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town, and was the author of several medical at all the expense in curing the horse so lamed, tracts of merit, as An Inquiry into the propriety Farriers are in every respect liable to be tried of Phlebotomy in cases of Consumption, 8vo.; according to the Articles of War. An Essay on Acids; The History of Epidemics, “ FARRIERY. The treatment of the diseases translated from the Greek of Hippocrates, 4to.; of borses we refer to the article VETERINARY The Elements of Medical Jurisprudence, 8vo.; Art, fully feeling the propriety of seeking that and Aphorismi de Marasmo, ex summis Medicis superior professional treatment for horses of collecti, 12mo. He died in 1795.
value which the English gentleman no longer FARRA'GO, n. s. ) Lat. A mass formed expects to find either with his groom or his black
Farra'GINOUS, adj. j confusedly of several in- smith. But farriery (Lat. ferrarius, from ferrum, gredients; a medley formed of different materials. iron) may with strict propriety describe a very
Being a confusion of knaves and frols, and a farra. useful and important employment of the lazter, ginous concurrence of all conditions, lempers, sexes, i.e. the shoeing of horses: we therefore propose and ages, it is but natural if their determinations to offer our observations on that art in this place. be monstrous, and inany ways inconsistent with truth. Shoeing is a method of preserving the feet of
Browne’s Vulgar Errours. horses. Some other auxiliary methods may first When we sleep, the faculty of volition ceases to be noticed. For instance, when young horses act, and in consequence the uncompared trains of ideas are first taken from the field, their hoofs are obbecome incongruous, and forin the farrago of our served to be cool, sound, and tough: but they dreams; in which we never experience any curprise,
are no sooner introduced into the stable, than or sense of norelty.
their hoofs are greased or oiled two or three FARRANT (Richard), an English musical
times a week : and if they are kept much in the composer of eminence, held situations in the
house standing upon hot dry litter, without being Chapel Royal and St. George's chapel at Wind- frequently led bread and without havina sor, from 1564 to 1580, and was remarkable for opportunity of getting their hoofs cooled and he devout and solemn style of his church music, moistened in wet ground, their hoofs grow so much of which is found in the collections of brittle, dry, and bard, that pieces frequently break Boyce and Barnard. His full anthem, “Lord, off, like chips from a hård stone; and, when for thy tender mercy's sake,' is still in use. driving the nails in shoeing, pieces will split off,
FARRIER, n. s. & v. n. 2 Fr. ferrier; Ital. even although the nails are made very fine and FAR'RIERY.
Sferraro; Lat. ferra- thin. If these same horses with brittle shattered rius, of ferrum, iron. A shoer of horses; a horse- hoofs are turned out to graze in the fields, their doctor: to farrier is to practice either or both of hoofs in time will become as sound, tough, and these callings : farriery is the art or calling thus good, as they were at first. practised. Which see below.
Mr. Clarke of Edinburgh,ascribes this change Bat the utmost exactness in these particulars be to the wet and moisture which the hoofs are exlongs to farriers, saddlors, smiths, and other trades. posed to in the fields, of which water is the men.
Digby. principal ingredient; and it is a certain fact, of There are many pretenders to the art of farriering which we have daily proofs. that, wben all other and cowleeching, yet many of them are very ignorant,
means fail, horses, turned out to grass, will re
Mortimer. If you are a piece of a farrier, as every groom
cover their decayed brittle hoofs. It is known, ought to be, get sack, or strong-beer, to rub your horses.
he observes, that the boofs of horses are porous; Swift.
