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trine of fortification or defence. We do not easily be finished in the usual manner and time. besitate to avail ourselves of that suggested by The barbet batteries in the saliants of the demicolonel Douglas, and which he insists will over- lunes would soon be destroyed and, the guns come all the obstacles opposed as well by the dismounted, if not removed upon the completior, ordinary modes of fortification, as by the new of the batteries 2 and 3, by which the inward method of M. Carnot.

faces of the demi-lunes are ricoched. The faces The ordnance required for the attack shown of the two collateral bastions and their countera plate VII. is as follows:

guards would also be ravaged and swept by the
batteries 1 and 4; and, if necessary, batteries

might also be placed in the first parallel, to rico-
No. of
Guns. Mortars. Howitzers. Pierriers.

cher the faces of the bastion attacked, and its Battery

counterguard ; but the importance of throwing a

more powerful fire upon these works should in7 2

duce us to reserve this battery for positiou in the 2 2

second parallel, satisfied that it may be con3

structed without establishing more ricochet bat-
teries in the first place of arms.

The battery

marked in dotted lines in the plan, may, how6

ever, be constructed, and should be armed with

heavy mortars and howitzers, to fire, at low ele3

vations, to ruin the circular portion of the es9



carpe-wall opposite to the casemated battery of 10



the gorge; and to injure or break in the case4

mates. If eight-inch mortars are placed in this 4

battery, they should use, occasionally, sixty5

eight pound shot, or shells filled with lead; but

heavy iron howitzers, or carronades, will do 8


better : there can be no doubt that with such

means the escarpe-wall and casemates would
60 24


sustain very considerable injury.

As soon as the second parallel is completed, 5

the batteries 5 and 6 are established to ricocher 17


the faces, chemins-des-rondes, ditch, and counterBrought forward from guard of the bastion attacked; and the outward the other batteries.

faces of the adjoining demi-lunes with their 20 5

ditches. The ends of the parallel are secured by 2

redoubts, armed with field artillery.

18 19

5 5 5




When batteries 5 and 6 are in activity, the

demi-places-d'armes are commenced : they are 35

run out from the flank branches of batteries 5 and 6, until the prolongations of the inward

faces of the demi-lunes are intercepted, and there This proportion of ordnance is about the same the howitzer-batteries 7 and 8 are constructed.

that sually estimated for the attack of a front The batteries made in the second parallel, to of Vauban's first system, calculated at the lowest ricocher the faces of the bastion attacked will be

so effectual in ruining their defences, that it does The attack (plate VII.) is made upon a bastion not appear necessary to construct half-parallels and its collateral demi-lunes.

and howitzer-batteries against them, as has been The first parallel is traced, as usual, about done against the faces of the demi-lunes. 200 toises from the most advanced points of de The zig-zags upon the capital of the bastion fence

, and extended sufficiently to embrace the are pushed forward, from the second parallel, prolongations of all the works which have in- simultaneously with the construction of the half fluence on the attack.

parallels; and, as soon as the batteries 7 and 8 The inward faces of the adjoining bastions, are in activity, the third parallel is commenced, and their counterguards, are ricoched by the traced, in a right line nearly, joining the three batteries 1 and 4 at the extremities of the saliants of the glacis en contrepente.

parallel; and the batteries 2 and 3 are estab The half-parallels are now extended outwards i lished to ricocher the inward faces of the two from batteries 7 and 8 to embrace the prolongademi-lunes and their ditches.

tions of the flanks of the adjoining bastions, and At the same time that these batteries are con the batteries 11 and 12 there constructed. The Structing, approaches are pushed forward on the extremities of the half parallels are connected with three capitals; and the second parallel com- the second parallel by trenches or places of arms, menced as soon as the ricochet batteries, 1, 2, 3, which are thus flanked by the adjoining faces of and 4, are in activity, which should be in thirty- the redoubts, and cover the batteries in the halfsu bours after their commencement.

parallels from being turned by sorties. At the M. Carnot despises so completely all the same time that this is doing, the howitzer-batteries early operations of attack, that we may presume 9 and 10 are established in the third parallel, ta spots being very little opposed in constructing ricocher the faces of the bastion attacked,' its these works; and consequently that they may ditch and counterguard, if no half-parallel and


howitzer-batteries have been constructed for these on the line of this prolongation, that the cavalier purposes.

may be seen at the point marked by the rignt of The objects of the mortar-howitzer-battery, battery number 13; and terms taken from No. 15, are to endeavour to ruin as much as the respective commands and distances of the possible the escarpe-wall of the bastion, and retrenchment and other works on the line of the casemated batteries; also to ricocher, and its prolongation show that it may be seen at shell, the communications, chemins-des-rondes, the places marked for batteries 13 and 14 and retranchement générale.

