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being or acting, &c.; as, 'He was born in the year 1780. He dwells in the city. She lives in affluence.' Into, is used after verbs that imply motion of any kind; as, 'He retired into the country. Copper is converted into brass.'
Within, relates to something comprehended in any place or time; as, 'They are within the house. He began and finished the job within the limited time.'
Without, signifies the opposite of within; as, 'She stands without the gate.' But it is more frequently opposed to with; as, You may go without me.'
The preposition at, is generally used after the neuter verb, to be; as, 'I have been at London. I was at the place appointed. I shall be at Paris.' We also say: He touched, or arrived at any place.'
The preposition among, generally implies a number of things. It cannot be properly used in conjunction with the word every, which is in the singular number; as, 'Which is found among every species of liberty. The opinion seems to gain ground among every body.' The word beside, should always be used as a preposition; and the word besides, as an adverb.
It is a matter of indifference with respect to the pronoun one another, whether the preposition of be placed between the two parts of it, or before them both. We may say, 'They were jealous of one another;' or, ' they were jealous one of another.'
Prepositions are sometimes abbreviated or shortened; as, 'I am a hunting. He is a coming. It is one o'clock.' The a thus added, is at, without doubt; as, 'I am at hunting. He is at coming. The o' with the mark of elision, means of, or of the, or on, or on the; as, two o'clock, is the same as to say, two of the clock, or two according to the clock, or two on the clock. In mercantile accounts, we frequently see a made use of in a very odd sort of way; as, 'Six bales marked 1 a 6.' The merchant means, 'six bales marked from 1 to 6. This is taken to be a relic of the Norman French, which was once the law and mercantile language of England; for, in French, a, with an accent, signifies to
As to, is a preposition, and has the signification of
respecting, concerning, or about. He asked him many questions as to the curiosities of his country.' That is, respecting, concerning, or about the curiosities of his country.'
Agreeable to, is a preposition, signifying according to. It was agreeable to law; or, according to law. verbs The preposition about, often has influence upon in the infinitive mode; as, 'The ship is about to sail.'
EXPLANATION OF THE CONJUNCTION.
The Conjunction is a part of speech used to connect words and sentences together; as, 'Jane and Harriet study arithmetic, but they do not study grammar.' In this sentence, and, connects the words Jane and Harriet; but, connects the two simple sentences, thus making a compound one.
There are two kinds of conjunctions, namely: the copulative and the disjunctive. Copulative, signifies, to unite, conjoin, or link together. Disjunctive, signifies, disjoined, separated, parted, divided. Charlotte sings well, and behaves prettily.' The word and in this sentence, connects, or joins together the sentence as well as the sense. It is, therefore, a copulative conjunction.
'I love him, or I fear him.' The word or in this sentence, connects the clauses thereof, but disjoins, or disconnects the sense. It is, therefore, a disjunctive conjunction.'
Let it be remembered that copulative conjunctions serve to connect and continue a sentence, by expressing a condition, supposition, or cause; and disjunctive conjunctions connect sentences, but disjoin the sense, by expressing opposition of meaning.
Conjunctions connect verbs, nouns, and pronouns, of the same cases, adjectives with adjectives, and adverbs with adverbs; as, ' Candor is to be approved and practised.'
Some conjunctions require the indicative mode, and
some the conjunctive after them. If, though, unless, except, lest, whether, and that, when they express doubt, condition, &c. govern the conjunctive mode; but when they imply nothing contingent or uncertain, they govern the indicative mode.
Conjunctions sometimes connect verbs that are of different modes and tenses; as, 'He has come and may stay if he pleases.'
Conjunctions are sometimes used to connect different members of the same sentence; as, 'You are happy because you are good.'
The conjunctions than and as, when used in comparing qualities, require the same case after them as before them; as, she is of more value than rubies.' That is: than rubies are of value. 'Thou art wiser than I;' that is: than I am. This is whiter than
that;' meaning, that is.