and that insensible perspiration is carried on Most satirists are indeed a public scourge
through these pores, in the same manner, and Their mildest physic is a farrier's purge;
according to the same laws as take place in other Their acrid temper turns, as soon as stirred, parts of the body. Now every body knows, that The milk of their good purpose all to curd. greasy or oily medicines applied to the skin of
Cowper. the human body prevent perspiration, which is FARRIER, MILITARY, is a man appointed frequently attended with the worst consequences. to do the duty of farriery in a troop of horse. The same reasoning will hold with respect to the These troop farriers are under the immediate hoofs of horses; for greasy applications close the superintendence of a veterinary surgeon, to pores of the hoof, by being absorbed into its whom they must apply whenever a horse is ill inner substance. Hence the natural moisture, or lame, that he may report the same to the which should nourish the hoof, is prevented from officer commanding the troop. When the far- arriving at its surface; which, on that account, rier goes round, after riding out, or exercise on becomes as it were dead, and consequently dry, horseback, he must carry his haminer, pincers, brittle, and hard. The original practice of and some nails, to fasten any shoe that may be greasing horses' hoofs has probably taken its rise loose. When horses at oui-quarters fall par- from observing, that grease or oil softens dead ticularly ill, or contract an obstinate lameness, substances, such as leather, &c. But this will the case must be reported to the head-quarters by no means apply to the hoofs of horses, as of the regiment; and the veterinary surgeon there is a very great difference between the living must, if time and distance will perinit, be sent and dead parts of animals; the former having to examine the horse. No farrier must presume juices, &c., necessary for their own nourishment to make up any medicine, or any external appli- and support, whilst the latter require such apcation, without, or contrary to, the receipt given plications as will preserve them only from dehim by the veterinary surgeon. If any farrier, c yin; and rotting. through carelessness or inattention, lames a Another practice, equally pernicious, is the horse belonging to another troop, he ought to be stuffing up (as it is called) horses' hoofs with hot resinous and greasy mixtures, under the notion The weight of shoes must greatly depend on of cooling and softening them. Various are the the quality and hardness of the iron. If the prescriptions recommended for this purpose, iron be very good, it will not bend ; and in this many of which are of a quite opposite nature to case the shoes cannot possibly be made too light: the purpose intended. There is likewise a great care, however, must be taken, that they be of a impropriety in stuffing up the hoofs with rotten thickness so as not to bend; for bending would dung and stale urine : this, it is true, is moisture; force out the nails, and ruin the hoof. That part but of the very worst kind, on account of the of the shoe which is next the horse's heel, must salts contained in the urine, which of itself greatly be narrower than any other ; that stones may be contributes towards hardening and drying their thereby prevented from getting under it, and hoofs, in place of softening them; besides the sticking there; which otherwise would be the other bad effects which may arise to the frog, &c., case; because the iron, when it advances infrom the rottenness of the dung.
wardly beyond the bearing of the foot, forms a Without commenting upon the various com- cavity, wherein stones being lodged would repositions or pompous prescriptions recommended main, and, by pressing against the foot, lame the in books, or those handed about as receipts for the horse. The part of the shoe which the horse softening and stuffing horses' hoofs, we would walks upon should be quite flat, and the inside recommend one which is more natural, and ought of it likewise; only just space enough being left not to be despised for its simplicity. This is next the foot to put in a picker (which ought to only to cool and moisten the hoofs with water be used every time the horse comes into the morning and evening : and, to those who are fond stable), and also to prevent the shoe's pressing of stuffing, we would prescribe bran and water, upon the sole. Four nails on each side hold or clay, &c. made into the consistency of a poul- better than a greater number, and keep the hoof tice; and in particular cases, where horses stand in a far better state. The toe of the horse must much in the stable, and the hoofs are disposed be cut short, and nearly square (the angles only to be very hard, dry, and brittle, a poultice of just rounded off); nor must any nails be driven this kind, or any other emollient composition in there: this method prevents much stumbling, which water is a principal ingredient, may be especially in descents; and serves, by throwing applied all round the hoof; or, in imitation of nourishment on the heels, to strengthen them : some dealers, to keep