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4 zileleng tignably pernicious to the due concoction and

are very strong astringents, and as such have assimilation of the food; which, without an acrid been sometimes made use of both internally and

bile cannot be accomplished. Hence the body externally, but are not much taken notice of in abg is deprived of its proper nourishment and sup- the present practice. Some recommend an ointait port, the blood becomes vapid and watery, and ment of powdered galls and hog's lard as very

a fatal cachexy unavoidably ensues. This has effectual in certain painful states of hæmorrhois;

been the case with many unfortunate persons, and it is alleged that the internal use of galls bele ya who, in order to reduce their excessive corpu- has cured intermittents after the Peruvian bark fine lency, have indulged themselves in the too free has failed. A mixture of galls with a bitter and

use of vinegar. From the mild state of the gall aromatic has been proposed as a substitute for in young children, Dr. Percival also thinks it is, the bark. Deyeux investigated the properties that they are so much troubled with acidities. of galls with considerable care ; and more lately

Gali, in natural history, denotes any protu- Sir Humphry Davy examined the same subjeci. berance, or tumor, produced by the puncture of The strongest infusion Sir H. Davy could obtain insects on plants and trees of different kinds. at 56° Fahrenheit, by repeated infusion of disThese galls are of various forms and sizes, and tilled water, on the best Aleppo galls, broken into no less different with regard to their internal small pieces, was of the specific gravity of 1.068, structure. Some have only one cavity, and 400 grains of this infusion, evaporated at a heat others a number of small cells communicating below 200°, left 53° of solid matter, which conwith each other. Some of them are as hard assisted of about 0.9 tannin, and 0-1 gallic acid, the wood of the tree they grow on, whilst others united to a portion of extractive matter. 100 are soft and spongy; the first being termed gall-grains of the solid matter left, by incineration, nauts, and the latter berry-galls, or apple-galls. Dearly 41, which were chiefly calcareous matter, See CYNIPS. The external coat of the excres inixed with a small portion of fixed alkali. cence described above, is dried by the air, and From 500 grains of Aleppo galls Sir H. Davy grows into a figure which bears some resem- obtained, by infusion as above, 185 grains of

blance to the bow of an arch, or the roundness solid matter, which on analysis appeared to Image of a kernel. This little ball receives its nutri- consist of tannin 130; mucilage, and matter

