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ellvee, the latter a kind of plum, and the shad The graceful air and firm step with which they dock. Besides cocoa-nuts, they have three other in general walk, are proofs of their personal accomkinds of palms. There is also a species of wild plishments, and their moral qualities have been cand po fig, which is sometimes eaten. The other culti- described as highly estimable: captain Cook vated vegetables are sugar-cane, bamboo, gourds, found them frank, good humored, industrions

, Thear y turmeric, yams of two sorts, one black and very ingenious, and persevering; above all, most how les alesiti large, the other white and small. A large root pitable, and courting an intercourse by barter, called kappe, and one not unlike our white which they seemed to understand perfectly. Bude and a kipe potatoe, the manioc, and the jee jee.

sexes and all ages are said, however, to exhibit 2:21. T The only quadrupeds, besides hogs, are a few a strong propensity to thieving from stranger, side rats, and some dogs, which are not originally but thefts among themselves seem to be le - ta they natives of this group, but were introduced by common. captain Cook in his second voyage; and some There are few natural defects or deformities w

er botser were also brought from the Fidjee Islands. A be found amongst them, nor do they appear sub large breed of fowls is found in a domestic state. ject to numerous, or acute diseases. Amongst ex Deit The birds are parrots and parroquets, owls, those with which they are occasionally afilicted cuckoos, kingfishers, and a bird the size of a are a sort of blindness, caused by a disease of thrush, which is the only one that sings, but the cornea, the ring-worm, and an indolent swel which compensates the want of others by the ling of the legs and arms. strength and melody of its notes. The other The dress of both sexes consists of a piece of land birds are rails, of two kinds, one as large as cloth, or matting, wound once and a half roust a pigeon, the other not bigger than a lark; coots, the waist, where it is confined by a girdle of fly-catchers, a very small swallow, and three cord; it is double before, and hangs down like a sorts of pigeons, one of which is the bronze, petticoat to the middle of the ley; the upper he winged. The water fowl are ducks, blue and part above the girdle is formed into several folds, white herons, tropic birds, noddies, two species so that there is sufficient cloth to draw up

and of terns, a small curlew, and a large plover spot- wrap round the shoulders. The size of this ga

suah ted with yellow. There are also the large bat, ment is in proportion to the consequence of the or flying fox, and the common sort The only wearer, the inferior class being content with very noxious or disagreeable reptiles and insects are small ones, and often wearing nothing but ? sea-snakes, scorpions, and centipedes, guanas, piece of narrow cloth, or matting, like a sash, api and small lizards. Amongst the insects are called a maro, which they pass between the beautiful moths, butterflies, and very large spiders, thighs, and wrap round the waist, but the use of making in the whole about fifty species. it is chiefy confined to the men. In their great

The fish of the coasts and reefs are abundan“, entertainments they have dresses made for the and the shell-fish in particular, in great variety: purpose of the same form, but covered with red among them are the true hammer, and pearl- feathers. Both men and women shade their faces oyster.

from the sun with little bonnets of various mateIn all the islands good water is scarce : it is rials. The ornaments of both sexes are nectindeed to be found in most of them, but either in laces of the fruit of the pandanus, and various so small a quantity, or in situations so inconve- sweet-smelling flowers, of small shells, sharks nient, as rarely to serve the purpose of navigators. teeth, and other things. On the upper part

The natives of the Friendly Islands seldom the arm they sometimes wear a polished tober exceed the middle size, but are strong, well- of pearl shell ring, rings of tortoise-shell on the made, and of very various features: among them, fingers, and a number of these joined together as we are told, are many true European counte- bracelets. The lobes of the ears, though most nances, and Roman noses. Their eyes and teeth frequently but one, are perforated with two holes, are good, but the latter not very white, or well in which they wear cylindrical bits of ivory or

