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To these Tables it may not be amiss to give a brief Account of fuch Coins, Weights, and Measures, as are frequently mentioned in the Scriptures. As I have deduced them from those which fee in to be the moft Correct, inserted in the Index to the large Bibl, Printed Anno 1702, and compared with those used in England, by the Lord Bishop of Peterborough.

Troy Weight.

O

.

.

A Gerab=

o. 1048 10 Gerabs=a Bekah=

4

131: 2 Bekahs=e Shekel

9 3 roo Shekels=a Menah=

45
Note, A Shekel is said to be their Original Weight.

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The Roman Money mentioned in the New Testament. A Denarius, or Silver Penny=7 d. 3 Farthings.

Afes of Copper=0 3 Farthings.

Afarium=0 1 Farthing.
Quadrans=0 of a Farthing

A Mite=0. į of a Farthing.
Their Long. Measure, compared with { English. Measure,

. A Finger's Breadth=

0,912 4 Fingers=a Hand's Breadah

3,648 2 Hands=the least Span= o.

7,296 3 Hand's Breadth=the longest Span=

10,944 2 Spans=the longest Cubit=

9,888 4 Cubits=a Fathom=

3,552 6 Cubits Ezekiel's Reed 3. 1. 11,328 400 Cubits =a Stadium=243. 73 1o Stadiums=a Mile=2432.

3 Miles=a Parafang=17296, 9. Which is 4 English Miles and 256.

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Their Measures of Capacity, compared with{ GEnglish Wine.

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Sect. 2. Addition of Weights, &c. THE foregoing

Tables being so well understood, as that you can readily tell (without paufing) how many Units of any one De nomination, do make one of the next Superior Denomination (ofpecially in those Tables which are most useful for your Busines) it will then be as easy to add or fubtract them, as to add or fubtraat whole Numbers, due Care being taken in placing all Numbers that are of one Denomination exactly underneath each other. That is to say, in Money, place Pounds under Pounds, Shillings under Shillings, Pence under Pence, &c. Understand the like in Weights and Measures, &c. according to their several Denominations : Then in Addition observe this Rule.

RULE. Always begin with those Figures of the lowest or leaft Denomination, and add them all together into one Sum, then consider boce many of the next Superior Denomination are contained in that Sum, so many Units you must carry to the said next Superior Denomination to be added together with those Figures that fland there; and if any thing remain over or above those Units so care ried, that Overplus must be set down underneath it's own Denomination: And so proceed on from one Denomination to another until all be finished.

Example in Coin. Let it be required to add 351. 145. o6 d. and 271. 02 s. 10d. and 541. 13 s. 04 d. and 10l. 17 5. og d. into one Sum.

The particular Sums being placed, as before directed, will stand as in the Margin following.

Then according to the Rule, I begin with the Pence (being here the lowest or least Denomination) and adding them all together, I find their Sum to be 29 d. that is 25, and s d. (for

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2452 s. and 29-2435) the 5 d. I set down 1.

d. underneath it's own Denomination, and carry the

35 . 14 , 06 2 s. to the Place of Shillings, adding them and all the Shillings together, I find the Sum to be

54 · 13 48 s. viz. 2 l. 8 s. I set down the 8 s. under

10 . 17 09 neath it's own place of Shillings, and carry the 21. to the Place of Pounds, adding them and all 128 , 08.05 the Pounds together, I find their Sum is 128 1. consequently the Total Sum required is 128 1. o8 s. 05 d.

Now, for as much as it often happens in keeping Books of Accounts, (and in other Business) that it is required to add up large Sums of Money, consisting of 30, 40, or more several particular Sums, nay, perhaps filling up the whole length of a Sheet of Paper, I humbly conceive in those Cases the best and easiest way will be to part them into Parcels, not exceeding above to or 12 particular Sums in each Parcel; that done, add together all the Sums of those Parcels into one Sum, and that will be the Total Sum required.