ment, growth, and vegetation, as the other parts rendered insoluble by evaporation, 12; gallic
of the tree, by slow degrees, and is called the acid, with a little extractive matter, 31 ; remain-
gall-nut. The worm that is hatched under this der, calcareous earth and saline matter, 12.
spacious vault, finds in the substance of the ball, GALL (St.), a town and canton of Switzerland,
which is as yet very tender, a nourishment suitable bounded by Upper Austria and by the cantons
to its nature; gnaws and digests it till the time of the Grisons, Glarus, Schweitz, and Zurich.
of its transformation to a nymph, and from that The extent of the canton is about 1100 square
stale soon changes into a fly. After this the insect miles, and its population 134,000, three-fifths
disengages itself from its confinement, and takes Catholics. This was formerly one of the estates
its flight into the open air. The case, however, is belonging to the ancient abbey of St. Gall. The
different with respect to the gall-nut that grows southern part is mountainous and rugged; but to
in autumn. The cold weather frequently comes the north are beautiful cultivated hills, plains,
on before the worm is transformed into a fly, or and valleys, covered with vineyards and fields,
before the fly can pierce through its enclosure. adapted more particularly to pasture. The fre-
The nut falls with the leaves; but although it quency of rain is favorable to this, and the breed
might now be supposed that the fly within is lost, of cattle is much esteemed.
yet in fact its being covered up so close is the The chief mountains of the canton are the
means of its preservation. Thus it spends the Kammor and the Sentis; between 7000 and
winter in a warm house, where every crack and 8000 feet above the level of the sea. The rivers
cranny of the nut is well stopped up; and lies are the Rhine, the Tamin, the Saar, the Sitter :
buried under a heap of leaves, which preserve it part of the lakes of Zurich and Constalice, and
from the injuries of the weather. This apartment, the greater part of that of Wallenstadt, are also
However, though so commodious a retreat in in this canton. The products are corn, wine,
winter, is a prison in spring. The fly, roused flax, hemp, and maize. The chief mineral is
out of its lethargy by the vernal heat, breaks its iron, which the inhabitants are partly employed
way through and ranges where it pleases. A in manufacturing, as well as in the linen and
Fery small aperture is sufficient, as at this time cotton manufactures. The government is aristo-
the fly is but a diminutive creature. Besides, democratical; the great council consisting of
the ringlets whereof its body is composed, dilare eighty-six Catholics and sixty-six Protestants ;
and become pliant in the passage. A very small the small or executive council of nine members.
quantity of oak galls, put into a solution of vi- The canton is divided into eight districts, and is
triol in water, though but very weak, give it a bound to furnish to the confederation of Switzer-
purple or violet color; which, as it grows land 2630 men, and £2500 sterling. The capital
stronger, becomes black; and on this property of the canton, situated between two mountains
depends the art of making our writing ink, as on the rivulet of Steinach, is an excellent trading
also the arts of dying and dressing leather, and town; well built, and surrounded with walls and
other manufactures. See Ink. The best galls ditches. It contains, including its three suburbs
come from Aleppo: these are not quite round about 9000 inhabitants, for the must part Protes-
and smooth like the other sorts, but have several tants. Oh ects ofcuriosity here are the old Benedic-
tubercles on the surface. Galls have a very tine Abbey, from which the town takes its name;
austere stypilic: laste, without any smell: they the academy and the gymnasium (with nine

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classes), the cabinets of natural history and coins, Dobility, from among wbom only the soverein and the public library. The principal church, couns can be chosen; but Mr. Salt found no traces of ail-house, arsenal, and hospital, are also worthy of this usage. potice. Cotton and linen stuffs of extreme fineness The Galla are reported to be very good sole are made here, as well as valuable pieces of em- diers, especially in cases of surprise; but, like broidery, the inhabitants having carried spinning most other barbarians, have no constancy Dor and other machines to great perfection. The perseverance after the first attack. They will, environs are covered with bleaching grounds. however, perform extraordinary marches, and