The women are not so much distinguished reed, three inches long, thrust in at one hole, and from the men by their features as by their shape, out at the other. The women rub themselves al which is much more delicate; and, though there over with the powder of turmeric. They fra are some very beautiful females to be met with, quently bathe in the fresh water ponds, thoogte they are not common. The general color is a the water in most of them stinks intolerably, and shade deeper than the copper brown, but many these they prefer to the sea-water, which they of both sexes have an olive complexion, and think hurts their skin. They rub their bodies all some of the women are even much fairer. Their over, and particularly their heads, with cocoas hair is in general straight, thick, and strong, nut oil, which preserves the skin smooth and soft though a few have it brushy or frizzled : the men Their mode of life is a medium between indo cut their heards short, and both sexes eradicate lence and labor. The climate, and the natural the hair from under their arms. Both men and fertility of the soil, render the latter unnecessary women are partially tattooed. The natural color and their active disposition is a bar to the is black, but most of the men, and some of the former. The female employments are generally women, have it stained of a brown, or purple confined to domestic concerns, and the manutacolor, and a few of an orange cast. Their coun- turing cloth and mats, which latter are used fat tenances express cheerfulness, mildness, and dress, for sleeping on, and for mere omanel good nature, though sometimes in the presence of the last being made from the tough membrarexa their chiefs they assume an air of gravity, which, part of the stock of the plantain-tree

, and those however, is evidently foreign to their general for clothing of the pandanus, cultivated for that character.



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The men are laborious agriculturists, archi- number, and these portions are again subdivided tects, and fishermen: boat-building is also one so that seldom more than two or three persons of their principal employments.

are seen eating together at their repasts. The Cultivated roots forming the chief part of their women and men in general eat together, but food, they have brought them to considerable per- there are certain ranks that can neither eat nor fection. "Their plantain walks and yam fields drink in company. They seem to have no set are very extensive, and are enclosed by neat reed time for their meals, but they all take one during fences. These vegetables are planted in regular the night. They go to rest as soon as it is dark, lines, with a kind of wooden spade, three or four and rise with the dawn. They are fond of inches broad. The cocoa-nut and bread-fruit are society, and form conversation parties at one scattered without regularity, and require no

another's houses. Their other amusements are trouble after they are at a certain height. singing, dancing, and music performed by the

Their habitations, particularly of the lower women. Their public diversions are single comclass, are but very poor, scarcely capable of shel- bats and wrestling, in which women as well as

tering them from the weather; those of the higher men exhibit; dances, in which upwards of 100 2012 orders are neither agreeable nor comfortable. men sometimes are engaged, to the music of hol

The dimensions of one of a middle size are about low pieces of wood, beat on with sticks, and A thirty feet long, twenty broad, and twelve high: accompanied by a chorus of vocal music : the

it is a kind of thatched shed, supported by posts women also perform in their public dances.

and rafters, and roofed with matting and branches One of their chief pleasures is the drinkin, 2012 set of the cocoa-nut tree. The whole of their furni- kava, a beverage composed of the root of a speONEC ture consists of a bowl or two (in which they cies of pepper; the process of brewing which is

make their kava), gourds, cocoa-nut shells, small not very delicate. A company being assemlled, lees wooden stools, which serve for pillows, and a the root is produced, and being broken in smali

targe stool for the head of the family to sit on. pieces, and the dirt scraped off' by servants, each Their houses are, however, of little other use than person receives a piece, which, after chewing, he

to sleep in, and shelter them from the weather, spits into a plantain leaf. The person appointed als for they usually take their meals in the open air. to prepare the liquor receives all the mouthfuls 2. In the constructiou of their boats they show much into a wooden bowl, and adds as much water as cho menos ingenuity and dexterity, though their tools are will make it of a proper strength; it is then well

only adzes of a smooth black stone, aygers of mixed with the lands, and some loose stuff, of

sharks' teeth, and rasps of the rough skin of a which the mats are made, is thrown on the sur. to fish, fixed on flat slips of wond. The implement face, which intercepts the fibres, and is wrung

which they use as knives are of shells. Their hard to get as much liquor out of it as possible. fishing-lines are made from the fibres of the It is then served out to the company in cups of

cocoa-nut husk, plaited; and the large cordage, about a quarter of a pint each. This liquor has ics by twisting several of these plaits together an intoxicating, or rather stupifying effect, on Their small fishing-hooks are entirely of pearl those not used to it; and it is so disagreeable,

that even the natives, though they drink it several on the back, the points or barbs being of tor times in the forenoon, cannot swallow it without toise-shell. They have also nets, some of which making wry faces. are of a very delicate texture : these they use to Polygamy is not common, but is practised by catch the fish which rem the holes of the the chiefs; and though female chastity in the reefs, when the tide is out.

