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Present

Work, Wring, Write,

Imperfect. wrought, wrung, wrote,

Perfect Participle.
wrought, worked.
wrung.
written.

DEFECTIVE VERBS, Are such as can be conjugated, or varied, only in some particular modes and tenses. Am, was, been, can, must, could, shall, should, may, might, will, would, ought, quoth, &c. are defective verbs. We can say, 'I learn, I learned, I have learned, I had learned, I shall or will learn, I may, can,, or must learn.' But, shall is a defective verb. We can say, I shall; but we cannot say, I have shall, I had shall, I shall or will shall, 1 may, can, or must shall. By this rule, we can always distin guish a defective verb. Present. Imperfect.

Perfect Participle. Can, could,

(wanting.) May,

might, Shall,

should, Will,

would,
Must,
Ought,

ought,
quoth,

AUXILIARY, OR HELPING VERBS, Are those which help to conjugate other verbs. They are, do, be, have, has, shall, will, may, and can, with their variations; and let and must, which have no variations.

The auxiliary and principal verb must be parsed together, although they may be separated by intervening words; as, We should immediately and without reserve, confess our faults.' Should, in this sentence, is the auxiliary, and confess is the principal verb; therefore, should and confess are taken together, and parsed as one word. Verbs and other parts of speech cannot be parsed together; therefore, we cannot parse should immediately confess in union with each other, because, immediately is an adverb.

The verb, whose tense the auxiliary shows, is the principal verb; as, ' James will ride. John has written,'

can.

can.

will,

can. can. can.

The auxiliary verbs are signs of the potential mode. The auxiliary verbs are thus varied:

Present Tense. I, do, am, have, shall, will, may, Thou, dost, art, hast, shalt, wilt, mayst, canst. He, does, is,

has,

shall, will, may, We, do, are, have, shall,

may, Ye, do,

are,
have, shall,

will,

may, They, do,

are,
have, shall, will,

may,
Imperfect Tense.
I, did, was,

had, should, would, might, could. Thou, didst, wast, hadst, shouldst, wouldst, mighst, couldst. He, did, wast, had, should, would, might, could. We,

did, were, had, should, would, might, could. Ye,

did, were, had, should, would, might, could. They, did, were, had, should, would, might, could.

Participles.
Pres. doing, being, having ; Perf. done, been, had.

CONJUGATION OF VERBS.

The conjugation of a verb, is its variation through all, its moods, tenses, numbers and persons.

The conjugation of an active verb is styled the active voice; and that of a passive verb, the passive voice.

Conjugation of the irregular active verb have.

TO HAVE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1° Pers. I have

1 We have
2 Pers. Thou hast, or you have* 2 Ye or you trave
3 Pers. He, she,or it, hath or has 3 They have

Imperfect' Tense.
Singular.

Plural, 1 I had

i We had 2 I hadet

2 Ye or vou had 3 He, &c. had

3 They had

* The second person singular may have a similar variation in eva: ery personal tense of this and all other verbs,

3

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I have had

I We have had 2 Thou hast had

2 Ye or you have had 3 He has had

3 They have had

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I had had

1 We had had 2 Thou hadst had

2 Ye or you had had 3 He had had

3 They had had

First Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I shall or will have

1 We shall or will have 2 Thou shalt or wilt have

2 Yc or you shall or will have 3 He shall or will have

3 They shall or will have
Second Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I shall have had

1 We shall have had 2 Thou wilt have had

2 Ye or you will have had 3 He will have had

3 They will have had

When a question is asked, which occurs only in the indicative and potential moods, the pronoun or substantive is placed after the verb, or ils first auxiliary; as, Singular.

Plural.
Have I ?

Have we?
Hast thou ?

Have ye?
Has be

llave they? In like manner, we say, · Have I had ?'Shall I have had ?". May I have ? • Do I love ? Am I loved ?' &e.

IMPERATIVE MOOD

Singular.

wanting. 2 Have thou, or do thou have 3

wanting

Plural. 1

wanting." 2 Have ye, or do ye or you have

wanting

3

POTENTIAL MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural, 1 I may, can or must have

1 We may, can or must have 2 Thou mayst, canst or must 2 Ye or you may, can or must have

have 3 lle tay, can'or must have 3 They may, can or must have

or shouldst have would ' or ' 3 They might are had

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I might, could, would, or should i We might, could, would, or have

should have 2 Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, 2 Ye or you might, could, or shouldst have

would, or should have 3 He might, could, would, or 3 They might, could, would, or should have

should have

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I may, can, or must have had 1 We may, can or must have had 2 Thou mayst, canst or must have 2 Ye or you may, can or must had

have had 3 He may, can or must have 3 They may, can, or must have had

had Pluperfect Tense. Singular.

Plural. 1 I might, could, would or should 1 We might, could, would or have had

should have had 2 Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst 2 Ye or you might, could,would

or 3 He ,

couldwould or should have had

should have had

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SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I have

1 If we have 2 Ifthou have

2 If ye or you have 3 If he have

3 If they have

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

(Plural. 1 If I had

1 If we had 2 if thou ladst

2 If ye or you had 3 If he, &c. had

3 It they had.

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I have had

1 If we have had 2 If thou hast had

2 If ye or you have had 3 If he has had

3 If they have bad.

Pluperfect Tense. "
Singular,

Plural. 1 If I had had

1 If we had had 2 If thou hadst had

2 If ye or you had had 3 If he had bad

3 If they had had

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Fürst Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
LIFT shall or will have

I If we shall or willhave 2 If thou shalt og wilt have 2 If ye or you shall or 'will

have 3 If he shall' or will have 3 If they shall or will have

Second Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I shall have had

1 If we shall have had 2 If thou shalt have had

2 If ye or you shall have had 3 If he shall have had

3 If they shall have had.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present, To have

Perfect, To have had.
Participles
Present or Active. Having.
Perfect of Passive. Had.
Compound Perfect. Having had.

Conjugation of the irregular neuter verb, be.

TO BE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I am

1 We are 2 Thou art

2 Ye or you are 3 He, she, or it, is

2 Theylare

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I was

1 We were 2 Thou wast

2 Ye or you were 3 He was

3 They were

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I have been

1 We have been 2 Thou hast been

2 Ye or you have been 3 He hath or has been

3. They have been.

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural, 1 I had been

1 We had been 2 Thou hadst been

2 Ye or you had beebis 3 He had been

3 They had been

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