GALLA, a people of Ethiopia, or Southern are excellent light horse for a regular army in an Abyssinia, dwelling originally, as Mr. Bruce sup- hostile country; but are very indifferently armed. poses, under the line, and exercising the profession In their customs, they are described as filthy to of shepherds, which they still continue to do. For the last degree. They anoint their heads and many years, he says, they have been constantly whole bodies; in which, as well as in other remigrating northwards, though the cause of this spects, they greatly resemble the Ilottentots. It migration is not known.' At first they had no has been supposed that they have no religioa horses; but, as they proceeded northward, and whatever; but Mr. Bruce is of opinion that this conquered the Abyssinian provinces, they soon is a mistake. The tree called wanzey, he says, furnished themselves with them, and now make is undoubtedly worshipped by all the three maJittle account of infantry in their armies. On the tions as a god; and they have likewise certain frontiers of Abyssinia, the multitude divided, stones which are worshipped as gods. They and part directed their course towards the In- also worship the moon, and some stars, when in dian Ocean; after which, having made a settle- certain positions, and at some particular seasons ment in the eastern part of the continent, they of the year. They also believe in a resurrecturned southward into the countries of Bali and tion; and have some faint notions of a state of Dawaw, which they entirely conquered, and set- future happiness. To the south they profess the tled there about 1537. Another division, having Mahommedan religion. They all intermart taken a westerly course, spread themselves along with each other, but will not allow strangers to the banks of the Nile, surrounding the country live among them, though the Moors trade with of Gojam, and, passing eastward behind the them. They deal in blue Surat cloth, myrrb, country of the Agows, extended their posses, and salt. Polygamy is allowed among them, sions as far as the territories of the Gongas and and the women solicit their husbands to take Gasats. Since that time the Nile has been the others to their embraces, that they may have boundary of their possessions; though they have numerous families of children; as the Galla, frequently plundered, and sometimes conquered according to Mr. Bruce, always fight in families, the Abyssinian provinces on the other side of whether against foreign enemies, or with one the river. A third division has settled to the another. Mr. Salt contends, that the Mahome south of the low country of Shoa, which the go- medan religion, to which a large portion of vernor of that province has permitted, in order thesc people have in modern times become conto form a barrier betwixt him and the territories verted, has decidedly improved them. of the emperor, on whom he scarcely acknow- GALLAND (Anthony), a learned antiquarian, ledges any dependence. In modern times, the member of the Academy of Inscriptions, and most remarkable of these tribes are, the Boren professor of Arabic in the Royal College of Galla, who, under Guxo, their chief, have ob- Paris, was born of poor parents at Rollo, in Pitained possession of the provinces of Gogam, cardy, in 1646. Having studied at the Sorbonne Demot, and Dembea, including Gondar, thé and other celebrated schools, he travelled into capital of Abyssinia. Another division is called the east; where he acquired great skill in the the Adjow Galla, who, under Gojee and Sibar, Arabic language, and in the manners of the Mahave occupied the southern provinces of Am- hommedans. He wrote, 1. An Account of the hara, Begemder, and Angott." Gojee lately at- Death of the Sultan Osman, and the Coronation tacked Tigre with 40,000 horse, but was defeated of the Sultan Mustapha. 2. A Collection of with great slaughter. Mr. Salt mentions two Maxims, drawn from the Works of the Orientribes, the Assabo in the west, and the Woldu- tals. 3. A Treatise on the Origin of Coffee. He toki in the east, who retain all the original bar- also translated the Arabian Nights' Entertainbarism of this race.

ment, and died in Paris in 1715. The Galla are of a brown complexion, and GAL'LANT, adj. & n.s.) Fr. galant ; Ital. have long black hair; but some of them, who GAL'LANTLY, adv. galante ; Span.gala, live in the valleys, are entirely black. At first Gal’LANTRY, n. s. galano, fine dress. their common food was milk and butter; but, These words are descriptive of persons and since their intercourse with the Abyssinians, they actions; as they are gay, brave, fine, courtly to have learned to plough and sow their land, and ladies : also used in a bad and licentious sense. to make bread : each of the three divisions are But, fare thee well, thou art a gallant youth. subdivided into seven tribes. In their beha

Shakspeare. viour they are extremely barbarous; and lived,

One, worn to pieces with age, shews himself a until lately, in continual war with the Abyssinians,

young gallant. whom they murder without mercy. Yet, not

Hector, Deiphobus, and all the gallantry of Troy, I would have armed to day.

10. withstanding their cruelty abroad, they have

There are no tricks in plain and simple faith; always lived under the strictest discipline at But hollow men, like horses hot at hand, home; and every broil or quarrel is instantly Make gallant shew and promise of their mettle. punished. Bruce says they have a kind of

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Scorn, that any should kill his uncle, made him GALLEONS were formerly employed in the seck his revenge in manner gallant enough. Sidney. Spanish West India trade. The Spaniards sent

He discoursed, how gallant and how brave a thing annually two fleets: the one for Mexico, which it would be for his bighness to make a journey into they call the flota; and the other for Peru, Spain, and to fetch home his mistress. Clarendon.

which they call the galleons.
which the

By a general re-
Make the sea shine with gallantry, and all

gulation made in Spain, it was established, that The English youth fock to their admiral.

there should be twelve men of war and five ten

Waller The gay, the wise, the gallant, and the grave,

ders annually fitted out for the armada, or galSubdued alike, all but one passion bave. Id.

leons; eight ships of 600 tons burden each, and The gallants, to protect the lady's right,

three tenders, one of 100 tons, for the island of Their fauchions brandished at the grisly spright.