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unmarried of the lower order is in little estiThe other employments are making musicai mation, those of the higher orders are discreet, it preds, Aules, waike weapons, and stools, or pil- is said, and conjugal infidelity is rare. lows. The reeds have eight, nine, or ten pieces Their mourning is singularly severe and barplaced parallel to each other, but not in any barous; consisting in cutting and burning their tegular progression, so that none of them have flesh, beating their teeth with stones, and inflictFlore than six notes; and the flutes are a jointing on themselves every kind of torment. The of bamboo, close at both ends, with six holes, dead are buried, wrapped up in mats or cloth. three of which only are used in playing, which is Round the graves of their kings and principal done by applying the thumb of the left hand to chiefs they often mangle one another in a kind the left nostrii, and blowing into one of the holes of bacchanalian frenzy, of which the following with the other; and though the notes are but account is given by one of tne missionaries, who three, they produce a pleasing simple music. resided nere lately for several years: The Their weapons are clubs, highly carved, spears, space round the tomb was, on this occasion, a darts

, and bows and arrows, which latter, how palæstra for savage gladiators. Hundreds ran ever, seem to be used only to kill bire!s, an

not about it with ferocious emulation, to signalise

their grief for the venerated chief, or their conof their animal food, the chief articles are tempt of pain and death, by inflicting on theimlogs, fowls, fish, and all sorts of shell-fish. The selves the most ghastly wounds, and exhibiting lower people also eat rats and dogs. Fowl and spectacles of the greatest horror. Thousands, ere tortle seem to be only occasional dainties re the period of mourning was over, fought with each served for their chiefs. Their meat is in general other, and cut themselves with sharp instruments. drest by baking, and is eaten without any kind of It was an awful scene indeed! Night after night ace; their beverage at their meals is confined we heard, for some weeks, the horrid sound of to water, or cocoa-nut milk. Their food is the couch-shell rousing these deluded creatures divided into portions, cach to serve a certain

to these dreadful rites of mourning for the dead;

19 War.

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and shrieks and clashing arms, and the rushing peculiar honors paid to the king are, that no one and violence of the multitude, re-echoed round is allowed to walk over his head, and, whenever our abode, and rendered it a scene of continual he walks out, every one must sit down till he is horror and alarm.' When they labor under any past. The method of saluting his majesty is by Gill severe and dangerous malady, they cut off one, or sitting down before him, bowing the head to the both of their little fingers, which they think the sole of his foot, and touching it with the upper divinity will accept in lieu of their bodies. and under sides of the fingers of both hails They have no priests, but are not, therefore, After thus saluting the king, or any great chiel

, without religious ideas; and, though they seem to the hands must not touch food of any kind, until have no notion of future punishment, they believe they are washed or rubbed with the leaves or

If one that they are justly punished on earth. Each plants, as a substitute for water. district, and every family of the higher orders, The language of the Friendly Islanders, which has its respective tutelary god, and each indi- is from the Malay root, is sufficiently copious for vidual his odooa, or attendant spirit, who par- all the ideas of the people; harmonious in cortakes more of the evil than the good genius, versation; and is adapted both to song and recibeing supposed to inflict diseases, and who is, tative. Its construction is simple, and in some of therefore, propitiated by sacrifices, and even its rules it agrees with other languages ; as, far

dobe sometimes by human ones.

instance, in the degrees of comparison, but the The greatest of their gods is Higgo-layo, the nouns or verbs seem to have no infections. lord of the country of the dead, which lies far The whole extent of their verhal numeration is distant, and whither the souls of their chiefs, on 100,000. their release, are immediately conveyed in a fast The cloth of their garments is made of the sailing canoe, there to riot for ever in the enjoy- bark of the slender stalks of the paper mulberry, met of all sensual pleasures. As to the souls cultivated for the purpose, which is thus perof the lower class, they are eaten by an imagi- formed :-The outer rind of the bark being nary bird, which walks on their graves : they scraped off, the inner is rolled up to make a fa.

m to represent the pleasures of their future and is macerated in water for a night; it is tbeg Paradise as above the conception of the vulgar. laid on the trunk of a tree, squared, and beater

The elements have their subordinate deities with a wooden instrument full of grooves on all who are often at variance with each other. The sides, until a piece of cloth is produced, and the

of goddess of the wind is named Cala Filatonga, longer it is beaten, the fier and closer is the clott