a puddle of water at the on them the horse should in some measure walk, watering place, which will answer equally well, and the shoe be made of a proper length accordif not better. From this manner of treatment, ingly; by these means, narrow heels are prethe hoofs will be preserved in their natural state, vented, and many other good effects produced. and a free and equal perspiration kept up, by Many people drive a nail at the toe, but it is an which the nourishment natural to the hoof wilt absurd practice. Leaving room to drive one have free access to its surface; as it is this only there causes the foot to be of an improper length ; which causes that cohesion of the parts which and moreover, that part of the hoof is naturally constitutes a firm, sound, and touch hoof. so brittle, that even when it is kept well greased,
Horses are shod with iron to defend and pre- the nail there seldom stays in, but tears out and serve their hoofs. As feet differ, so should shoes damages the hoof. accordingly. The only system of farriers,' lord “In wet, spongy, and soft ground, where the Pembroke observes, is to shoe in general with foot sinks in, the pressure upon the heels is of excessive heavy and clumsy ill-shaped shoes, and course greater than on hard ground; and so invery many nails, to the total destruction of the deed it should be upon all accounts. The hinder foot. The cramps they annex, tend to destroy feet must be treated in the same manner as the the bullet; and the shoes made in the shape of fore ones, and the shoes the same; except in a walnut shell prevent the horse's walking upon hilly and slippery countries, they may not imthe firm basis which God has given him for that properly be turned up a little behind ; but turnend, and thereby oblige him to stumble and fall. ing up the fore shoes is of no service, and is They totally pare away also and lay bare the certain ruin to the fore legs, especially to the inside of the animal's foot with their detestable bullets. In descending hills, cramps are apt to butteries, and afterwards put on very long shoes, throw horses down, by stopping the fore legs, whereby the foot is hindered from having any out of their proper basis and natural bearing, pressure at all upon the heels; which pressure when the hinder ones are rapidly pressed ; which might otherwise still perchance, notwithstanding unavoidably must be the case, and consequently their dreadful cutting, keep the heels properly cannot but push the horse upon his nose. With open, and the feet in good order. The frog them, on a plain surface, a horse's foot is always should never be cut out; but as it will sometimes thrown forwards on his toe, out of its proper become ragged, it must be cleaned every now and bearing, which is very liable to make the horse then, and the ragged pieces pared off with a stumble. The notion of their utility in going up knife. In one kind of foot indeed a considerable hills is a false one. In ascending, the toe is the cutting away must be allowed of, but not of the first part of the foot which bears on, and takes frog: we mean, that very high feet must be cut hold of the ground; and whether the horse draws down to a proper height; because, if they were or carries, consequently the business is done not, the frog, though not cut, would still be so before the part where the cramps are comes to far above the ground as not to have any bearing the ground. Ice nails are preferable to any thing upon it, whereby the great tendon must inevi- to prevent slipping, as also to help horses up hill, tably be damaged, and consequently the horse the most forward ones taking hold of the ground would go lame.
early, considerably before the heels touch the
ground. They must be so made, as to be, when and frequently of the whole foot, ensues. Hence
driven in, scarcely half an inch above the shoe, proceed all those diseases of the feet, known by of beadset and also have four sides ending at the top in a the names of foundered, hoof-bound, narrow
point. They are of great service to prevent heels, running thrushes, corns, high soles, &c. slipping on all kinds of places; and by means 'I have likewise frequently observed, from this
of thein a horse is not thrown out of his proper compression of the internal parts of the foot, a Item
basis. They must be made of very good iron; swelling of the legs immediately above the hoof, De tot if they are not, the heads of them will be per- attended with great pain and inflammation, with bany petually breaking off. From the race horse to a discharge of thin, ichorous, fetid matter: from DA DET! the cart horse, the same system of shoeing should which symptoms, it is often concluded, that mix Fusta be observed. The size, thickness, and weight of the horse is in a bad habit of body (or what is them only should differ
. The shoe of a race termed a grease falling down), and must thereborse must of course be lighter than that of a fore undergo a course of medicine, &c. The bad saddle horse; that of a saddle horse lighter than effects of this practice are still more obvious that of a coach or bat horse; and these last more upon the external part of the hoof.
