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the same parallel of latitude, viz., 40° north, and the statements show that parts of the old world, as it is called, may have cold winters as well as the new world.

But New York and Constantinople are separated from each other by 100° of longitude, or upwards of 4000 miles.

But the transfer of atmospheric temperature is as conspicuously displayed in the polar regions—during the absence of the sun-for the range of temperature in the month of January is 50° or 60°. Here the immediate or direct action of the sun's rays can have no influence, and yet the same fluctuations of temperature exist as during his cheerful presence. Amid all the changes and vicissitudes, yet the year always preserves the same mean temperature, within one or two degrees, with a remarkable precision, and is a strong and convincing proof of the transfer of temperature, being an admirable system of compensation, that we neither receive nor lose any heat throughout the year, but that a permanent and invariable quantity is ever present in the atmosphere, subject to a continued transfer from one part to another, which performs all the important operations of the atmosphere, in the same way as a given amount of capital suffices for the multifarious duties of society.

The following remarks of Sir William Edward Parry, at Igloolik, April, 1823, are so just and forcible that the subject cannot be better illustrated than in his own words :-“Whatever hopes of an unusually mild winter might have been excited by the mean tem



perature of some of the preceding months, it could scarcely have been anticipated that we should have had so progressive a decrease of mean temperature as we experienced in March, when the thermometer sunk to 42° below zero, and the mean temperature of the month was even 19below zero. But this circumstance may be considered as intimating that though in small intervals of time, such as particular and corresponding months, considerable differences may occur in this respect, yet that in longer periods the averages will be found to coincide more nearly : that nature, in short, though varying in detail, still preserves her general uniformity; that when any considerable deviation from her usual course has taken place on one side, she struggles to maintain the balance by some extraordinary compensation on the other."

A warm and early spring in one area is connected with a cold and late spring in another. Thus in no year are the seasons alike over the whole globe, each in their turn receive the benefit and the blessing-the one region has a fruitful season, another less The abundance in the one may supply the deficiency in the other. Thus all are bound up together, and are mutually dependant upon each other. A community of interests should produce mutual good will.

“ And if a boundless plenty is the robe,

Trade is the golden girdle of the globe ;
Wise to promote whatever ends He means,
God opens fruitful nature's various scenes ;
Each climate needs what other climes produce,
And offers something to the general use.




No land but listens to the common call,
And in return receive supplies from all.”


Having obtained some general idea, a more extended observation becomes necessary, to ascertain the specific facts which constitute the genera ; for all general laws embody the mass of particular facts. Hence we are led to a more minute investigation of this general transfer of heat, which at first might appear to be a mere vague casual coincidence, and we discern more striking evidences in particular days, of which I will only give one popular example for the present.

1848, March 31st, and April 1st and 2nd, were very bright, and hot as summer ; in short, such days so early were perhaps never before recorded in England. The thermometer stood from 72° to 76o.

Friday, 31st March, was a splendid summer's day; 72°, light air, S.E. But hear what the “ Jewish Intelligencer” gives from the Journal of the Rev. A. Stern, a Missionary in Persia, under the head of “A Missionary Cruise in the Persian Gulf, latitude 27° N. and longitude 53° E.; in the honourable Company's ship • Clive,' Commodore Hawkins

“Friday, 31st March, the wind suddenly changed and blew furiously from N.W., and raged incessantly during the night. The thermometer fell from 94° to 54, and bitter cold. This terrific commotion lasted until Sunday, 2nd of April, when the sun again shed his cheerful beams."

Such was the state in the Persian Gulf; their



atmosphere was reduced to our standard of 54°, which is exceedingly cold, while their tropical temperature prevailed in England; and behold the effect : for throughout Yorkshire, and adjacent parts, severe thunder-storms occurred, and that, too, it must be remarked, at the same time as the storm ceased in the Persian Gulf, as the following reports show :-"Dreadful thunderstorm-Sunday, April 2nd, at Huddersfield, Leeds, Liverpool, and said to be one of the most appalling eyer witnessed. Three young men were killed at Huddersfield, and buildings were struck by lightning. Several cows were killed. Sheep, pigs, and household furniture swept away by wholesale, by the deluge of rain and hail. The storm lasted altogether about eight hours.'

Was there not in this case an apparent transfer of heat from the Persian Gulf to us, although 3000 miles apart? But what is that for the active powers of heat and electricity to traverse along the bosom of the atmosphere? It is nothing. The example is given to show that there may be days as well as seasons of the transfer of heat, and so far are specific or particular facts, and these constitute the general law. I have selected these remarks, as independent observations and matters of general notoriety and public interest, in order to propitiate a favourable attention to a further consideration of these actions of the atmosphere; and which are every way worthy of our regard.

It may be thought that I have stretched the point

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rather too far in bringing forward the action in so remote an area, and connecting it with changes in England; and that such a solitary instance, although strongly marked, can only be regarded as a casual occurrence. But there are no casualties in nature. But rare cases are not selected, without having a large reserve of facts to substantiate the example. And it is with pleasure that I record the valuable facts contained in the “ Jewish Intelligencer," from the communications of Dr. Macgowan, who is the talented physician to the hospital at Jerusalem, which the Jews themselves allow to be a noble institution, the founders and supporters of which are philanthropic Christians, who seek both the spiritual and the temporal welfare of God's ancient people. Dr. Macgowan has transmitted from time to time some excellent meteorological tables of accurate detail, illustrative of the climate of Jerusalem. I have perused them with deep attention, and find abundant evidence of the reciprocating action between England and Jerusalem. Jerusalem is a city exalted above the plains, and seated on a hill, of 2600 feet in height above the Mediterranean. It has a bright and sunny climate for the most part, and the barometer stands at about 27 inches, and has but a small range.

From Dr. Macgowan's tables, it appears that changes in the Jerusalem area are responded to occasionally in England, and that the coldest days at Jerusalem may be the warmest days in England ; that we often receive a large transfer of heat from that hot regi on; and that, during the summer, our sirocco, or dayse of

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