. and is believed to cause the hurricanes which when this operation is finished, the pieces sometimes visit the islands. Their islands they which are usually from four to six feet in length

, suppose to rest on the shoulders of the god and half as broad, art spread out to dry, and Mowee, who, being tired of his burden, often en are afterwards joined together by smearing

the deavours to shake it off, which produces th edges with the viscous juice of a berry. Haring earthquakes, to which the islands are also sub- heen thus lengthened, they are laid over a large ject. The same religious system is not, however, piece of wood with a kind of stamp

between prevalent throughout all the islands, but the made of a fibrous substance closely interwoven, general ideas are the same. Their morais, or They then take a bit of cloth, and, dipping it in burying-grounds, are also places of religious a certain juice expressed from the bark of a tree worship.

rub it briskly over the cloth, which gives it a The missionaries were not able to learn what dull brown color and a dry gloss. ideas they form of the origin of their existence, The earlier navigators who have described these or of any other parts of the creation; when spoken islanders have, as we have intimated, repreto on these “subjects, they seem quite lost. sented their moral character in terms of bigber Among their superstitious practices may be men- approbation than experience seems to warrast

. tioned the 'taboo,' which means, in its literal The account of their unprovoked attack and signification, prohibited, or set apart from com seizure of the ship Port au Prince, by Mr. Narmon use. Thus a house becomes tabooed by the ner, and the murder of all the crew in 1806, king's presence in and can no longer be with circumstances of extraordinary barparity

, inhabited even by its owner; and Hence there are stamps upon them a character of cruelty rarely generally houses provided in every quarter for the exceeded in the annals of savage life; and their use of his majesty. A space of ground, or any wars are said also to present all the usual fesarticle of food may be tabooed; and in this case tures of absolute barbarism. The change of the ground caprot be passed, nor is it lawful to cannibalism, too, has been brought against then use the food until the taboo be taken off. By under such circumstances as leaves little reson assisting at a funeral, or touching a dead body, to doubt the fact Several missionaries she the hands are tabooed, and cannot be employed landed on these islands have also fallen repas in taking food; and in this case the person is fed either to the barbarity or superstition of the by others.

natives. One of them who had adopted the Their form of government somewhat resembles customs, and joined in their expeditions

, says the feudal system of our forefathers, being com- 'Spectacles too shocking for bumanity 10 posed of a king, several powerful hereditary template soon sickened my sight, and sunk ny chiefs, almost independent of the king, and nu- spirits: I beheld, with shaking burror

, ingen merous smaller dependent chiefs. As to the lower stacks of human bodies piled up, by tere 15:4 class, they are almost the slaves of these chiefs, transversely upon each other, as a monu'ystu! to whom they are profoundly submissive. The trophy of the victory. Proceeding a little fy ther,

a berrid spectacle almost froze my blood. It London, which decided the cause against Keith, was a woman in a sitting posture, with folded and he remained under the disownment' proarms, holding a child to her breast, as in the act nounced against him in America. He now set up of suckling it. Upon approaching them, I found a separate Quakers' meeting in London, attacked both the mother and child cold and stiff with the principles he had formerly defended (on death. The enemy had killed them while in which occasions the Friends replied by quotations this

posture, and indulged their savage revenge from his own works), and finally entered into the in amusing themselves with placing the dead church of England. He was soon after ordained bodies in this affecting attitude.' He elsewhere priest, and sent as a missionary to America, to states that one of the common modes of war- bring over his former brethren. But his efforts, fare among

them is to tootang, as they express it; though for a while troublesome to the Friends, that is to come upon the adverse party by sur were attended with very little success; he reprise, to massacre in secret, to carry off plunder, turned to England, sunk into obscurity on a

to cut down the plantains and cocoa-trees, and small living in Sussex, and his party soon disPKL to commit every species of devastation. Women, appeared.

children, and prisoners, are murdered without Of the Religious Doctrine of Friends.—The mercy; and the dead bodies, after being exposed Friends may be said to be chiefly distinguishto the most brutal indignities, are roasted and able from other sects as to doctrine in asserting devoured with voracious satisfaction.'

the continuance, to the present time, of immediFRIENDLY SOCIETIES. See SOCIETIES, ate revelation, or the communication of divine FRIENDLY.