The conjunction than is sometimes placed before an objective case followed by an adjective of the comparative degree; as, 'Cicero, than whom no greater orator was ever produced by Rome herself.' In this example, the relative whom must be governed by than, if it is governed at all.
The following is a list of the principal conjunctions. Copulative: And if, that, both, then, since, for, because, therefore, wherefore.
Disjunctive: But, or, nor, as, than, lest, though, unless, either, neither, yet, save, notwithstanding.
The particle as, when it is connected with the pronoun such, has the force of a relative pronoun; as, 'Let such as presume to advise others, look well to their own conduct; which is equivalent to 'Let them who presume,' &c.
The conjunction, as, may be used for an adverb of time, or an adverb of manner, according to the sense. His voice faltered as he spoke.' Here it is an adverb of time, having the signification of while. 'His voice faltered while he spoke.' He behaved yesterday as his brother has lately behaved.' Here as is an adverb of manner, qualifying the verb has behaved. The conjunction as, is sometimes used in the nature of the relative pronoun which, and agrees with a member
of a sentence. Examples: Its inhabitants are hardy and industrious, as is common in new settlements.' Which is common, &c.
'I am a linen draper bold,
As all the world doth know.'
Here the relative as having the signification of which, agrees with a member of a sentence.
'I am a linen draper bold
Which all the world doth know.'
What doth all the world know? Answer. That I am a linen draper bold.
The conjunction as, is sometimes used in the nature of a preposition. Examples: Do you take snuff?' 'I take it sometimes as a medicine.' They occupied it as a garrison.' That is, 'I take it sometimes for a medicine.' 'They occupied it for a garrison,'
The conjunction as, often influences verbs in the infinitive mode. Example: 'Please to be so kind as to lend me your book.'
Several words belonging to other parts of speech, are occasionally used as conjunctions. Such are the verbs provided, except; the adjective both; the pronouns that, either, neither; the participles being, seeing ; the prepositions before, since and for.
Examples: I will do it, provided you assist me.' 'Paul said, except these abide in the ship.' 'He is both virtuous and brave.' 6 Being this was so early foretold.' Seeing all the people are friendly.' 'He was so fatigued, that he could scarcely move. 'I will either send it, or bring it myself.' 'He will neither study nor work. For my sighing cometh before I eat; for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil, since man was placed on the earth.'
The disjunctive conjunctions lest and but, should not be employed where the copulative that, would be more proper; as, 'I feared that I should be deserted,' not, lest I should be deserted.'
The conjunction notwithstanding, may be used as a preposition or a conjunction, according to the sense. Examples: I will pursue my journey, notwithstanding the danger of my being taken by the enemy.'
Here, notwithstanding is a preposition, and governs danger in the objective case.
'Notwithstanding the puritans, who settled NewEngland, fled from their native country to avoid persecution, yet they possessed the same persecuting spirit themselves.' Here, notwithstanding is a conjunction, and governs the intransitive verb fled, in the indicative mode, imperfect time, third person plural.
EXPLANATION OF INTERJECTIONS.
Interjections are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of a speaker or writer.
Interjections are of different sorts, according to the different passions which they serve to express. Such, as are expressive of grief or earnestness, are O! oh! ah! alas! of contempt, poh! pshaw! of wonder, really! strange! of calling, ho! soho! of disgust, foh, fie, away! of a call of attention, lo! behold! hark! of requesting silence, hush! hist! of salutation, welcome! hail! all hail! &c.
Any word or phrase may become an interjection, or, at least, may be used as such, when it is expressed with emotion, and in an unconnected manner; as, peace! ungrateful creature! folly in the extreme!
The interjections, O, oh, and ah, require the objective case of a pronoun of the first person after them, but the nominative case of the second person.
In parsing interjections nothing more can be said of them, than that they are interjections, and the reason for it, as, 'Alas! I have ruined myself.',
Alas is an interjection, a part of speech used to express a sudden emotion of the mind.
Interjections, though frequent in discourse, do not often occur in elegant composition. The too frequent use of them, tends to excite a suspicion, that the speaker or writer, labors under a scantiness of ideas.