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very subject to waste; as all kind of Grocery Wares. And
Pitch, Tar, Rosin, Wax, Tallow, Flax, Hemp, &c. Coppor,
Tin, Steel, Iron, Lead, &c. Allo Flesh, Butter, Cheese, Salt, &c.
To these and the like (I presume) it was thought convenient to
allow a greater Weight than the Laws_had provided, which
happened to be about a Sixth part more: For I found by a very
nice Experiment, that one Pound Averdupois is equal to 14
Ounces, 11 Penny Weight, and 15 1 Grains Troy. And it is now
computed as in the following Table.
Drams.

16
16=1 Oz. Ounces.
16=1 lb Pounds.

And

28=* of C. 28672= 1792= 112= I C. Hundred,

56=1 of C. 573440=35840=2240=20=1 Tun.

843% of C.

143a Stone

256=

5. Long Measure. As the least part of Weight came at first from Wheat Corit, so (it is generally said) the least Part of a Long Measure was at firft a Barley Corn, taken out of the middle of the Ear, and being well dried, three of them in length were to make one Inch; and thence the rest, as in this Table.

3=1 In, Incbes.

Barley Corns.

4 Nails=of a Vard.

And 1.rard = = Ell.
36= 12
F. Feet.

2 Yards=1 Fathom. 108 36=

3=1

r. Yards. 5945 198= 16 SA=I P.Poles. 237605 79205 660= 220= 40=1 Furlong. 190080=63360=5280=1760=320=8=1 Mile.

Note, That forty Poles (or Perches) in Length, and four ini Breadtb, do make a Statute Acre of Land.

That is, 220 Yards, multiplied into 22 Yards=4840 Square Yards are a Statute Acre.

And according to the Transactions of the French Acadenty, Anno 1687, a Paris Foot Royal is 12,8 Inches English; Six of those Feet make a Toise; and 57060 Toifes=365184 English Fret, are the Measure of one Degree of a great Circle upon the Surface of the Earth. So that one Degree is 69 Miles and 288 Tards, which is very near to our Country-man Mr Norwood's Experiment made betwixt London and York, Anno 1635; who found that 367196 Fut=69 Miles, and 958 Yards do make a

F

Degree.

Degree. And not 60 Miles, according to the common received Opinion and Practice of the Navigators or Seamen.

Hence, according to the French Account, the Circumference of the Earth (supposing it to be a true Spherical Figure) is 24899 Englife Miles.

6. Of Liquid Measures.

All Measures of Capacity, both Liquid and Dry, were at first made from Troy Weight, Vide Statutes 9 H. III. 51 H. III. 12 H. VII. &c. wherein it is enacted, that eight Pound Troy Weight, of Wheat, gathered out of the middle of the Ear, and well dried, should make one Gallon of Wine Measure: And that there should be but one Measure for Wine, Ale and Corn, throughout this Realm, (Vid. Stat. 14 Ed. III. 15 Rich. II.) But Time and Custom hath altered Measures, as they have done Weights (and perhaps for one and the fame Reason) for now we have three different Measures, viz, one for Wine, one for Ale br Beer, and one for Corn.

I have inserted Tables of each, as they are now computed by Cubick Inches, and practised in the Art of Gauging, &c.

The common Wine Gallon sealed at Guild. Hall in London; by which all Wines, Brandies, Spirits, Strong-waters, Mead, Perry, Cyder, Vinegar, Oil, and Honey, &c. are measured and sold; is supposed to contain 231 Cubick Inches, and from thence the rest are computed, as in this Table.

Gall. Cubick Incbes.

18=1 Rundlet, and 231=1

Note,

31ă makes a Wine or

Vinegar Barrel. 14553= 63=1=1 Hog mead.

L(Vide i R. III.) 19404= 8432 =I=I Puncion. 29106=126=3 =2 == Butt or Pipe. 58212=252=6 =4 =3 =2=1 Tun.

G. Gallons,

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9702= 42=i Terce.

But Dr Wybard in his Tectometry, Page 289, doth fuppose the Wine Gallon to contain but 224, or 225 Cubick Inches at the most, and pursuant to this Account an Experiment was made by Mr Richard Walker and Mr Philip Shales, two General Officers in the Excise. They caused a Vessel to be very exactly made of Brass, in Form of a Parallellopipedon, each side of it's Base was 4 Inches, and it's Depth 14 Inches; so that it's just Content was 224 Cubick Inches. This Vefsel was produced at GuildHall in London (May 255 1688.) before the Lord-Mayor, the Commissioners of Excise, the Reverend Mr Flamstead, Altr. Reg.

Mr

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Mr Halley, and several other ingenious Gentlemen, in whose Presence Mr Shales did exactly fill the aforesaid Brazen Vessel with clear Water, and very carefully emptied it into the old Standard Wine Gallon kept in Guild-Hall, which did so exactly fill it, that all then present were fully fatisfied the Wine Gallon doth contain but 224 Cubick Inches. (This notable Experiment i faw tried.) However, for several Reasons, it was at that time thought convenient to continue the former supposed Content of 231 Cubick Inches to be the Wine Gallon, and that all Computations in Gauging should be made from thence, as above.