Margarita, and two of eighty each, to follow the

Dryden. armada; for the New Spain fleet, two ships of Gallants look to't, you say there are no sprights; 600 tons each, and two tenders of eighty each ; But I'll come dance about your beds at nights. Id. and for the Honduras fleet, two ships of 500 tons

She had left the good mau at home, and brought each: and in case no fleet happened to sail any away her gallant.

Addison's Spectator. year, three galleons and a tender should be sent I would, if possible, represent thc errors of life, to New Spain for the plate. These regulations, especially those arising from what we call gallantry, 10 of course, the independence of South America such a manner as the people of pleasure may read me.

has superseded. In this case I must not be rough to gentlemen and

GALLERY, n. s. Fr. galerie ; Ital. and Lat. ladics, but speak of sin as a gentleman. Steele.

galeria, a fine room. A covered walk along the The martial Moors, in gallantry refined, Invent new arts to make their charmers kind. floor of a house, into which the doors of the

Granville. apartments open; in general any building of You have not dealt so gallantly with us as we did which the length much exceeds the breadth; the with you in a parallel case : last year a paper was seats in the playhouse above the pit. brought here from England, which we ordered to be High lifted up were many lofty towers, burnt by the common hangman.

Swift. And goodly galleries fair overlaid. Spenser, It looks like a sort of cumpounding between virtue

Your gallery and vice, as is a woman were allowed to be vicious, Have we passed through, not without much content. provided she be not a profligate; as if there were a

Shakspeare. certain point where gallantry ends, and infamy begins. The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all

Id. stately galleries, in which galleries let there be three When first the soul of love is sent abroad,


Bacon. The gay troops begin

In most part there bad been framed by art such In gallant thought to plume their painted wings. pleasant arbours, that, one answering another,

Thomson. they became a gallery aloft from tree to tree, almost Then there were Frenchmen, gallant, young, and round about, which below gave a perfect shadow. gay,

Sidney. But I'm too great a patriot to record

There are covered galleries that lead from the palace Their Gallic names upon a glorious day. Byron. to five different churches.

Addison. GALLE, or Port Galle, a sea-port town

While all its throats t

extends, and fort on the south-west coast of Ceylon;

And all the thunder of the pit ascends. Pope.

Boiabastry and buffoonery, by nature lofty and taken by the Dutch from the Portuguese in 1640,

light, soar highest of all, and would be lost in the roof and by the British in February, 1796. See

(of the theatre) if the prudent architect had not, with Ceylon. It is ninety-eight miles south of

much more foresight, contrived for them a fourth Candy.

place, called the twelve-penny gallery, and there GALLEASS, n. s. Fr. galeas. A heavy, low- planted a suitable colony, who greedily intercept them built vessel, with both sails and oars; it carries in their passage.

Swift. three masts, but they cannot be lowered, as in a She clapped her hands and thro' the gallery poar, galley. It has thirty-two seats for rowers, and Equipped for fight, her vassals, Greek and Moor. six or seven slaves to each. They carry three tier

Byron. Corsair. of guns at the head, and at the sterp there are I pass my evenings in long gallerics solely, two tier of guns.

And that's the reason I'm so melancholy.

Id. Don Juan. My father hath no less Than three great argosies, besides two galleasses,

GALLERY, in gardening, an ornament made And twelve tight gallies.

Shakspeare. with trees of different kinds. Galleries are very The Venetians pretend they could set out, in case

common in the French gardens, but are seldom of great necessity, thirty men of war, a hundred gal. Introduced into the British ones, especially since leys, and ten galleasses.

