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mother of the enemies of the gods, the Daityas. Unhappily this accident followed the ancient tendency by which the Furies and Vices have, with scandalous constancy, been described in the feminine gender...

The close .resemblance between these two names of Hindu mythology, severally representing the best and the worst, may be thus accidental, and only serve to show how the demon-forming tendency, after it began, was able to press even the most trivial incidents into its service. But generally the names of demons, and for whole races of demons, report far more than this; and in no inquiry more than that before us is it necessary to remember that names are things. The philological facts supply a remarkable confirmation of the statements already made as to the original identity of demon and deity. The word 'demon' itself, as we have said, originally bore a good instead of an evil meaning. The Sanskrit deva, “the shining one,' Zend daêva, correspond with the Greek Deós, Latin deus, Anglo-Saxon Tiw; and remain in deity,' 'deuce' (probably; it exists in Armorican, teuz, a phantom),

devel' (the gipsy name for God), and in 'demon.' The Demon of Socrates represents the personification of a being still good, but no doubt on the path of decline from pure divinity. Plato declares that good men when they die become 'demons,' and he says 'demons are reporters and carriers between gods and men.' Our familiar word bogey, a sort of nickname for an evil spirit, comes from the Slavonic word for God—bog. Appearing here in the West as bogey (Welsh bwg, a goblin), this word bog began, probably, as the 'Baga' of cuneiform inscriptions, a name of the Supreme Being, or possibly the Hindu ‘Bhaga,' Lord of Life. In the ‘Bishop's Bible' the passage occurs, 'Thou shalt not be afraid of any bugs by night:' the word has been altered to 'terror.' When we come to


the particular names of demons, we find many of them bearing traces of the splendours from which they have declined. 'Siva, the Hindu god of destruction, has a meaning ('auspicious') derived from Svī, “thrive'-thus related ideally to Pluto, 'wealth'-and, indeed, in later ages, appears to have gained the greatest elevation. In a story of the Persian poem Masnavi, Ahriman is mentioned with Bahman as a fire-fiend, of which class are the Magian demons and the Jinns generally; which, the sanctity of fire being considered, is an evidence of their high origin. Avicenna says that the genii are ethereal animals. Lucifer-light-bearing-is the fallen angel of the morning star. Loki-the nearest to an evil power of the Scandinavian personifications—is the German leucht, or light. Azazel - a word inaccurately rendered 'scape-goat' in. the Bible-appears to have been originally a deity, as the Israelites were originally required to offer up one goat to Jehovah and another to Azazel, a name which appears to signify the 'strength of God.' Gesenius and Ewald regard Azazel as a demon belonging to the preMosaic religion, but it can hardly be doubted that the four arch-demons mentioned by the Rabbins — Samaël, Azazel, Asaël, and Maccathiel-are personifications of the elements as energies of the deity. Samaël would appear to mean the left hand of God;' Azazel, his strength; Asaël, his reproductive force; and Maccathiel, his retributive power.

Although Azazel is now one of the Mussulman names for a devil, it would appear to be nearly related to Al Uzza of the Koran, one of the goddesses of whom the significant tradition exists, that once when Mohammed had read, from the Sura called “The Star,' the question,

What think ye of Allat, Al Uzza, and Manah, that other third goddess ?' he himself added, “These are the most




high and beauteous damsels, whose intercession is to be hoped for,' the response being afterwards attributed to a suggestion of Satan. Belial is merely a word for godlessness; it has become personified through the misunderstanding of the phrase in the Old Testament by the translators of the Septuagint, and thus passed into christian use, as in 2 Cor. vi. 15, “What concord hath Christ with Belial ?' The word is not used as a proper name in the Old Testament, and the late creation of a demon out of it may be set down to accident.

Even where the names of demons and devils bear no such traces of their degradation from the state of deities, there are apt to be characteristics attributed to them, or myths connected with them, which point in the direction indicated. Such is the case with Satan, of whom much must be said hereafter, whose Hebrew name signifies the adversary, but who, in the Book of Job, appears among the sons of God. The name given to the devil in the Koran-Eblis—is almost certainly diabolos Arabicised ; and while this Greek word is found in Pindar? (5th century B.C.), meaning a slanderer, the fables in the Koran concerning Eblis describe him as a fallen angel of the highest rank.

