Abbildungen der Seite

Easter Sunday, in 1512. Louis XII., on hear- cross of St. Louis. Ile distinguished himing of his deatii, exclaimed, “I would surrender self greatly at the battle of Cassano; where he almost every inch of ground I possess in Italy to received a wound in his left hand, which derestore to life my nephew and his brave comrades. prived him of the use of it ever after. At this God preserve us from many such victories!' ' battle he conceived the first idea of columns,

Foix (Louis de), a French architect, was which he afterwards prefixed to his Commenemployed by Philip II., of Spain, in the taries on Polybius. In 1706 Folard had orders erection of the palace of the Escurial. He to throw himself into Modena, to defend it is said to have been in the confidence of don against prince Eugene: where he was very near Carlos, by betraying which, he contributed being assassinated. He received a dangerous to the destruction of that prince; soon after wound in the thigh at the battle of Malplaquet, which he left Spain and returned to France. and was some time after made prisoner by In 1579 he was employed in the port of Bay- prince Eugene. Being exchanged in 1711, he onne, and constructed the canal of the Adour. was made governor of Bourbourg. In 1714 he De Foix was also, in 1610, the architect of the went to Malta, to assist in defending that island tower of Cordouan, at the mouth of the Ga- against the Turks. Upon his return to France renne.

he embarked for Sweden, to see Charles XII. FOKIEN, a province of China, bounded on lle acquired the esteem and confidence of that the north by that of Tche-Kiang; east by the monarch, who sent him to France to negociate sea; south by Quang-Tong, and west by Kian- the restoration of James II: but, that project Si. It is commodiously situated for navigation being given up, he returned to Sweden, followand commerce. The natives catch large quan- ed Charles XII. in his expedition to Norway, tities of fish, which they send to other parts of and served under him at the siege of Frederickthe empire. Its shores are indented with many shall. Folard then returned to France; and bays; and there are many forts built on the made his last campaign in 1710, as colonel under coast. The air is hot, but pure and wholesome. the duke of Berwick. From that time he apThe mountains are disposed into a kind of am- plied intensely to the study of the military art; phitheatres, by the labor of the inhabitants, and built his theories upon the foundation of with terraces one above another. The fields are his experience. He contracted an intimacy with water. I with rivers and springs, which issue count Saxe; and was chosen F. R. S. of London ont of the mountains, and which the husband- in 1749; and, in 1751, made a journey to men conduct so as to overflow the fields of rice Avignon, where he died in 1752, aged eightywhen they please, by pipes of bamboo. It three. Ilis chief works are, 1. Commentaries produces all the commodities common in China, upon Polybius, 6 vols. 4to. 2. New Discoparticularly musk, precious stones, quicksilver, veries in War. 3. A Treatise concerning the Suik, iron, &c. The natives make hempen defence of Places, in French. cloth, calico, and all sorts of utensils. They FOLCZ (John), originally a barber of Nuimport cloves, cinnamon, pepper, sandal-wood, remberg, and born at Ulm about the middle of auber, coral, &c. The capital is Fou-tcheou- the fifteenth century, became one of the most Fou, or Fucherofu. As for Fokien, which most celebrated of the German poets belonging to the beographers make the capital, Grosier informs class called Mastersingers, or Suabian bards. lis there is no such place. The silks and cloth They consisted of clubs or societies established of Fokien are of extraordinary fineness and for the cultivation of the old German poetry, and beuty. The port of Enfouy was formerly open were principally composed of the lower classes. to European vessels, but all the trade has been Strasburgh and Nuremberg were the cities in since transferred to Canton. Considerable com- which were found the most famous societies of merve is carried on between this province and Mastersingers; but they also existed at MeminJapan, Formosa, the Philippine Islands, Java, gen, Ulm, and Augsbourg. Taverns were their and Sian. Every city is said to have a peculiar usual places of meeting. The epoch of these bards dilect. Fou-tcheon, the capital, is celebrated lasted from 1350 to 1519, when Luther produced for its literati; besides which, there are other a reform in the German language ; but the socilarge towns, Tsuen-Tschosu, Yeu-Ping, and eties continued, that of Strasburgh particularly, Tchang-Tcheou. The population has been com- till the latter part of the eighteenth century. puted at 15,000,000.