The crust so than a cart, waggon, or artillery horse. At pre- towards the toe, being the only part of the hoof sent all shoes in general are too heavy; if the free from compression, enjoys a free circulation iron is good, shoes need not be so thick as they of that fluid necessary for its nourishment, and are now generally made. The utmost severity grows broader and longer; from which extraorought to be inflicted upon all those who clap dinary length of toe, the horse stumbles in his shoes on bot. This unpardonable laziness of going, and cuts his legs. The smaller particles farriers, in making feet thus fit shoes instead of sand insinuate themselves between the shoe
of shoes fitting feet, dries up the hoof, and and the heels, which grind them away, and - utterly destroys them. Frequent removals of thereby produce lameness. All this is entirely
shoes are detrimental, and tear the foot; but owing to the great spring the heels of the horse
sometimes they are very necessary : this is an must unavoidably have upon the heels of a shoe nur inconvenience to which half shoes are liable; for made in this form.
the end of the shoe, being very short, is apt to . This concave shoe in time wears thin at the work soon into the foot, and consequently must toe, and, yielding to the pressure made upon it, then be moved.'
is forced wider, and of consequence breaks off In a judicious treatise on this subject, by Mr. all that part of the crust on the outside of the be Clarke, the common form of shoes, and method nails. Instances of this kind daily occur, inso
of shoeing, are, with great reason, totally ex- much that there hardly remains crust sufficient ploded, and a new form and method recom to fix a shoe upon them. It is generally thought mended, which seem founded on rational prin- that the broader a shoe is, and the more it covers cples, and to have been confirmed by expe- the sole and frog, a horse will travel the better.
But, as has been formerly remarked, the broader * In preparing the foot for the shoe,' our author a shoe is of this form, it must be made the more
observes, "the frog, the sole, and the bars or concave; and, of consequence, the contracting | binders
, are pared so much that the blood fre- power upon the heels must be the greater. It quently appears. The shoe by its form (being is likewise to be observed that, by using strong thick on the inside of the rim, and thin upon broad-rimmed concave shoes in the summer seathe outside), must of consequence be made con- son, when the weather is hot and the roads very cave or hollow on that side which is placed im- dry and hard, if a horse is obliged to ride fast, mediately next the foot, in order to prevent its the shoes, by repeated strokes or frictions against resting upon the sole. The shoes are generally the ground, acquire a great degree of heat, which of an immoderate weight and length, and every is communicated to the internal parts of the foot, fafans is used to prevent the frog from resting and together with the contraction upon the heels, upon the ground, by making the shoe-heels thick, occasioned by the form of the shoe, must certainly broad, and strong, or raising cramps or caukers cause exquisite pain. This is frequently sucon them. From this form of the shoe, and from ceeded by a violent inflammation in the internal this method of treating the hoof, the frog is raised parts of the hoof, and is the cause of that disease 10 a cousiderable height above the ground, the in the feet, so fatal to the very best of our horses, heels are deprived of that substance which was commonly terned a founder. This is also the provided by nature to keep the crust extended reason why horses, after a journey of a hard ride,
proper wideness, and the foot is fixed as it are observed to shift their feet so frequently and were in a mould.