One of the most striking indications of the fall of demons from heaven is the wide-spread belief that they are lame. Mr. Tylor has pointed out the curious persistence of this idea in various ethnical lines of development.3 Hephaistos was lamed by his fall when hurled by Zeus from Olympos; and it is not a little singular that in the English travesty of limping Vulcan, represented in Wayland the Smith,4 there should appear the suggestion, THE DEVIL'S HORNS.

1 See Sale's Koran, p. 281.

? Pindar, Fragm., 270. 3 Tylor's 'Early Hist. of Mankind,' p. 358; 'Prim. Cult.,' vol. ii. p. 230.

4 The Gascons of Labourd call the devil ‘Seigneur Voland,' and some revere him as a patron,


remarked by Mr. Cox, of the name Vala' (seducer), one of the designations of the dragon destroyed by Indra. 'In Sir Walter Scott's romance,' says Mr. Cox, “Wayland is a mere impostor, who avails himself of a popular superstition to keep up an air of mystery about himself and his work, but the character to which he makes pretence belongs to the genuine Teutonic legend.' The Persian demon Aeshma — the Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit -appears with the same characteristic of lameness in the 'Diable Boiteux' of Le Sage. The christian devil's clubbed or cloven foot is notorious.

Even the horns popularly attributed to the devil may possibly have originated with the aureole which indicates the glory of his 'first estate.' Satan is depicted in various relics of early art wearing the aureole, as in a miniature of the tenth century (from Bible No. 6, Bib. Roy.), given by M. Didron. The same author has shown that Pan and the Satyrs, who had so much to do with the shaping of our horned and hoofed devil, originally got their horns from the same high source as Moses in the old Bibles, and in the great statue of him at Rome by Michel Angelo.

It is through this mythologic history that the most powerful demons have been associated in the popular imagination with stars, planets,–Ketu in India, Saturn and Mercury the ‘Infortunes,'—comets, and other celestial phenomena. The examples of this are so numerous that it is impossible to deal with them here, where I can only hope to offer a few illustrations of the principles affirmed; and in this case it is of less importance for the English

1 Myth. of the Aryan Nations,' vol. ii. p. 327. 2 Christian Iconography,' Bohn, p. 158.

3 • Videbant faciem egredientis Moysis esse cornutam.'-Vulg. Exod. xxxiv. 35.



reader, because of the interesting volume in which the subject has been specially dealt with.1 Incidentally, too, the astrological demons and devils must recur from time to time in the process of our inquiry. But it will probably be within the knowledge of some of my readers that the dread of comets and of meteoric showers yet lingers in many parts of Christendom, and that fear of unlucky stars has not passed away with astrologers. There is a Scottish legend told by Hugh Miller of an avenging meteoric demon. A shipmaster who had moored his vessel near Morial's Den, amused himself by watching the lights of the scattered farmhouses. After all the rest had gone out one light lingered for some time. When that light too had disappeared, the shipmaster beheld a large meteor, which, with a hissing noise, moved towards the cottage. A dog howled, an owl whooped; but when the fire-ball had almost reached the roof, a cock crew from within the cottage, and the meteor rose again. Thrice this was repeated, the meteor at the third cock-crow ascending among the stars. On the following day the shipmaster went on shore, purchased the cock, and took it away with him. Returned from his voyage, he looked for the cottage, and found nothing but a few blackened stones. Nearly sixty years ago a human skeleton was found near the spot, doubled up as if the body had been huddled into a hole: this revived the legend, and probably added some of those traits which make it a true bit of mosaic in the mythology of Astræa.2

The fabled “fall of Lucifer' really signifies a process similar to that which has been noticed in the case of Saranyu. The morning star, like the morning light, as

1 Myths and Marvels of Astronomy.' By R. A. Proctor. Chatto & Windus, 1878.

? "Scenes and Legends,' &c., p. 73.

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