Addicon on low
Addison on Italy.

the taste for clipped trees has been exploded. GALLEON, n. s. Fr. galion, a large ship

For those, however, who may still choose to have

P them, Miller gives the following directions :with four or sometimes five decks, now in use

In order to make a gallery in a garden, with only among Spaniards.

porticoes and arches, a line must first be drawn I assured them that I would stay for them at Tri

• of the length you design the gallery to be ; which nijado, and that no force should drive me thence, ex

í being done, it is to be planted with hornbeam, as cept I were sunk, or set on fire by the Spanish gal

Raleigh's Apology. leons.

the foundation of the gallery.

The management The number of vessels were one hundred and of galleries is not difficult. They require only tbirty, whereof galleasses and galleons seventy-two, to be digged round about, and sheared a little goodly ships, like floating towers or castles.

when there is occasion. The chief difficulty is Bucon's War with Spain in the ordering the fore part of the gallery, and in forming the arches. Each pillar of the porti- The surges gently dash against the shore, coes or arches ozht to be four feet distant from Flocks quit the plains, and galley-slaves their oar. one another, and the gallery twelve feet high,

Garth. d twenty feet wide, that there may be room Hardened galley-slaves despise manumission. for two or three persons to walk abreast. When

Decay of Piety. the hornbeams are grown to the height of three

GALLEYS are low flat-built vessels, furnishe! feet, the distance of the pillars well regulated,

with one deck, and nav gated with sails and oars and the ground-work of the gallery finished, the

The largest sort were those employed by tbe next thing to be done is to form the frontispiece;

espiece; Venetians.

They were commonly 162 feet long to perform which, you must stop the hornbeam

above, and 133 feet by the keel : thirty-two feet between two pillars for that purpose, which

wide, with twenty-three feet length of stern-post.

wide forms the arch. As it grows, cut off those

They were furnished with three masts, boughs which outshoot the others. In time they

and ey


thirty-two banks of oars; every bank containing will grow strong, and may be kept in form by

two oars, and every oar being managed by six the shears. Portico galleries may be covered,

or seven slaves, usually chained thereto. In the with lime-trees.

fore part they had three little batteries of cannon, Gallery, in a ship, is a frame, made in the

of which the lowest consisted of two thirty-sixform of a balcony, at the stern of a ship, without

pounders, the second of two twenty-four-poundboard; into which there is a passage out of the

ers, and the uppermost of two two-pounders; admiral's or captain's cabin.

three eighteen-pounders being also planted on GALLERY, in fortification, a covered walk

each quarter. The complement of men for one across the ditch of a town, made of strong

of these galleys was 1000 or 1200; and they beams, covered with planks, and loaded with

were esteemed very convenient for bombarding earth; sometimes it is covered with raw hides, to

or making a descent upon an enemy's coasi, as defend it from the artificial fires of the besieged.

sieged. drawing but little water; and, having by their

Now GALLERY OF A MINE is a narrow passage, or

e, or oars frequently the advantage of a ship of war, branch of a mine, carried on under ground to a

a in light winds or calms, by cannonading the work designed to be blown up. See MINE.

latter near the surface of the water, or by scourGALLETYLE, n. s. This word has the same

ing her whole length with their shot, and at the import as gallipot; a fine painted tile.

same time keeping on her quarter or bow, s * Make a compound body of glass and galletyle ; that to be out of the direction of her cannon. The is, to have the colour milky like a chalcedon, being a

galleys next in size to these, which are also stuff between a porcellane and a glass.

Bacon' Physical Rem.

called half-galleys, are from 120 to 130 feet long, GALLEY, n. s. Ital. galea ; Fr. galere ; old

eighteen feet broad, and nine or ten feet detp. Fr. paloie, galèe ; barb. Gr. yahaia. Derived They have two masts, which may be struck at according to some from calea, á helmet, pictured pleasure ; and are furnished with two large labformerly on the prow of a vessel, according to

ieen sails, and five pieces of cannon. They bave others from yalewTns, the sword fish, or from

commonly twenty-five hanks of oars. A size galleon, expressing in Syriac men exposed to

still less than these are called quarter-gallers,

carrying from twelve to sixteen banks of oan. the sea. Heb. 5a, a ware, Minsheu. This word is the root of gaileass, gallion, galliot; it has.

