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Participles often govern the verbs that follow them in the infinitive mode; as, In learning to write, the hand must move gently over the paper. 'Much time was spent in teaching him to read and cypher.' Here the participles learning, and teaching, govern the verbs to write, to read, in the infinitive mode.
Participles of the present and past time, are often used instead of verbs in the infinitive mode; as, 'The art of singing.' 'A desire of seeing him.' These phrases may be thus changed; The art to sing. A desire to see him.'
Participles sometimes become adjectives, and are placed before nouns to denote quality; as, 'A lying rogue.'
Participles may be considered adjectives when they admit adverbs of comparison; as, A more learned man;' and when they are compounded with something that does not belong to the verb; as, Unfeeling, unfelt.'
A participle partakes of the nature of an adjective when it expresses the circumstances of the noun in the passive form; as, The letter was written by me."." He was moved by them. Sometimes the agent is not expressed; as, 'He was taught at college; that is, by his preceptor.
When the participle partakes of the circumstances of a noun, it has the nature of a verb; as, The man is reading. I am viewing a fine prospect.'
Participles are frequently used as nouns, sometimes in the nominative and sometimes in the objective case; Taking from another what is his, without his knowledge or consent, is called stealing.' 'Such a plan is not capable of being carried into execution.'
As the perfect participle and the imperfect tense are sometimes different in their form, care must be taken that they be not indiscriminately used; as, He begun, for he began he run, for he ran; he drunk, for he drank;' the participle being here used instead of the imperfect tense; and much more frequently the imperfect tense instead of the participle; as, I had wrote, for I had written; I was chose, for I was chosen; I have eat, for I have eaten. He would have spoke;'
spoken. They were verses wrote on glass;' written. Philosophers have often mistook the source of true happiness;' it ought to be, mistaken.'
The same word, apparently in the same construction, is sometimes a participle and sometimes an adjective; thus, in the sentence: Thomas is mistaken by his opponents,' mistaken is a participle, which, with the verb, is, forms a passive verb, and means, that 'Thomas is misunderstood;'-but in the sentence, 'Thomas is mistaken,' meaning that Thomas is wrong,' mistaken is an adjective.
The participle is distinguished from the adjective, by the former's expressing the idea of time, and the latter's denoting only a quality. The phrases, loving to give as well as to receive, moving in haste, heated with liquor,' contain participles giving the idea of time; but the epithets contained in the expressions, a loving child, a moving spectacle, a heated imagination,' mark simply the qualities referred to, without any regard to time; and may properly be called participial adjectives.
Participles are sometimes preceded by a possessive case and followed by a nominative; as, 'There is no doubt of his being a great statesman.'
Participles are sometimes used both as verbs and as nouns, at the same time; as, By the mind's changing the object,' &c., where changing' is used as a noun in the objective case, governed by the preposition by;' as a noun, it also governs the noun, mind's' in the possessive case; and as a verb, it governs the noun object,' in the objective case.
EXPLANATION OF THE ADVERB.
Adverb signifies a word added to a verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb, to describe or qualify their qualities; as, The lady walks gracefully. Here the adverb gracefully qualifies the verb walks. I saw
the ship approaching rapidly.' Here rapidly is an adverb, qualifying the participle approaching. • A mast amiable child. Here most is an adverb, qualifying the adjective amiable. The gentleman sings very sweetly.' Here very is an adverb, qualifying the ad verb sweetly.
Adverbs are more frequently added to verbs to modify their signification, than to any other part of speech; and are therefore called ad-verbs.
Adverbs seem originally to have been contrived to express in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more; as, 'He acted wisely,' for, he acted with wisdom; He did it here,' for, he did it in this
Adverbs are divided into as many kinds as there are circumstances of action. Consequently, there are adverbs of number; as, "Once, twice, thrice.' Offor der; as, 'First, secondly, thirdly. Of place; as, Here, there, where, yonder, somewhere, anywhere, elsewhere, everywhere, nowhere, wherever, within, without, whereabout, hereabout, thereabout,' &c. Of time present; as, Now, yet, to-day, presently, instantly, immediately. Of time past; as, Before, already, yesterday, lately, heretofore, hitherto, since, ago. Of time to come; as,To-morrow, not yet, hereafter, henceforth, by and by, soon, ere long.' Of time relative; as, When, then, after, while or whilst.' Of time indefinite; as, Oft, oftentimes, sometimes.' Of manner; as, Well, ill, wisely, foolishly, justly, quickly.' Of doubt; as, 'Perhaps, peradventure, perchance, possibly.' Of affirmation; as, 'Verily, yes, indeed, surely, certainly, doubtless, undoubtedly. Of nega tion; as, Nay, no, not, nowise.' Of interrogation; as, How? why? wherefore?' Of comparison; as, "More, most, alike.'