to lie down much. If we attend further to the By the pressure from the weight of the body, convex surface of this shoe, and the convexity of and resistance from the outer edges of the shoe, the pavement upor. which horses walk, it will then the heels are forced together, and retain that be evident, that it is impossible for them to keep shape impressed upon them, which it is impos- their feet from slipping in this form of shoe, essible ever afterwards to remove; hence a con- pecially upon declivities of streets. traction of the heels, and of course lameness. It is also a common practice to turn up the But farther, the heels, as has been observed, being heels of the shoes into what is called cramps or forced together
, the crust presses upon the pro- caukers, by which means the weight of the horse cesses of the coffin and extremities of the nut is confined to a very narrow surface, viz. the bronse: the frog is confined, and raised so far from inner round edge of the shoe-rim and the points the ground, that it cannot have that support upon
or caukers of each heel, which soon wear round it which it ought to have: the circulation of the and blunt; besides, they for the most part are Bispond is impeded, and a wasting of the frog, made by far too thick and long. The consequence
is, that it throws the horse forward upon the toes, is to be made gradually thinner towards its inner
shoe. The sole, frog, and bars, as I have already The Chinese are said to account a small observed, should never be pared, farther than foot an ornament in their women, and for that taking off what is ragged from the frog, and any purpose, when young, their feet are confined excrescences or inequalities from the sole. And in small shoes. This, no doubt, produces the it is very properly remarked by Mr. Osmer, desired effect; but must necessarily be very•That the shoe should be made so as to stand a prejudicial to them in walking, and apt to render little wider at the extremity of each heel than the them entirely lame. This practice, however, foot itself; otherwise as the foot grows in length, very much resembles our method of shoeing the heel of the shoe in a short time gets within horses; for if we looked upon it as an advantage the heel of the horse; which pressure often to them to have long feet, with narrow low breaks the crust, and produces a temporary lameheels, and supposing we observed no inconve- ness, perhaps a corn. This method of shoeing nience to attend, or bad consequence to follow horses I have followed long before Mr. Osmer's it, we could not possibly use a more effectual treatise on that subject was published; and for means to bring it about than by following the these several years past I have endeavoured to method already described.
introduce it into practice. But so much are the 'In shoeing a horse, therefore, we should in farriers, grooms, &c., prejudiced in favor of the this, as in every other case, study to follow na- common method of shoeing and paring out the ture: and certainly that shoe which is made of feet, that it is with difficulty they can even be such a form as to reseinble as near as possible prevailed upon to make a proper trial of it. the natural tread and shape of the foot, must be They cannot be satisfied unless the frog be preferable to any other. But it is extremely finely shaped, the sole pared, and the bars cut difficult to lay down fixed rules with respect to out, in order to make the heels appear wide. the proper method to be observed in treating the Wide open heels are looked upon as a mark of hoofs of different horses : it is equally dif- a sound good hoof, This practice gives them a ficult to lay down any certain rule for deter- show of wideness for the time; yet that, together mining the precise form to be given their shoes. with the concave form of the shoe, forwards the This will be obvious to every judicious practi- contraction of the heels, which, when confirmed, tioner, from the various constructions of their feet, renders the animal lame for life. In this flat from disease, and from other causes that may form of shoe, its thickest part is upon the outside occur; so that a great deal must depend upon of the rim, where it is most exposed to be worn; the discretion and judgment of the operator, in and being made gradually thinner towards its proportioning the shoe to the foot, by imitating inner edge, it is therefore much lighter than the the natural tread, to prevent the hoof from con- common concave shoe: yet it will last equally tracting a bad shape. In order, therefore, to as long, and with more advantage to the hoof; give some general idea of what may be thought and as the frog or heel is allowed to rest upon most necessary in this matter, I shall endeavour the ground, the foot enjoys the same points of to describe that form of shoe and method of treat- support as in its natural state. It must therefore ing the hoofs of horses, which from experience be much easier for the horse in his way of going, I have found most beneficial.