The Beer or Ale Gallon (which are both one) is much larger than the Wine Gallon; it being (as I presume) made at first to correspond with Averdupois Weight, as the Wine Gallon did with Troy Weight: For (as I said before, Page 33.) one Pound Averdupois is equal to 14 Ounces, 12 Penny Weight Troy, very near.

And, as one Pound Troy is in proportion to the Cubick Inches in a Wine Gallon, so is one Pound Averdupois to the Cubick Inches in an Ale Gallon. That is, 12 : 231 :: 1416 : 2811, very near the Gubick Inches contained an in Ale Gallon, as appears from an Experiment made by one Nicolas Gunton, General Gauger in the Excise, about 41 Years ago, who, by such a Vessel mentioned before in the last Page, did find the Standard Ale-Quart (kept in the Exchequer, Vid. 12 Car. II.) to contain just 701 Cubick Inches, consequently the Ale-Gallon must contain 282 Cubick Inches, and from thence the following Tables are computed.

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Ale-Measure. Cubick Incbes. 282= ; Gallon.

A Firkin of Soap and of 2256= 8=1 Firkin.

Note, Herrings are the same 4512=16=2=1 Kilderkin,

with that of Ale. 9024332=452=1 Barrel, 113536=4836=3=1=i Hogshead.

Beer Measure. Cubick Incbes.

282= Gallon. 25385 9=I

Firkin. 5076=18=2=1 Kilderkin, 10552=36=4=2=1 Barrel. 15228=5436==1=1 Hogsoead.

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N. B.

N. B. This Distinction or Difference betwixt' Ale and BeerMeasure, is now only used in London. But in all other places of England the following Table of Beer of Ale, whether it be strong or small, is to be observed, according to a Statute of Excise made in the Year 1689.

Cab. Incbes

2825 Gallon.
2397=8Firkin.
4794=17=2= Kilderkin.
958853434=2=1 Barrel.
1 4382=51=6=3=1=1 Hogshead.

7. Of Dry Measure. Dry Measure is different both from Wine and Ale Measure, being as it were a Mean betwixt both, tho' not exactly so; which upon Examination I find to be in proportion to the aforefaid old Standard Wine Gallon, as Averdupois Weight is to Troy Weight; That is, As one Pound Troy is to one Pound Averdupois, fo is the Cubick Inches contained in the old Wine Gallon: To the Cubick Inches contained in the Dry or Corn Gallon.

Viz. 12:14 :: 224 : 2725, which is very near to 272, the common received Content of a Corn Galloni Altho' now it is otherwise iettled by an Act of Parliament made in April 1697, the Words of what Act are there :

Every round Bushel with a plain and even Bottom, being made eighteen Inches and a half wide throughout, and eight Inches deep, mould be esteemed a Legal Winchester Bushel, according to the Stari dard in his Majesty's Exchequer.

Now a Vessel being thus made will contain 2150,42 Cubick Inches, consequently the Corn Gallon doth contain but 2684 Cubick Incbes.

4 Bufbelsza Comb. 268,8= , Gallor

Note, 10 Quarters=a Wey, and 537,6= 2=1

12 Weys=a Last of Corn. 2150,45 8= 4=i Bufhel

. 17203, 2=64332=8=1 Quarter.

Cub. lacbes,

Peck.

I observed amongst the Lead-Mines in Derbyshire, (Anno 1692) that the Miners bought and fold their Lead Öre, by a Measure which they called an Ore Dish; whose Dimensions I carefully tock, and found it

Length 21.3.
Thus Breadth

6.

Inches.
Depth

Conse

8.4.)

Consequently it's Content is 1073,52 Cubick Inches, which is very near equal to 4 Corn Gallons, according to the abovementioned Settlement.

Nine of those Dishes they call a Load of Ore, which if it be? pretty good, will produce about 3 hundred Weight of Lead.

8. Of Time. It is not an easy Thing to give a true Definition of Time ; for (according to the Philosophick Poet)

Time of itself is nothing, but from Thought
Receives it's Rife, by labouring Fancy wrought
From Things considered, whilft we think on some
As present, some as past, or yet to come.
No Thoughi can think on Time, that's fill confeft,
But thinks on Things in Motion or at Řeft.

And so on, Vide Lucretius, Book I.

That is, Time only shews the Duration or Mutation of Things, a Year being the Standard or Integer, by which such Continuance or Change is computed. And a rear is that Space of Time in which the Sun (apparently) compleats it's Revolution from any one Point in the Ecliptick (an imaginary Circle in the Heavens) to the same Point again, which, according to modern Observations, is performed in 365 Days, 5 Hours, 48 Minutes, 57 Seconds, 21 Thirds, &c. But a Second being the least part of Time that can be truly measured by the Motion of any Mechanical Engine, as a Clock, &c. (a Third being less than the Twinkling of an Eye) I begin the following Table with Seconds.

Seconds."

60=1 Minute.
3600 60=1 0 Hours.

86400= 1440= 24=Day. 31556937=525949=87655365+5+48+57=1 Year, called a

(Solar Year.

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But the common rear, usually called the Julian Year, doth confift of 365 Days and 6 Hours, and is divided into twelve unequal Months, called Calendar Months, whose Names and Number of Days are the Subject of every Almanack.

To

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