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syllable, or marking the possessive case of a noun; as, Tis, for it is. John's book.

The Caret used in writing to show the accidental omission of a word or part of a word.

The Hyphen (-) used to connect the parts of compound words; as, Lap-dog, to-morrow, ever-living. Placed at the end of a line, it shows that one or more syllables of a word are carried forward to the next line.

The Paragraph [T] denotes the cominencement of a new subject.

The Ellipsis [–] or [****] denotes the omission of some letters or words; as, K-g, for king

The Asterisk [*], the Obelisk [t], and Parallels [ll], together with the letters of the alphabet, or figures, are used as references to marginal notes.

The Index or hand [LP] points out something remarkable. A Brace[}] unites three poetical lines; or connects a number of words, in prose, with something to which they are all related.

The Section [S] marks the smaller divisions of a book or chapter.

A Quotation has two inverted commas at the beginning, and two direct ones at the end, of a phrase or passage; as,

The proper study of mankind, is man.A Diæresis, thus marked; [..] shows that two vowels form separate syllables; as, Creator,

The Acute accent marks the syllable which requires the principal stress in pronunciation; as equal, equallity.

The Grave accent is used, in opposition to the acute; as, Favor, Minor.

The Circumflex generally denotes the broad sound of a vowel; as, eclầt.

The Breve is used to denote either a close vowel, or a syllable of short quantity; as, Fólly, Făncy.

The Macron is used to denote either an open vowel, or a syllable of tong quantity; as, Rosy, Duty.

The Dash [-] is very frequently used by modern writers instead of a regular point. The original and proper use of it is, when the sentence breaks off abrupt

ly; where the sense is suspended; or where there is an unexpected turn in the sentiment; as, • Whom Ibut first I'll calm the waves again,'

A Dash, following a stop, denotes that the pause is to be greater, than if the stop were alone. Whatever is, is right. This

world, 'tis true, Was made for Cæsar-but for Titus too. Crotchets or Brackets, (), are generally used to enclose what is denominated Parenthesis. 1 The Parenthesis, is a clause containing some necessary or useful remark, introduced into the body of a sentence obliquely, and which may be omitted without injuring the grammatical construction; as

' And was the ransom paid? It was; and paid (what

can exalt his bounty more) for thee. The words contained in a parenthesis, must be pronounced in a quicker and lower tone of voice, than the preceding part of the sentence.

An adjective, or participle, or relative, included in a parenthesis may agree with its noun, or antecedent, out of the same, and the contrary; but there can be po agreement or government of nouns and verbs in the like situation.



The following words should begin with capitals: viz.

The first word of every book, chapter, letter, paragraph, &c.

The first word after a period, and frequently after the notes of Interrogation and Exclamation. 1. The names of the Deity; as, God, Jehovah, the Supreme Being, &c.

Proper names of persons, places, ships, &c.

Adjectives derived from proper names; as, Grecian, Roman, English, &c.

The first word of an example, and of a quotation in a direct form; as, Always remember this ancient maxim: “Know thyself.'

The first word of every line of poetry.
The pronoun I, and the interjection O!

Words of particular importance; as, The Reformation, the Restoration, the Revolution.

The use of italic characters, in print, is to point out, as worthy of particular attention, the words distinguished by those characters. In writing with a pen, a stroke is drawn under such words as we wish to be put in italics. If we wish words to be put in SMALL CAPITALS, we draw two strokes under them; if in FULL CAPITALS, we draw threc strokes under them.


Ellipsis, when applied to grammar, is the elegant omission of some one part, or parts, of speech in a sentence.

The part of speech, that is omitted, must be added in idea, either to complete the sense, or to parse the sentence grammatically.

To shun the unpleasing repetition of words, and to have the mode of expression as elegant as possible, is the main design of the ellipsis.

That this figure may be used with elegance, the speaker, or writer, should be careful to shun all ambiguity of expression. Whenever the meaning is darkened, the figure is improperly used.

Simple sentences are seldom elliptical: but compound sentences are very often affected with this figure.

To produce some examples of elliptical sentences, is the best method to impress the understanding with the propriety, or impropriety, of using the ellipsis.



The men, women, and children; together with the caf tle, houses, barns, and fields, were all destroyed. The repetition of the article the before each


in this sentence, is needless.

When any peculiar emphsis, is to be placed upon the nouns, then the repetition of the article the is both necessary and elegant.

• But of that day, and that hour, knoweth no man; no, not the angels, which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.'


A most kind, tender, and faithful husband. A most beautiful, amiable, prudent, and virtuous wife.

Sentences, that are very emphatical, will not admit the ellipsis.

• Christ, the power of God, and the wisdom of God." Christ, the power and wisdom of God, is not so emphatical.

He went to St. Stephen's. He is dean of St. Paul's. Whose book is this? It is Peter's. This is good composition; and more elegant, than if the nouns, omitted by the ellipsis, were supplied. And, yet, in parsing, we must say, St. Stephen's Chapel; St. Paul's Church; it is Peter's book.


Washington is a great scholar, statesman, and


In sentences of this kind, care should be taken, that the adjectives, omitted, be as proper to qualify the latter, as former noun.

The ellipsis of adjectives should never be applied to nouns of different numbers.

ELLIPSIS OF THE PRONOUN. My house and tenements to Ned.' My book, pen, ink, and paper. My father and mother, sisters and brothers.

If the expressions demand a particular emphasis, we must dispense with the figure.

0, send out thy light and thy truth. The Lord is my light and my salvation.'


* And knowest not, that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked.'

To omit verbs, in similar instances, is very proper. In the preceding sentences, the conjunction that, the pronoun thou, and the verb art, are omitted in four different places; and, yet, there is no obscurity of sense.

When several verbs, in succession, are used in the infinitive mode, elegance requires that to, the sign of the infinitive mode, should be omitted before all, but the first.

To love and fear God is man's duty.


He walks, speaks, and behaves, very genteelly. He teaches his scholars to spell, read, and write, correctly.


God is to be loved for his truth, goodness, mercy,

and grace.

In all emphatical expressions, the conjunction ought to be used.

* For I am persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God.' Corresponding conjunctions should never be omit

A few examples will evince the impropriety of omitting correspondent conjunctions.

So -as. Providence is not so large as Boston. Providence is not more large so Boston.

Asmas. He is as learned a man as you. learned a man as you. Whether-or. Whether it were you, or they, that play

Whether it were you, nor they, that played. Neither-nor. Neither this man, nor his father, Neither this man, or his father.

Either-or. Choose either this or that. Choose either this and that.

Thoughyet. Though he is not polite, yet he is learned and virtuous. Though he is not polite, he is learned and virtuous.

He is so


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