instruction to the mind, by the testimony of the Friends or Quakers, a numerous and re- Spirit of God. This revelation they affirm to be spectable religious society, which took its rise necessary for the production of true faith, while about the middle of the seventeenth century, they also say it neither does nor can contradict and spread very quickly into the British co the outward testimony of the Scriptures or right

lonies in North America, as well as into various and sound reason. Their doctrine on this subBEE countries in Europe. The members called them- ject has been often misunderstood; and they

selves at first Seekers, from their seeking the have in consequence been subjected to much truth; but after their society was formed assumed obloquy. It is, however, the principal feature in the name of Friends. The name of Quakers that peculiar view of Christianity which has

was given them in derision, and though it is, occasioned their separation from other churches, is perhaps to the reproach of those who use it, the A publication placed in our hands by a member of Az appellation by which they are generally desig- this society, and originally drawn up by Mr.

nated, we here prefer to describe the history J.G. Bevan, we believe, thus states their doc

and peculiarities of the sect under the denomina- trine. spordik tion and principally in the terms they themselves • We believe in God the Father Almighty, the

admit. George Fox, sometimes described as a creator and preserver of the universe, in Jesus shoemaker, but originally intended for the church, Christ his Son, the Messiah and mediator of the is generally allowed to have been the founder of new covenant, and in the Holy

Spirit, the comthis society. They were soon after joined by a forter, or Spirit of Truth. The divinity of number of learned, ingenious, and pious men. Christ, and his oneness with the Father, we acThe chief of these were George Keith, the justly knowledge and assert according to the Scripcelebrated William Penn (see Penn), and Ro- tures; we also believe in Him as the sacrifice bert Barclay of Ury. See Barclay. Keith, and propitiation for the sins of the whole world, after associating with them for nearly thirty years, whereby mankind are placed in a capacity for became the author of the only schism among salvation ; and that, as each individual submits them, of which we have read. He was a native unreservedly to the purifying operations of the of Scotland, and educated at Aberdeen; and Holy Spirit, he comes fully to partake of the being imprisoned as a Quaker, in 1664, and benefits of redemption, and to experience the haring, in 1675, assisted Barclay in a public blood of Jesus Christ io cleanse him from all disputation against the students at Aberdeen, he sin. In expressing ourselves on the subject of attracted notice, and wrote much in defence the gracious display of the love of God to manof the principles of the Quakers, which he kind in the coming of our Saviour, we include a thoroughly understood : he was also employed belief in his miraculous conception, birth, life, in the education of their youth; but was miracles, death, resurrection, and ascension. thought by them to have indulged too much We may add, that in reference to these, to the In curious and useless speculations. Being foregoing, and to other points of Christian docagain repeatedly imprisoned, he removed to trine, we prefer the use of such terms as we find America about 1681.

Ilere, after some pre in Scripture; and contented with that knowFions general censure of his friends, lie accused ledge which divine wisdom hath seen meet te Several, in particular, of gross error in doctrine; reveal, we attempt not to explain those mysteries the

pretext for which was, their holding (as he which remain under the veil.' himself had done) that the knowledge and be In an early confession of their faith (that o lief of the history of Christ is not necessary for 1673) they ihus further explain themselves on the safvation of those who have no possible these important points. We sincerely profess means of acquiring it.

His complaints against faith in God by his only-begotten son Jesus individuals leading to more general contention, Christ, as being our light and life, our only way the Friends in England interfered, and the par- to the Father, and also our only mediator and fies were heard before the yearly meeting in advocate with the Father ;-that God created