Also to avoid the making of Points, or other Marks amongft your Figures, it will be convenient to get the following Tables by heart,

725 6

The Pence Table.
d.

d. si
12=E
2452

845 7
36=3
4854

1085 9
6035

I 2010

The Shillings Table.
s. I.

1. 20=I

120= 6 4032

140= 7" 160= 8

180- 9 100=5

200=10

96= 8

6033
80=4

The Use of these Tables is so obvious, that I presume it is needless to explain them.

Examples in Addition of Weights.
Troy Weight

Aver dupais Weight.
Ib. Oz. Pw. Gr.

Tun. C. 2. lb. Oz. 3. 09 10

12 15. 2 24 : 12 5 08 • 21

7.

3 • 21 15 10 10 IZ 22

18

14 O. Il 19 23

19 3 . 27 . 15

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Examples in Addition of Long-Measure. Yards Qrs. Nails Miles Fur. Poles Yards Feet Inch. 35 3

6
32 4

9 17 3

7 27 3

10 129

3 39

II 1 82 3 2 Sum 5 • 2

• 6 I think it needless to set down more Examples of this kind, for if these 5 (especially the last) be well understood, they will be fufficient to thew how any other may be performed.

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Sect. 3. Subtraction of Weights, &c. Subtraction is but the Converse of the precedent Work, and may be performed by observing this Rule.

RU LE. Begin with the Lowest or Leaf Denomination (as before in Addition) and Take or Subtract the Figure (or Figures) in that place of the Subtrahend, from the Figure (or Figures)

that stand ver them of the fame Denomination ; setting down the Remainder. (as in Page 12.) But if that cannot be done, then you must increase the upper Figure (or Figures) with one of the next Superior Denomination, and from that Sum make Subtraction, and so proceed to the next Superior Denomination, where you mus pay the one borrowed, by adding Unity to the Subtrahend in that place, &c. as in whole Numbers.

Examples in Coin.
.
d.

1.

d.
From 386 , 09. 08 From 569 . 10 . 06
Take 173

o6
Sabir. 389.15

08 Remains 213 . 05. 02

179 The First of these Examples is felf-evident. In the Second Example, beginning at the place of Pence (being here the Leaft Denomination) I am to take 8 d. from 6 d. but because that cannot be done, I must (according to the Rule) borrow one of the next Denomination, viz. I s. and add it to the 6 d. which makes it 18 d. (for is. 12 d. and 12 d. +6.318 d. then I take 8 d. from that 18.d. and there remains 10 d. to be set down underneath the place of Pence; that done, I proceed to the place of Shillings, wbere I must now pay the is. saying one borrowed and 15 makes 16 from 10 cannot be, but G

16

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16 from 30 and there remains 14. That is, I borrow one of the next Denomination, viz. tl. and add to it the 10 s. which makes it žos, for it.=20 s. and 20's. +10=30) having set down the Remaining 14 s. underneath it's own place of Shillings, I proceed to the place of Pounds, where paying the il. borrowed, it will be 1 borrowed and 9 is 10 from 9 cannot be, but ro from 19. and there remains 9, and so on as in whole Numbers until all be finished ; and the Remainder will be 1791. 145. 10 d.

This Example being a little confidered will render all others in this Rule easy.

Examples in Wrights.
Troy Weight.

Averdupois IVeight.
Tb. oz. pwt. gr.
'0

c. grs. lb

oz. 17

1.5 Take 5 . 09. 18

14 3

18

From 9

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Refts 4.: 00 , 17 , 20

24 14
Examples in Long Measure.
yds. grs. nails

miles fur. pol. yds. feet inches From 78: 3

3 : 26. 31.0. 9 3 3

18

4 : 2

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Remains 10 48. 45 The Proof of Addition and Subtraction in these Numbers of different Denominations, is the very fame with that of whole Numbers in Page 13. I lhall therefore refer you to that place, and omit repeating it here.

Sect. 4.

Of Reduction.
BY
Y Reduction, Numbers of different Derominations are brought

into one Dénomination.
That is, it alters or changes any Superior Denomination pro-
posed, into any Inferior or Lester Denomination Required ;

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