and be a means of making him surer footed. It It is to be remembered that a horse's shoe is likewise evident that, from this shoe, the hoof ought by no means to rest upon the sole, since cannot acquire any bad form ; when, at the same this it will occasion lameness; therefore it must time, it receives every advantage that possibly rest entirely on the crust; and, in order that we may could be expected from shoeing. In this respect imitate the natural tread of the foot, the shoe it may very properly be said, that we make the must be made flat (if the height of the sole does shoe to the foot, and not the foot to the shoe, as not forbid it); it must be of an equal thickness is but too much the case in the concave shoes, all round the outside of the rim. For a draught wbere the foot very much resembles that of a horse about half an inch thick, and larger in pro- cat's fixed into a walnut-shell. portion for a saddle horse. And on that part of "It is to be observed, that the hoofs of young it which is to be placed immediately next the horses, before they are sboed, for the most part foot, a narrow rim or margin is to be formed, not are wide and open at the heels, and that the exceeding the breadth of the crust upon which crust is sufficiently thick and strong to admit of it is to rest, with the nail-holes placed exactly in the nails being fixed very near the extremities of the middle; and from this narrow rim the shoe each. But, as I have formerly remarked, from
the constant use of concave shoes, the crust of a natural state, it will be obvious, that paring
the iron becomes more compact, firm, and hard; 'If farriers considered attentively the design of so that a well-hammered shoe, though made conshoeing horses, and would take pains to make siderably lighter, yet will last as long as one that themselves acquainted with the anatomical struc- is made heavier; the advantage of which is obture of the foot, they would then be convinced vious, as the horse will move his feet with more that this method of treating the hoofs, and this activity, and be in less danger of cutting his legs. form of shoe, is preferable to that which is so ge- The common concave shoes are very faulty in nerally practised.
that respect; for, in fitting or shaping them to It has been alleged that, in this form of shoe, the foot, they require to be frequently heated, in horses do not go so well as in that commonly order to make them bend to the unequal surface used. This objection will easily be laid aside, which the hoof acquires from the constant use of by attending to the following particulars. There these shoes: they thereby become soft; and to are but few practitioners that can or will endea- attempt to harden them by beating or hammering, vour to make this sort of shoe as it ought to be. when they are shaped to the foot, would undo The iron, in forrning it, does not so easily turn the whole. But flat shoes, by making them, into the circular shape necessary as in the com- when heated, a little narrower than the foot, will, mon shoe; and perhaps this is the principal rea- by means of hammering become wider, and son why farriers object to it, especially where acquire a degree of elasticity and firmness which they work much by the piece. And, as many it is necessary they should have, but impossible horses that are commonly shoed with concave to be given them by any other means whatever; shoes have their soles considerably higher than so that any farrier, from practice, will soon be the crust, if the shoe is not properly formed, or able to judge, from the quality of the iron, how if it be made too flat, it must unavoidably rest much a shoe, in fitting it to the circumference of upon the sole and occasion lameness. The the hoof, will stretch by hammering when it is practice of paring the sole and frog is also preva- almost cold ; this operation, in fitting flat shoes, lent, and thought so absolutely necessary that it will be the less difficult, when it is consiis indiscriminately practised, even to excess, on dered, that as there are no inequalities on all kinds of feet: and while this method continues the surface of the hoof (or at least ought not to to be followed, it cannot be expected that horses be) which require to be bended thereto, shoes can ge upon hard ground (on this open shoe) of this kind only require to be made smooth and with that freedom they would do if their soles flat; hence they will press equally upon the cirand frogs were allowed to remain in their full cumference or crust of the hoof, which is the nanatural strength. Experience teaches us that, in tural tread of a horse.' very thin-soled shoes, we feel an acute pain from Mr. St. Bel, the first professor appointed at every sharp-pointed stone we happen to tread the Veterinary College, London, constructed a upon. Horses are sensible of the same thing in shoe different from the common style, in being their foot, when their soles, &c., are pared too somewhat convex on that side which is placed ihin. Hence they who are prejudiced against in contact with the horse's foot, but considerably his method, without ever reflecting on the thin so on that surface which is presented to the state of the sole, &c. are apt to condemn it, and ground. On this plan, the horses sent for shoedraw their conclusions more from outward ap- ing to the college were for some time shod ; and pearances than from any reasoning or knowledge it cannot be denied, that if every horse so sent of the structure of the parts. From a due atten- had had the advantage of a perfectly natural tvu likewise to the structure of a horse's foot in hoof, Mr. St. Bel's shoe might have been found