taken the prism AFGCDE, the remaining solid, viz. the parallelepiped AH, is equal to the remaining parallelepiped AK. Therefore, solid parallelepipeds, &c. Q. E. D.
SOLID parallelepipeds upon the same base, and See N. of the same altitude, the insisting straight lines of which are not terminated in the same straight lines in the plane opposite to the base, are equal to one another.
Let the parallelepipeds CM, CN be upon the same base AB, and of the same altitude, but their insisting straight lines AF, AG, LM, LN, CD, CE, BH, BK not terminated in the same straight lines: the solids CM, CN are equal to one another.
Produce FD, MH, and NG, KE, and let them meet one another in the points O, P, Q, R; and join AO, LP, BQ, CR: and because the plane LBHM is parallel to the opposite plane ACDF,
and that the plane LBHM is that in which are the parallels LB, MHPQ, in which also is the figure BLPQ; and the plane ACDF is that in which are the parallels AC, FDOR, in which also is the figure CAOR; therefore the figures BLPQ, CAOR are in parallel planes: in like manner, because the plane ALNG is parallel to the opposite plane CBKE, and that the plane ALNG is that in which are the parallels AL, OPGN, in which also is the
Book XI. figure ALPO; and the plane CBKE is that in which are the pa
rallels CB, RQEK, in which also is the figure CBQR; therefore the figures ALPO, CBQR are in parallel planes: and the planes ACBL, ORQP are parallel; therefore the solid CP is a paralle
lepiped: but the solid CM, of which the base is ACBL, to which a 29. 11. FDHM is the opposite parallelogram, is equal a to the solid CP, of which the base is the parallelogram ACBL, to which ORQP
C is the one opposite, because they are opon the same base, and their insisting straight lines AF, AO, CD, CR; LM, LP, BH, BQ are in the same straight lines FR, MQ: and the solid CP is equal a to the solid CN; for they are upon the same base ACBL, and their insisting straight lines AO, AG, LP, LN; CR, CE, BQ, BK are in the same straight lines OL, RK; therefore the solid CM is equal to the solid CN. Wherefore, solid parallelepipeds, &c. Q. E. D.
OP. XXXI. THEOR.
SOLID parallelepipeds which are upon equal bases, and of the same altitude, are equal to one another.
Let the solid parallelepipeds AE, CF be upon equal bases AB, CD, and be of the same altitude; the solid AE is equal to the solid CF.
First, Let the insisting straight lines be at right angles to the bases AB, CD, and let the bases be placed in the same planc,
and so as that the sides CL, LB be in a straight line; therefore Book XI.
R base CD to the base
х but as the base AB
K to the base LQ, so
Q O the base CD to the
B base LQ, as before was proved: there
С fore as the solid AE
H T to the solid LR, so is the solid CF to the solid LR; and therefore the solid AE is equale to the solid CF.
e 9. 5. But let the solid parallelepipeds SE, CF be upon equal bases SB, CD, and be of the same altitude, and let their insisting straight lines be at right angles to the bases; and place the bases SB, CD in the same plane, so that CL, LB be in a straight line; and let the angles SLB, CLD be unequal; the solid SÉ is also in this case equal to the solid CF: produce DL, TS until they meet in A, and from B draw BH parallel to DA; and let HB, OD produced meet in Q, and complete the solids AE, LR: therefore the solid AE, of which the base is the parallelogram LE, and AK the one opposite to it, is equalf to the solid SË, off 29. 1L which the base is LE, and to which SX is opposite; for they are upon the same base LE, and of the same altitude, and their insisting straight lines, viz. LA, LS, BH, BT; MG, MV, EK, EX are in the same straight lines AT, GX: and because the
Book XI. parallelogram AB is equal to SB, for they are upon the same
i base LB, and between the same parallels LB, AT, and that the g 35. 1. base SB is equal to
N fore the base AB is
E equal to the base CD,
X and the angle ALB
L solid CF; but the so
Η Τ lid AE is equal to the solid SE, as was demonstrated; therefore the solid SE is equal to the solid CF.
But if the insisting straight lines AG, HK, BE, LM; CN, RS, DF, OP be not at right angles to the bases AB, CD; in this case likewise, the solid AE is equal to the solid CF: from
the points G, K, E, M, N, S, F, P draw the straight lines GQ, 1 11. 11. KT, EV, MX; NY, SZ, FI, PU, perpendicularb to the plane
in which are the bases AB, CD; and let them meet it in the points Q, T, V, X; Y, Z, I, U, and join QT, TV, VX, XQ; YZ, ZI, IU, UY: then, because GQ, KT are at right angles to M E
A HQ T
z i 6. 11. the same plane, they are parallel i to one another: and MG,
EK are parallels; therefore the plane MQ, ET, of which one passes through MG, GQ, and the other through EK, KT, which
are parallel to MG, GQ, and not in the same plane with them, k 15. 11. are parallelk to one another: for the same reason, the planes
MV, GT are parallel to one another: therefore the solid QE is a parallelepiped : in like manner, it may be proved, that the solid YF is a parallelepiped: bul, from what has been domonstrated, the solid EQ is equal to the solid FY, because they are upon equal bases MK, PS, and of the same altitude, and have their insisting straight lines at right angles to the bases: and the so