They generally keep close under the shore, but

sometimes venture out to sea to perform a sumtwo general acceptations; a vessel driven with

mer cruise. oars, much in use in the Mediterranean; and

GALLEY-HEAD, a promontory of Ireland, og thus considered as a place of punishment, be

the coast of Cork, on the extremity of which cause criminals are condemned to row in them.

stands Dundede Castle. In the ages following, navigation did every where

This is sometimes fa

tally mistaken by sailors, for the Old Head of greatly decay, by the use of gallies, and such vessels as could hardly brook the ocean.


Kinsale, when the light of the latter is not seen. Jason ranged the coasts of Asia the Less in an open It lies eighteen miles S.S.W. of Bandon Bridge, boat or kind of gulley.

Raleigh's History.

GALLEY WORM, in zoology. See IULUS. On oozy ground his gallies moor;

GALL-FLY, in entomology. See CYNIPS. Their heads are turned to sea, their sterns to shore. GALLI, in antiquity, a name given to the

Dryden. priests of Cybele, from the river Gallus, in The most voluptuous person, were he tied to follow Phrygia; but of the etymology of the name we his hawks and his hounds, his dice and his courtships have no certain account. These priests had the every day, would find it the greatest torment that names also of Curetes, Corybantes, and Dactyli. could befal him : he would fy to the mines and the Tu

The chief priest was called Archi-Gallus. This gallies for his recreation, and to the spade and the

order of priesthood is found both among the mattock for a diversion from the misery of a continual uninterrupted pleasure,

South. Greeks and Romans.
In Coron's Bay floats many a galley light.

Byron. Corsair. Galli, five small desolate islands on the coas

bllove and shave GALLEY-SLAVE, n.s. Galley and slave. A

A of the Principato Citra of Naples.

They are

supposed to be the Syrenusæ, or islands opse person condemned for some crime to row in the

inbabited by the Syrens, which Ulysses passed galleys.

with so much caution and hazard. Great rent As if one chain were not suficient to load poor men, he must be clogged with innumerable chains : Tutions, however, have been occasioned in their this is just such another freedom as the Turkish shape, size, and number, by the effects of sub galley-slaves do enjoy.

Bramhall terranean fire; and some learned persons go so


far as to assert, that these rocks have risen from out no longer, instead of thinking how to the bottom of the sea since Homer's time; con obtain honorable terms of capitulation, their sequently, that those monsters dwelt on some chief care, very often, was to put their wives other spot, probably Sicily or Capri. The tra and children to death, and then to kill one

dition of Syrens residing hereabouts is very an- another, to avoid being led into slavery. Their es cient, and universally admitted; but what they contempt of death, according to Strabo, very do it really were, divested of their fabulous and poeti

much facilitated their conquest by Cæsar; for, Fem ter cal disguise, is not easy to discover. See SYREN. pouring their numerous forces upon such an exTeca The Syrepusæ were only three in number; and, perienced enemy as Cæsar, their want of conin the therefore, if these and the Galli be the same, two duct very soon proved the ruin of the whole.

tee more must have since risen, or the three have Their chief diversion was hunting; and indeed side a been split into five by a subterraneous convul- considering the vast forests with which their 2sion. On the largest is a watch-tower, and the country abounded, and the multitude of wild TOE Dext has a deserted hermitage. The principal beasts which lodged in them, they were under an

island is only a narrow semicircular ridge, co absolute necessity to hunt and destroy them, to

vered with a shallow coat of soil; two other prevent the country from being rendered totally ng little islands, and some jagged rocks just peeping uninhabitable for man. The ancient history of the et above the waves, correspond with this one so as Gauls is entirely wrapped up in obscurity and si to trace the outline of a volcanic crater. The darkness; all we know concerning them for a