and consequently that it may be ricoched in An attentive inspection of the plate will both directions. The prolongations of the reshow, that the besieged must suffer greatly from trenchment are obtained, as the plate will show, this battery, particularly at that advanced period clear of the cavaliers; for the command of these of the siege which will oblige them to keep their works is such as to cover batteries 13 and defences manned: for the entrances to the 14 from all the intercepted portions of the chemins-des-rondes of the bastion being in its retrenchment. It is only therefore from the parts gorge at the base of the interior slope, the troops most remote to the bastion attacked, that these entering and returning will be continually pass- batteries can be seen, and that very obliquely :ing, close to the back-wall of the detached case- they cannot be counterbattered. Thus the pormates which flank the ditch, in directions pa- tion of the retrenchment from which battery rallel to the capital of the work, ard consequently 13 may be seen, would be ravaged by the exposed to ricochet fire from battery No. 15; alternate ricochet battery 14; and the part and the ramp leading to the interior of the bas- affecting it, be ricoched by battery 13. The tion, being constructed exactly upon its capital, appurent exposure of batteries 13 and 14 to will be much ravaged by the continual ricochets several stages of fire, renders it necessary to fired in that direction. The seven casemates à notice these circumstances, in order to meet pierriers being open at the ends, all well directed here any observation that might occur as to difshot or shells which do not pass more than fif- ficulty in constructing and using these batteries. teen feet over the top of the c3carpe-wall, will The nature of the polygon affects some of these either enter a casemate, or, striking the piers, or circumstances, and would require some modifithe ends of the arches, knock off splinters of cation in the plan of attack; but we must constones that cannot fail to commit great destruc- fine our reasoning to the case before us. The tion among the troops lining the wall immedi. batteries 13 and 14 are connected, by trenches, ately in front.

with the couronnement of the glacis, and armed Nor will the battery itself remain in a perfect with five twenty-four pounders each. state to this period of the siege. It is not too The trenches, saps, and parallels, should be much to expect that eight heavy mortars, or defiladed from the fire of the place, by making howitzers, in action since the opening of the bat- their terrepleins parallel to the plane in which teries, will have done very material damage to the crests of the enemy's works, and the bethe escarpe-wall by which the ends of the case- sieger's trenches lie, so that the lines of direct mates are covered, and it is evident that, where fire, passing close over the parapets of the ever a breach or fracture is made in it, the inte- trenches, parallel to the plane of their interior rior of the adjoining casemate will be completely spaces, do not command them any more than if exposed to direct fire, whenever a lodgment on both were in the same horizontal plane. This the saliant of the bastion is established: and it only requires the additional labor of taking out should be remarked that the escarpe-wall is only the prism of earth necessary to slope the bottom four feet six inches thick, in the recesses made of the trench in a plane parallel to that of the for receiving troops.

command (which, in the present case, is very As soon as the third parallel is finished, trifling), and to make the parapets of the battelodgments should be made on the crest of the ries a little higher than usual. If this be careglacis, by saps branching outwards from the three fully executed, it will effectually cancel the adcapitals, in circular directions round the saliants, vantages which M. Carnot dwells so much upon, and thence parallel to the edge of the glacis; as arising from this effect of command. constructing traverses and parades wherever it We are now come to that part of the operamay be necessary to defilade the interior of the tion at which M. Carnot says the besiegers will trenches from any of the works of the place. find themselves exposed to the full effect of

Double-saps are pushed forward at the same sorties. time from the third parallel, and an advanced Before parallels were introduced, sorties, it parallel worked right and left to join the lodg- appears, were very generally successful. This ments, or couronnement, of the glacis.

has furnished M.' Carnot with many facts calAt the same time that these works are culated to show the good effect of these entercommenced, trenches are worked from the prises of valor before the science of attack rehalf-parallels near batteries 11 and 12, to ceived its vast improvement from the experience obtain prolongations upon which to construct of its great master, Vauban; and there is no the batteries 13 and 14, which have very want of examples to show that sorties may always important objects to accomplish, viz. to ri- be made with success from places attacked with cocher the faces of the cavaliers, and the re- insufficient force. But if approaches and battetranchement général. It appears by measure- ries be well protected by parallels, and these ment and calculation obtained from the difference intrenched positions be properly occupied, vig?of command of the cavalier and demi-lune, lantly guarded, and gallantly defended, sorties gether with the distance between their sections will be so severely punished, whatever degree of

