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amount of heat antarctic aphelion arctic regions Atlantic beds bottom boulder clay Caithness Carboniferous cause consequently considerable density denudation deposits depth descend difference of specific difference of temperature earth's orbit eccentricity ecliptic effect Eocene equal equator equatorial column equatorial regions evidence extent fact feet flow foot-pounds force Geol geological geologists glacial epoch glacier globe Grangemouth greater Greenland Gulf-stream heat received ice-cap icebergs inter-tropical John Herschel land land-ice latitude lower mass mean temperature melting miles Miocene molecules motion North North Sea northern obliquity ocean-currents oceanic circulation perihelion polar column polar regions poles present probably produce Professor quantity of heat radiation result rocks sand Scotland sea-bottom sea-level shear slope snow and ice southern hemisphere specific gravity Straits of Florida stratified stream striated submergence summer sun's supposed surface theory thickness tion tropical warm periods warm water winds winter
Seite 338 - I look at the geological record as a history of the world imperfectly kept, and written in a changing dialect ; of this history we possess the last volume alone, relating only to two or three countries. Of this volume, only here and there a short chapter has been preserved ; and of each page, only here and there a few lines.
Seite 228 - Let us imagine the eccentricity to be at its superior limit, '07775, and the winter solstice in the aphelion. The midwinter temperature, owing to the increased distance of the sun, would be lowered enormously; and the effect of this would be to cause all the moisture which now falls as rain during winter in temperate regions to fall as snow. Nor is this all ; the winters would not merely be colder than now, but they would also be much longer. At present the summer half year exceeds the winter half...
Seite 325 - ... been removed from the general surface in one year ; and there seems no danger of our overrating the mean rate of waste by selecting the Mississippi as our example, for that river drains a country equal to more than half the continent of Europe, extends through twenty degrees of latitude, and therefore through regions enjoying a great variety of climate, and some of its tributaries descend from mountains of great height. The Mississippi is also more likely to afford us a fair test of ordinary...
Seite 374 - We had completely sunk the strip of land between the Mer de Glace and the sea, and no object met the eye but our feeble tent, which bent to the storm. Fitful clouds swept over the face of the full-orbed moon, which, descending towards the horizon, glimmered through the drifting snow that scudded over the icy plain — to the eye in undulating lines of downy softness, to the flesh in showers of piercing darts.
Seite 101 - It is not necessary to associate with oceanic currents the idea that they must of necessity, as on land, run from a higher to a lower level. So far from this being the case, some currents of the sea actually run up hill, while others run on a level. The Gulf Stream was of the first class.
Seite 59 - Perfectly dry air seems to be nearly incapable of absorbing radiant heat. The entire radiation passes through it almost without any sensible absorption. Consequently the pitch on the side of the ship may be melted, or the bulb of the thermometer raised to a high temperature by the direct rays of the sun, while the surrounding air remains intensely cold. " A joint of meat," says Professor Tyndall, " might be roasted before a fire, the air around the joint being cold as ice"J.
Seite 31 - ... that, of all places, here ought to be placed the substance best adapted for preventing the dissipation of the earth's heat into space, in order to raise the general temperature of the earth. Water, of all substances in nature, seems to possess this quality to the greatest extent; and, besides, it is a fluid, and therefore adapted by means of currents to carry the heat which it receives from the sun to every region of the globe*.
Seite 373 - The walk to it was richly rewarded by an uncommonly extensive view, which showed us that the inland ice continued constantly to rise towards the interior, so that the horizon towards the east, north, and south was terminated by an ice-border almost as smooth as that of the ocean.
Seite 520 - This proves that every molecule resumes its crystalline form the moment after the energy is transferred over to the adjoining molecule. This point being established, every difficulty regarding the descent of the glacier entirely disappears; for a molecule the moment that it assumes the fluid state is completely freed from shearing-force, and can descend by virtue of its own weight without any impediment. All that the molecule requires is simply room or space to advance in.
Seite 27 - There is actually, therefore, nearly as much heat transferred from the tropical regions by the Gulf-stream as is received from the sun by the entire arctic regions ; the quantity conveyed by the stream to that received from the sun by those regions being as 15 to 18. But we have been assuming in our calculations that the percentage of heat absorbed by the atmosphere is no greater in polar regions than it is at the equator, which is not the case. If we make due allowance for the extra amount absorbed...