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of reason, and the flow of soul,”—but where is that to be met with? The “concordance of sweet sounds,” may also be ranked higher,—but it ought, I think, in point of general festivity, to take precedence of cards or dice,—in point of interest, to sitting silent,-and, in point of ingenuity, it should win the day, in my opinion, against even that delightful and very fashionable amusement, “puss

, in the corner,”—but Martinus Scriblerus, let me beg thy pardon,—I should have called it “ Apodidiascinda.Yours, &c.


P.S.-For the satisfaction of the curious, I have calculated the changes that it is possible to produce on any number of letters up to twelve.

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2 Letters produce 2 changes. 7 Letters produce 5,040 changes. 3


40,320 4




39,916,800 12



Allowing that twenty words, of twelve letters each, can be written in one minute, then to write the full extent of changes out that a twelve-lettered word may produce, would require exactly fortyfive years and two hundred and seven days!



The climate of Mangalore is temperate throughout the year, the extremes of heat and cold not being felt here in so great a degree as in most other parts of India. The land and sea breezes are generally fresher, and the time of their setting-in more regular than at other places. In December and January the mercury in the thermometer never fell below sixty-six degrees.

The strong hill fort of Jumalabad is thirty-six miles inland from Mangalore. I accompanied my friend R—and his family on an excursion to this place, which occupied us about a week. The third day, on reaching an eminence, we obtained a view of the rock of Jumalabad, which at the distance of a few miles, wears the appearance of a small peak of land, rising to an inconsiderable height; this may be owing to the proximity of the neighbouring Ghauts, called by Rennell the Indian Apennines, which occasion the former to appear comparatively diminutive.

Approaching the fort on the southern side, it gradually enlarges to the eye, and by its magnitude excites the greatest surprise, since the base



of the hill is several miles in circumference; and the stupendous rock itself juts out perpendicularly from the latter, to the height of several hundred yards. The lower and middle forts are small works situated on the top of the first hill, and are intended to serve as a cover to the upper fort or

a citadel. At the time of investing the place, our troops formed a lodgment in the middle fort, and were effectually sheltered by part of the most craggy rock that overhangs the gateway. From the latter place, a passage of nine or ten feet in breadth, (and flanked on the exterior side with a stone parapet) winds along the south-east quarter to the summit of the rock. This communication, which forms the only possible entrance into the upper fort, was made at a considerable expense, by cutting and blowing away the hard rock, to the perpendicular height, I should suppose, of at least nine or ten hundred feet.

The prospect from the summit of this lofty and airy site, is the most pleasing possible; it commands an extensive view over the whole country, except on the eastern side, where the Ghauts form, at the distance of four or five miles, a barrier between this province and the table-land of Mysore. The southern and western landscape is diversified by fields of corn, and others laying fallow, by villages scarcely perceptible, forests extending over the wavy hills, and such a variety of other objects, that it would be very difficult to describe or give the faintest idea of the beauty and grandeur of the original.

The upper fort has five batteries, and contains some fine pieces of cannon: there are, also, several magazines, with an abundance of military stores, and grain sufficient for the supply of several years ; and as water enough is collected in tanks, during the periodical rains, for the consumption of the year, the inaccessible rock might not only deride the efforts of the most powerful army, but hold out against the strictest blockade : indeed, the saying of Louis XIV. respecting the fortress of Namur, would be far more appropriate if applied to Jumalabad :—“It may be surrendered, but cannot be conquered.”

This hill fort fell into our possession on the demise of Tippoo ; the garrison made a slight

; resistance, with the intention of gaining terms for the payment of their arrears.

1801. The 20th January.—To Feringypete nine miles. This village is so denominated from having been the residence of many Portuguese families. Tippoo gave some encouragement to the settlement, by granting them a spot of ground to build upon, as well as the privilege of a church: some time afterwards he seized their persons and property, and obliged them (it is reported) to conform to the Mussulman creed.

21st.—To Pany Mangalore, a small village opposite to Buntwal, and in the afternoon I proceeded

kind of pro

on to Kurry-swally, nine miles farther. At Buntwal I crossed a small river, which has its rise among the Ghauts, near Jumalabad, and falls into the sea by Mangalore, a little to the southward of the old fort. Kurry-swally is in so ruinous a state, as to render it difficult to obtain

any vision or grain.

A short time prior to the fall of Seringapatam, the Coorgs made an irruption into the Malabar province, and by way of retaliating on their old enemy the miseries of war, plundered every part of the country, and carried off several thousand families: the remaining ryots fled to the jungles, the tradesmen for protection elsewhere; and from these losses, it will require a considerable time before the province can again be brought into any settled state. Distance marched this day, eighteen miles.

22nd.—By Putone, to the small village of Surwy, or Perdoty,—sixteen miles. The road leading through a hilly and woody tract of country. Among the different species of lofty trees that rise on every side, the sindee is one of the most beautiful; its flowers branch out from the top, and fall in the form of a luxuriant tress down the trunk of the tree. 23rd.— To Bellary, nine miles.

This place, within the last two years, was a considerable town, but at present, little remains of its former population. As we approach the Ghauts, the country

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