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way do not prevent active defence by sorties, the trenches and epaulements are made across
when circumstances of relative force and other the ditch. These trenches should be fitted as
considerations, justify their being undertaken; places of arms to oppose sorties. The progress
and so far are the real circumstances of this of the attack is not marked on the plan, further
siege froin holding it up as a splendid example than the occupation of the counterguard and the
to show, generally, the vast advantages, and en- passage of the ditch, not to deface the fortifi-
force the propriety, of making continual sorties, cations.
it appears, that the attack was a very condemna- A mine will then be made in the saliant of the
ble attempt with a force that could not hold out counterguard. If it be countermined, as M.
any fair prospect of success. It is well known Carnot suggests, then a war of mines' will
that, when the prince of Orange was obliged to ensue; but the result will be, that the saliant of
raise the siege of Oudenarde, he marched to the work will be demolished by one, or other,
Grave with the Dutch contingent, and that M. or both parties; and thus the main obstacle re-
Chamilly's garrison had been so much reduced moved which M. Carnot admits, page 480, is
in the sorties it had made, that the place soon so indispensable to cover the escarpe-wall of the
surrendered, although its defences were not much bastion. If a war of mines should not be re-
injured. The terms granted to the garrison were sorted to, the besiegers should drive a gallery
such as were due to brave men who had done perpendicularly through one of the faces of the
their duty in chastising, with vigor and spirit, a counterguard, on a level with the ditch, as soon
rash attempt made upon their fortress, but who as a lodgment is made on the crest of the work.
surrendered to a force which made any further The labor attending this operation is much less
resistance vain and hopeless.

than in making the usual galleries of descent
We now proceed with the attack. Batteries into a ditch. The length of a gallery through
17 and 18 are constructed to counterbatter the M. Carnot's counterguard is about ten toises :
faces of the collateral bastions; 16 and 19, the galleries of descent into the ditch of an ora
against the faces of the bastion attacked : bat dinary place are about eighteen toises each.
teries 20 and 21 counterbatter the acting faces When the counterbatteries and epaulements
of the cavaliers, which it must be recollected in the ditches are finished, the position of the
have already been ricoched by batteries 13 and besiegers on the crest of the glacis en contre-

pente would be so formidable, that we do not Without ascribing any superior degree of see how it is possible for the besieged to

fficacy to the fire of the batteries by which the make sorties. The only debouches from which S ices of the demi-lunes will have been ricoched, they can issue to attack, directly, the works of

here can be no doubt that they may easily be the besiegers, are exposed to two double tiers of iken by assault. We have, indeed, the admis- enfilade and flank fire: for batteries 20 and on of the author for asserting that troops oc- 21 look directly into the spaces between the ipying them would suffer so dreadfully as to be ends of the demi-lunes and the faces of the capable of defending them.-He admits, ex- counterguard; and the countersloped glacis

'essly, page 492, that the demi-lunes are so enables these batteries to fire over the epaulesuch exposed to stones and ricochets, that troops ments in the ditch, and to combine their fire

nnot remain in them.' The form given to the with that of the troops lodged in these works; valiers for the purpose of strengthening their for a shot fired from battery 20 to the bottom liants, shows that they are designed to prevent of the exterior slope of the cavalier, passes eight Igments from being established on the demi- feet over the crest of the epaulement. A sortie les; but the batteries 13 and 14 counter- issuing from either of these debouches would tter these saliants, whilst 20 and 21 take also be exposed to batteries 16 or 19, and

im in flank and in reverse ; and, as the to the epaulements in front of them, as soon tot nmand of the cavalier prevents the salients as the enemy's troops appear; so that no sortie

Be the demi-lunes from being seen from the in- can come forth from these debouches without wie w septed parts of the retrenchment and fausse- being exposed to a quadruple line of fire, under

ye, we may assert that the besiegers will a continuation of which they would then have a F experience much difficulty in establishing very formidable line of connected places of arms, The intenselves on the saliants of the demi-lunes, as to attack. wn in plate VII.

The debouches from the other sides of the * 'hese lodgments should not be much extended demi-lunes are under fire of the batteries 17

resent;--it will be sufficient to occupy the and 18, and the corresponding epaulements

int of the rampart with a good, solid, lodg- respectively; and the position of the besiegers

s't, commanding the interior of the work; opposite to these outlets is no less formidable For the particularly observing the spaces between than the other.

Ele ends of counterguards, and the faces of From the counterguard the besiegers proceed app avaliers, by which only the troops for the into the ditch of the bastion, in which strong shairs offensifs can come forth.

epaulements are constructed to cover the passage, sted, hat will now be necessary for the besieged to and to oppose sorties from the opposite debouche. and more: which mode of defence he means to adopt If the saliant of the counterguard has been magazine " le counterguards and bastions ;—whether he destroyed, or even much lowered, the saliant of o ds to defend them de pied ferme, or by the escarpe-wall may be wholly or partially

sal fire-both he cannot use. If he prefer breached by the battery 22. If the coupbitter, the besiegers should assault the coun- terguard be entire, the saliant of the escarpe

} forin a lodgment on it, as soon as wall will be destroyed by mine. M. Carnot

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