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'He was conveyed to prison by the gens d'armes. He was conveyed to prison by the officers of the military, or police soldiers.

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Kings reign jure divino.' L. Kings reign by divine right.

'Some are fond of a jeu de motz. F. Some are fond of a pun.

He died mania-a-potu. L. He died raving mad, in consequence of hard drinking.

The magna charta of American liberty.' L. The great charter of American liberty.

'He seemed to preach memoritor.' F. He seemed to preach from memory.

"Over the grave is a skull and bones, carved in black marble, put up as a memento mori.' L. Over the grave is a skull and bones, carved in black marble, put up as a memento of death.

The maximum duty.' L. The highest duty. 'The minimum duty.' L. The lowest duty.

"It contains multum in parvo.' L. at contains much in a little.

The mere modicum of judicial power. L. The mere pittance of judicial power.

'The distinction that exists between meum et tuum.' L. The distinction that exists between mine and thine.

'The bill passed, nemine contradicente.' L. The bill passed, no one opposing it.

'It is the oppidum ubiorum of the Romans.' L. It is the post town of the Romans.

'I must do it pro forma. L. I must do it for form's sake.

'He came in propria persona. L. He came in per


'He labored pro bono publico.' L. He labored for the good of the public.

'Some are employed per diem, others per annum. L. Some are employed by the day, others by the year.

His rights over his pulpit are, pro hac vice, gone:' LA His rights over his pulpit are, for his crime or vice, gone.

'We have received several communications pró et

contra.' L. We have received several communications for and against.

'A post mortem dissection.' L. A dissection after death.

'Les petits maitres are objects of pity.' F. The fops are objects of pity.

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Or abandon its claim to the power of acting quo ad.' L. Or abandon its claim to the power of acting as to this. 'If it can be done, salvo sensu.' L.

done, preserving the sense.

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If it can be

They place the summum bonum in pleasure.' L. They place the chief good in pleasure.

'It was done secundum artem.' L. It was done according to art.

'Good order is a sine qua non.' L. Good order is an indispensable requisite.

'The meeting was adjourned sine die.' L. The meeting was adjourned indefinitely.

'Can you give an account of the transaction salvo pudore? L. Can you give an account of the transaction without offence to modesty?

'It remains in statu quo.' L. state as before.

It remains in the same

'He heard it with much sang froid.' F. He heard it with much coolness, or without emotion.

'He was holding forth to the edification of the tout ensemble present.' F. He was holding forth to the edification of the whole assembly present, or, the whole together present.

His views and his mind are toto cælo apart.' L. His views and his mind are width of heaven apart.

'If I am supposed to utter these things in terrorem.' L. If I am supposed to utter these things to terrify. 'The bill passed una voce.' L. The bill passed unanimously.

'I could almost say, ubi bene, nemo melius.' L. I could almost say, when all is well, no one is better.

Let the Bible be your vade mecum.' L. Let the

Bible be your constant companion.

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His valet de chambre always attends him.' F.

footman always attends him.


A true copy, verbum pro verbo.' L. A true copy, word for word,

'The robbers attacked him vi et armis.' F. The robbers attacked him with force and arms.

'The case on trial was Plympton versus Smith.' L. The case on trial was Plympton against Smith.


Maynard was appointed Postmaster, vice Upham, removed.' L. Maynard was appointed Postmaster, in place of Upham, removed.

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Vide page 24.' L. See page 24.

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Punctuation is the art of dividing a written composition into sentences, by points or stops, for the purpose of marking the different pauses which the sense and proper pronunciation require. The principal points or stops thus used are the Comma [,] the Semicolon [;] the Colon [:] and the Period [.]

Comma. The comma must not be used in a simple sentence, As, 'This pen is mine.' 'That is your book." He is a good scholar.'

All important adverbs must be separated by commas. As, This man, however, has some amiable qualifications. That the dead will be raised, is, therefore, a doctrine of great importance. I am, moreover, determined not to imitate him.

A comma must be placed, after a noun, that is governed by a verb, in the infinitive mode independent. As, To confess the truth, he is the best scholar. An adverb, qualifying a verb, in the infinitive mode independent, must be separated, by a comma, from the following sentence.

As, Nevertheless, at this time of day to think wisely, we must not always think with philosophers.

A comma must be placed after a participle, that is joined to a noun, in the nominative case independent. As, His authority being disputed, he could not.command the army.

When an adverb qualifies the participle that is join

ed to the independent noun, then a comma must be placed after it.

As, The moon shining brightly, they began their march. The cannon being fired early, the enemy formed themselves in battle array.

The independent participle, joined to an adverb, must be separated, by commas, from the sentence.

As, When the sense admits it, the sooner they are dispatched, generally speaking, the better.

A sentence, in which the present participle is converted into a noun, by the article the, and preposition of, must be separated, by commas.

As, The old world was drowned, by the overflowing of waters. By the avoiding of vile companions, young men escape many calamities.

When this noun is the nominative case to the verb, then the comma is not to be used.

As, The repenting of sinners gives joy to the celestial regions. The comma is only used, when the noun is in the objective case, and governed by a preceding preposition.

A sentence must be separated, by commas, in which the present participle, having a preposition preceding it, governs a noun in the objective.

As, Our heavenly Father, by diffusing his blessings,

shows that he is kind.

Nouns, that signify the time when or how long, admit commas before, and after, them.

As, He will go, next week, to Boston. He served, seven years, in the army.

All nouns and pronouns, expressing persons to whom addresses are made, must be separated by commas.

As, Thou art, O King, a king of kings. I am, kind Sir, your most affectionate friend.

When two or more substantives are arranged in a sentence, they should be separated from each other, and also from the following verb.

As, Raptures, transports, and ecstacies, are the rewards which they confer.

Climate, soil, laws, customs, food, and other incidental differences, have produced an astonishing variety, in the complexion, features, manners, and faculties, of the human species.

The reason of this rule is plain. Every word conveys a distinct thought; and ought, consequently, as in nature, so in reading and writing, to be distinguished from each other. This principle explains the propriety of a few following rules.

When nouns in succession are accompanied with adjectives, they admit their being separated by commas.

As, An extensive plain, the boundless ocean, a verdant lawn, a shady grove, a meandering river, a diversified landscape, a high mountain, and the starry firmament, are beautiful, sublime, and mangnificent, objects.

A number of adjectives, in succession, each of which may qualify the preceding, or following noun, may be separated, from each other, by a comma.

As, In support of his opinion, the Hon. Gentleman, that spoke last, has used the most plain, cogent, and conclusive, arguments. Sacred history contains a simple, chaste, faithful, dispassionate, and impartial narration, of facts.

That each separate adjective qualifies the subsequent noun, is very plain. And, consequently, each adjective ought to be distinguished by a comma. The most modern European writers separate the last adjective from the noun. The propriety of this practice is obvious; for the first, or second, adjective affects, or qualifies, the noun, as much as the last. It is, therefore, proper, that the last should be separated from the


In certain cases, a comma may be placed after the conjunction that.

A number of verbs, or adverbs, in succession, may be separated by a comma.

As, In a sermon, a preacher may explain, demonstrate, infer, exhort, admonish, comfort.

Exercise ferments the humours, casts them into their proper channels, throws off redundancies, and assists nature, in her necessary operations.

To live temperately, chastely, soberly, righteously, and piously, in this world, is the path to immortal life. Nouns, or adjectives, or verbs, that are connected,

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