composition of them all is, at top, a calcareous long time is, that they multiplied so fast, that zeigt el rock, extremely shaken, tumbled, and confused, their country being unable to contain them, they

mixed with masses of breccia, disposed in a most poured forth in vast multitudes into other coun

irregular manner ; below these is lava, and the tries, which they often subdued, and in which a deeper the eye follows it, the stronger are the they then settled. It often happened, however,

marks of fire: below the surface of the water, that these colonies were so molested by their and in some places above it, the layers are com- neighbours, that they were obliged to send for plete blocks of basaltes. Hence, we may pre- assistance to the mother country. The Gauls sume, that central fires bave heaved up to light the were always ready to send forth great numbers of torrified substances that originally lay near their new adventurers; and, as these spread desolation focus, with all the intermediate strata that covered wherever they came, the very name of Gauls them from the sea. The layers incline down- proved terrible to most of the neighbouring wards from east to west; the air seems to have nations. The earliest excursion of these people, forced its

way into part of the mass while in fu- of which we have any distinct account, was into sion, and, by checking its workings, caused many Italy, under a famed leader, named Bellovesus, Large caverns to be left in it. These islands are about A. A.C. 622. He crossed the Rhone and uncultivated and uninhabited since the old her- the Alps, till then unattempted, defeated the mit of St. Antonio died. Myrtle covers most of Hetrurians, and seized upon that part of the the surface.

country, since known by the names of Lombardy GALLIA, in ancient geography, a large coun- and Piedmont. The second grand expedition try of Europe, called Galatia by the Greeks. was made by the Cenomani, a people dwelling The inhabitants were called Galli, Celtæ, Celti- between the Seine and the Loire, under å beri, and Celtoscythæ. Ancient Gaul was divided general, named Elitonis. They settled in those into four different parts by the Romans, called parts of Italy, since known by the names of Gallia Belgica, Narbonensis, Aquitanica, and Bresciano, Cremonese, Mantuan, Carniola, and Celtica; though Julius Cæsar dívides it only Venetia. In a third excursion, two other Gaulish milo three. Besides these grand divisions, there nations settled on both sides of the Po; and in is often mention inade of Gallia Cisalpina, or a fourth the Boii and Lingones settled in the Citerior, and Transalpina, or Ulterior, which country between Ravenna and Bologna. The last comprehended the whole of Gaul, properly time of these last three expeditions is uncertain. - called, as possessed by the ancient Gauls. The fifth expedition of the Gauls was more reThe original inhabitants were descended from markable than any of the former, and happened the Celtes, or Gomerians, by whom the greatest about 200 years after that of Bellovesus. The part of Europe was peopled; the name of Galli, Senones, settled between Paris and Meaux, were or Cauls, being probably given them

long after invited into Italy by an Etrurian lord, and settled their settlement in that country. They were themselves in Umbria. Brennus, their king, laid anciently divided into a great number of diffe- siege to Clusium, a city in alliance with Rome; rent nations, who were continually at war with and this produced a war with the Romans, in one another, and at variance among themselves, which the latter were at first defeated, and their Cæsar tells us, that not only all their cities, can- city taken and burnt; but at length the whole tons, and districts, but almost all their families, army of the Gauls was cut off by Camillus, were divided and torn by factions; and this, un- insomuch that not a single person escaped. See doubtedly, facilitated the conquest of the whole. Rome. The Gauls after this undertook some The general character of all these people was an other expeditions against the Romans; in which, excessive love of liberty, even to ferocity. This though they always finally proved unsuccessful, they carried to such an extreme, thaé on the by reason of their want of military discipline, appearance of incapacity of action through old yet their fierceness and courage made them só age, wounds, or chronic diseases, they put an formidable to the republic, that, on the first news end to their lives, or prevailed upon their friends of their march, extraordinary levies of troops to kill them.

In cities, when they found them- were made, and sacrifices and public supplicaselves so straitly besieged that they could hold tions offered to the gods. Against the Greeks, the


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