Adverbs of quality are the most numerous & kind. They are generally formed by adding ly to an adjective, or changing le to ly; as, Like, likely, sincere, sincerely; amiable, amiably; admirable, admirably.' '
Besides the adverbs already enumerated, there are many which are formed by a combination of several of the prepositions with the adverbs of place, here, there,
and where; as, 'Hereof, thereof, whereof; hereunto, thereto, whereto; hereby, thereby, whereby; herewith, therewith, wherewith; herein, therein, wherein; therefore, (i. e. there-for,) wherefore, (i. e. where-for,) hereupon, or hereon, thereupon, or thereon, whereupon, or whereon,' &c.
There are some adverbs which are composed of nouns and the letter a; as, Aside, athirst, afoot, asleep, aboard, ashore, abed, aground, &c.
The word therefore is an adverb, when, without joining sentences, it only gives the sense of, for that reason. When it gives that sense, and also connects, it is a conjunction; as, 'He is good, therefore he is happy.' The same rule may be extended to the words, consequently, accordingly, and the like. When these are subjoined to and, or joined to if, since, &c. they are adverbs, the connexion being made without their help; when they appear single, and unsupported by any other connective, they may be called conjunctions.
Several words in the English language are sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as adverbs; as, 'This
is better than your's.' Here, better is an adjective, because it describes, or compares the quality of the noun pen. Thomas reads better than Peter. Here, better is an adverb, because it is added to the verb reads, describing the manner of performance. 'The assembly spent much time in settling the question.' Here, much is an adjective, qualifying the noun time. She is much handsomer than her sister.' Here, much is an adverb, qualifying the adjective handsomer.
Adverbs sometimes perform the office of conjunctions, and may be termed adverbial conjunctions; as, Again, also, when, whence, where, whither, whenever, wherever,' &c.
There are some words that are sometimes used as nouns, and sometimes as adverbs ; as, To-day's lesson is longer than yesterday's ;' here to-day and yesterday are nouns, because they make sense of themselves, and besides admit of the possessive case; but in the phrase, 'He came home yesterday, and sets out again to-day,' they are adverbs of time; because they answer to the question, when.
The adverb, much, is used sometimes as a noun; as, Where much is given, much is required;' sometimes as an adjective; as, 'Much money has been expended;' and, sometimes as an adverb; as, 'It is much better than to stay."
It often happens, that several words are used together as an adverb; as, long ago, by and by, in haste, in great haste, by no means, not at all, &c. These may be called adverbial phrases.
Adverbs admit of no variation whatever, except some few which have the degrees of comparison; as, Well, better, best; often, oftener, oftenest; soon, sooner, soonest.'
The indefinite article the is sometimes prefixed to adverbs of the comparative and superlative degrees, to mark the degrees more strongly; as, The more I see him, the better I like him.' The more, and the better, are adverbial phrases.
When an adjective to which an adverb is joined ends in ly, the termination of the adverb when similar, must be dropped; as, Exceeding, for exceedingly.' Exceedingly lovely. This is improper. The adjective lovely ends in ly, therefore, the adverb which precedes it, should not. 'He is an exceeding honest man.' This is wrong. The adjective honest does not end in ly, therefore, the adverb should be exceedingly, instead of exceeding.
The adverb has seldom a connexion with any part of speech, except the verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb. In general, they should be placed as near as possible to the words they are intended to qualify. Those which relate to adjectives should be placed before them; those which relate to compound verbs should be placed after the auxiliary, or between that and the principal verb. In negative sentences, the adverb must be placed after the verb; as, 'He speaks not one word.' Adverbs should be placed after verbs active or
The adverb, never, generally precedes the verb ; as, 'I never was there; He never comes at a proper time.' When an auxiliary is used, it is placed indifferently, either before or after the adverb; as, ' He was