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never seen, or never was seen to laugh from that time.” Never is sometimes wrongly used for the word ever; as, "If I make my hands never so clean.' 'Charm he never so wisely. Ever is many times improperly used for never; as, I seldom or ever see him now."

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The adverb of place, where, is often used instead of the pronoun relative and a preposition; as, They framed a protestation, where they again repeated all their former claims;' i. e. in which they repeated.' But it is considered best to avoid this mode of expression.

Two negative adverbs should never be used in the same sentence; they destroy the negation, and render the meaning affirmative; as, ' He will not do it never;' that is, 'he will do it.'

When only intervenes between two negatives, it will destroy the force of affirmation; as, 'He was not only not churlish, but very revengeful.'

Adverbs sometimes qualify articles; as, 'He lost almost a dollar.'

Adverbs sometimes qualify prepositions; as, • He was hurt a little below the chin.' He is just upon the brink of ruin.'


Adverbs sometimes qualify verbal nouns; as, 'The falling out of lovers is the renewal of love.' tearing down of houses is sometimes necessary.' Adverbs often connect sentences; as, 'Go when you please.'

The adverb how should not be used before the conjunction that, nor instead of it; as, "He said how he would go.'

The adverb no becomes an adjective when prefixed to a noun; as, No clouds, no vapors intervene.'

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The adverbs here, there, where, are often improperly applied to verbs signifying motion, instead of the adverbs hither, thither, whither; as, He came here hastily;' They rode there with speed.' They should be He came hither;' They rode thither,' &c.

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The following adverb how, is an adverb of admiration:

"How beauteous are their feet,

Who stand on Zion's hill!'

How is the gold become dim, and the most fine gold changed!"

The following adverb how, is an interrogative adverb: How long have you been here?' How old are you?'

An adverb may be an interrogative adverb and an adverb of place; 'Where is my book?' Here where is an interrogative adverb, because it asks a question, and an adverb of place, because. it has reference to place. In what place is my book."

An adverb may be an adverb of place, and a relative adverb; as, 'Your book is on the table, where you laid it.' Where is an adverb of place, and a relative adverb, referring to table.

Sometimes an adverb may refer to a member of a


'Act well your part; there all the honor lies.'

Here the adverb there refers to a member of the sentence; namely, act well your part.

When is an adverb of time, and an interrogative adverb, because it asks a question; as, When will you make me a visit? Here when is an adverb of time, because it has relation to time, and an interrogative adverb, because it asks a question; and the personal pronoun me is governed by the preposition to, understood; as, "When will you make a visit to me.

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The word very may be an adjective, or an adverb, according to the sense; as, Here is the very man whom I saw yesterday.' Here very is an adjective, It is very cold weather.' Here very is an adverb, and qualifies the adjective cold.

and agrees with man.

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Pre-position, signifies that which is placed before, and in grammar, the position of certain words which are placed before nouns or pronouns, gives them the name of pre-position. For example: He went from Boston to New-York.'

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Prepositions govern nouns in the objective case; as, I saw Henry catching fish in the river.'

Here river

is in the objective case, governed by the preposition,


'He was in a state of despair.' Here the noun, despair, is governed by the preposition, of.

It may be observed, that prepositions generally have an object after them.

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When two prepositions are placed together, the first is used as an adverb; as, 'He came down from the mountain.' Here down is an adverb. He fell down stairs.' Here down is a preposition. "Come on, brave boys.' Here on is an adverb, qualifying the verb, 'On hearing his adversity.' Here on is a prep

come. osition.

Prepositions become adverbs when they do not govern an objective case, and close a sentence; as, 'It was favorably spoken of." 'Now came still evening on.'


When a preposition is united to a verb, so as to effect its meaning very materially, it must be considered a part of the verb, and be parsed with it as such. example: He cast up the account.' Here cast up signifies to reckon, or compute. In this case, the verb, cast, and the preposition, up, should be parsed as one active verb, governing the object after it. The following sentence may be parsed in the same manner. gives up all hope.' Give up, signifies to resign, to yield, to abandon.

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Prepositions should always precede the noun or pronoun which they govern; as, To whom does this house belong;' instead of saying, 'whom, or, who does this house belong to?"

Prepositions are often omitted before pronouns; as, 'Give it (to) me. Buy (for) him a book. Wo is (to)


He was banished (from) England.' Nouns, specifying a particular time, are frequently used without prepositions; as, 'He lived four years at College.' That is: during four years. last week.' That is: on last week.

He went home


When the preposition is placed before the verb, gives the verb a very different meaning from what it has when placed after it; as, 'To understand, signifies

to know; to stand under, signifies to be underneath any thing.

For the sake of elegance, prepositions should not be used with such verbs as preserve their signification without prepositions; as, accept it; approve; attain; are more elegant than accept of it; approve of; attain


should follow a follow the verb, 'To comply with. Engagement in. &c. &c.

In general, the same preposition noun, that elegance requires should from which the noun is derived; as, In compliance with. To engage in. To depart from. Departure from,' Prepositions are often inelegantly separated from relative pronouns in the objective; as, 'The man whom he voted for has great talents. 'Whom will you give it to?' More properly, the man for whom he voted; to whom will you give it ?'

The preposition is sometimes separated from its noun, in order to connect different prepositions with the same noun; as,To suppose the zodiac and planets to be efficient of, and antecedent to, themselves.' This construction is inelegant, and should be avoided, except in forms of law, and the like, where fulness and exactness of expression must take place of every other consideration.

Different relations, and different senses, must be expressed by different prepositions, though in conjunction with the same verb or adjective. Thus we say, to converse with a person upon a subject, in a house,' &c. We also say, 'we are disappointed of a thing,' when we cannot get it, and 'disappointed in it,' when we have it, and find it does not answer our expectations. But two different prepositions are improper in the same construction, and in the same sentence; as, The combat between thirty French against twenty English.'

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The word for, is sometimes used as a conjunction, and sometimes as a preposition. For the Lord searcheth all hearts.' Here for is a copulative conjunction, because it serves to connect, and continue a sentence, by expressing a cause. This may be seen by quoting the first part of the sentence. Solomon, my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve him with a per


fect heart, and with a willing mind, for the Lord searcheth all hearts,' &c. Here is a reason, or cause expressed, why Solomon should serve God with a perfect heart, &c.

'For thee I gladly sacrificed whatever I loved before.' Here for is a preposition. For thee; meaning, for the sake of thee, with respect, or regard for thee. The preposition up is sometimes used as a verb; as, 'Up! let us be going.'

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Participles are frequently used as prepositions; as, excepting, respecting, concerning, according. were all in fault except, or excepting him.'


The following is a list of the principal prepositions.

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Of, denotes possession or belonging, an effect or consequence, and other relations connected with these; as, The house of my friend;' that is, the house belonging to my friend. He died of a fever;' that is, in

consequence of a fever.

From, denotes beginning, origin; to, signifies end, termination; as, 'He rode from Boston to Worcester.' For, indicates the cause or motive of any action or circumstance; as, He loves her for her amiable qualities.'


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By, is generally used with reference to the cause, agent, means, &c.; as, He was killed by a fall. This house was built by him.'

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With, denotes the act accompanying, uniting, &c.; as, We will go with you. They are on good terms with each other.' With, also alludes to the instrument or means; as, 'He was cut with a knife.'

In, relates to time, place, the state or manner of

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