all things, he made the worlds by his son Jesus think this influence especially necessary a Christ, he being that powerful and living Word the performance of the highest act of of God by whow all things were made; and the human mind is capable; even the . that the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, ship of the Father of lights and of cins are one, in divine being inseparable ; one true, in spirit and in truth : therefore we coliving, and eternal God blessed for ever;-yet sider as obstructions to pure worship 3 that this Word, or Son of God, in the fulness of forms which divert the attention of the mou time, took flesh, became perfect man, according from the secret influence of this ‘unction fe to the flesh descended and came of the seed of the Holy One. Yet, although true Worship y Abraham and David, but was miraculously con- not confined to time and place, we think it ceived by the Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin cumbent on Christians to meet often together, a Mary, and also, farther, declared powerfully to testimony of their dependence on their heavenly be the Son of God, according to the Spirit of Father, and for a renewal of their spiritual sanctification, by the resurrection from the dead; strength: we therefore, in common with ainos —that, as man, Christ died for our sins, rose all who profess the Christian name, are in the precagain, and was received up into glory in the tice of assembling for this purpose on the first day heavens; he having, in his dying for all, been of the week; and it is also our practice to bold 2 that one, great, universal offering and sacrifice meeting for worship on some other day, aboc. for peace, atonement, and reconciliation be- the middle of the week. The due observado tween God and man; and he is the propitiation of one day in seven as a day of rest, and a day not for our sins only, but for the sins of the more especially set apart for the purpose of whole world; we were reconciled by his death, public worship, and for other duties of a religibut saved by his life ;- that divine honor and ous nature, we believe to be incumbent on a worship is due to the Son of God; and that he Christian community, agreeably to the authorin is in true faith to be prayed unto, and the of Holy Scripture; and of incalculable importname of the Lord Jesus Christ called upon ance in its results. Although we have thus our (as the primitive Christians did), because of stated times for assembling together for the per the glorious union or oneness of the Father and formance of public worship, nevertheless, we the Son.' Sewel's History, p. 643.

dare not depend, for our acceptance with God, We resume Mr. Bevan's summary statement on a formal repetition of the words and experie "To Christ alone we give the title of the ences of others : but we believe it to be our duty Word of God, and not to the Scriptures; al- to lay aside the activity of the imagination, and though we highly esteem these sacred writings, to wait in silence to have a true sight of our in subordination to the Spirit from which they condition bestowed upon us : believing even a were given forth ; and we hold, with the apostle single sigh, arising from such a sense of our in Paul, that they are able to make wise unto firmities, and of the need we hare of divide salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus.' help, to be more acceptable to God, than any

"We revere those most excellent precepts performances, however specious, which originate which are recorded in Scripture to have been in the will of man. delivered by our great Lord, and we firmly be- From what has been said respecting worship, lieve that they are practicable, and binding on it follows, that the ministry we approve mus every Christian: and that in the life to come have its origin from the same source ; for that every man will be rewarded according to his which is needful for a man's own direction, and works. And further it is our belief, that, in for his acceptance with God, must be eminently order to enable mankind to put in practice these so to enable him to be helpful to others. Acsacred precepts, many of which are contradic- cordingly we believe that the renewed assistance tory to ihe unregenerate will of man, every man of the light and power of Christ is indispensacoming into the world is endued with a measure bly necessary for all true ministry; and that this of the light, grace, or good Spirit of Christ; by holy influence is not at our command, or to be which, as it is attended to, he is enabled to dis- procured by study, but is the free gift of God tinguish good from evil, and to correct the dis- to chosen and devoted servants.-Hence arises orderly passions and corrupt propensities of his our testimony against preaching for hire, in fallen nature, which mere reason is altogether contradiction to Christ's positive command, insufficient to overcome. For all that belongs • Freely ye have received, freely give;' and to man is fallible, and within the reach of temp- hence our conscientious refusal to support such tation; but this divine grace, which comes by ministry, by tithes or other means. Him who hath overcome the world, is, to those "As we dare not encourage any ministry, but who humbly and sincerely seek it, an all-suffici- that which we believe to spring from the inficent and present help in time of need. By this ence of the Holy Spirit, so neither dare we atthe snares of the enemy are detected, his allure- tempt to restrain this ministry to persons of any ments avoided, and deliverance is experienced condition in life, or to the male sex alone; but, as through faith in its effectual operation; whereby male and female are one in Christ, we hold it (as before in other words expressed), the soul is proper that such of the female sex as we believe translated out of the kingdom of darkness, and to be endued with a right qualification for the from under the power of Satan, into the marvel- ministry, should exercise their gifts for the ge. lous light and kingdom of the Son of God. Being neral edification of the church : and this liberty thus persuaded, that man, without the Spirit of we esteem a peculiar mark of the gospel dis Christ inwardly revealed, can do nothing to the pensation, as foretold by the prophet Joel, and glory of God, or to effect his own salvation, we noticed by the apostle Peler.

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