Folcz, distinguished himself by the invention of FOLARD (Charles), an eminent French ge- a multitude of new metres. He printed at Nuneral, born at Avignon in 1669, of a noble fa- remberg a great number of his poems. The mily. He discovered an early passion for arms; earliest, finished in 1470, was imprinted, or enwhich was so inflamed by reading Cæsar's Com- graved on wood, in 1474, and reprinted in a mentaries, that he enlisted at sixteen years of collection which appeared in 1534 at Nuremage. His father procured his discharge and im- berg, in 3 vols. 4to. This includes Ein mured him in a monastery; but he escaped about teutsch worhaftig poetisch ystori; an abridged two years after, and entered again as a cadet. History of the German Empire, in rhyme; and His inclination for military affairs recommended Vitæ Patrum, vel Liber Colacionum. . Of these him to notice. M. de Vendome, who com- productions Fischer has given a description. manded in Italy in 1720, made him his aid-de- in his Typographical Rarities, Mentz, 1800, camp; and soon after sent him with part of his 8vo. forces into Lombardy. Here his services were FOLD, n. s. & v. a. Sax. falæd, fald; from such, that he had a pension of 400 livres Goth. faldur, to enclose. There is also a barb. seuled upon him, and was honored with the Latin word, faldugium (a fold). The ground on


FOL The ancient Egyptian mummies were shrowded in a number of folds of linen, besmeared with gums,

Bacon's Nat. History

At last appear
Hell bounds high reaching to the horrid roof,
And thrice three fold the gates : three fulds were

Three iron, three of adamantine rock, Wilton.

Their martyred blood and ashes dow
O'er all the Italian fields, where still doth Swap
The triple tyrant; that from these may grow

the serpent

which sheep are confined; the place where sheep
are boused; the flock of sheep; a limit; a boun-

Then said he, O cruel Goddes! that governte
This world with binding of your word eterne,
And writen in the table of Athadient
Your parlement and yonr eterne grant,
What is mankind unto yhold
Tban is the shepe that rouketh in the to fold.
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale.

Time drives the focks from field fold,

A hundred fold.
When rivers rage and rocks grow cold;


Not with indented wave,
And Philomel becometh dumb,

And all complain of cares to come.

Prone on the ground, as since; but on his rear
We see that the folding of sheep helps ground, as well

Circular base of rising folds, that towered

Id. by their warmth as by their compost.

Fold above fold, a surging maze!
Iis eyes he opened, and beheld a field

Let the draperies be nobly spread upon the body,
Part arable and tilth; whereon were sheaves
New reaped; the other part, sheep walks and folds. and let the folds be large ; the parts should be oftea


traversed by the flowing of the folds. Dryden. In thy book record their groans,

Both furl their sails, and strip them for the fight; Who were thy sheep, and in their ancient fold

Their folded sheets dismiss the useless air.

12. Slain.


Conscious of its own impotence, it folds its arms in The star that bids the shepherd fold,

despair, and sits cursing in a corner.

Now the top of heaven dotb hold.

And this you see I scarcely drag along,

The inward coat of a lion's stomach has stronger
Who yeaning on the rocks has left her young,

folds than a human, but in other things not much dif. The hope and promise of my failing fuld. Dryden.


Arbuthaal. The bridegroom sun, who late the earth espoused,

FOLENGIO (Theophilus), of Mantua, known Leaves his star-chainber ; early in the east

also by the title of Merlin Coccaye, an Italian He shook his sparkling locks, head lively roused,

poet. He was born at Mantua in 1491, and be While Morn bis couch with blushing roses drest;

came a Benedictine; but soon after quitted his His shines the Earth soon latcht to gild her flowers : Phosphor his gold iceced drove folds in their bowers, some years, resumed it again. He wrote several

habit, and, after leading a rambling life for Which all the night had grazed about the Olympic Fletcher's Purple Island.

works, mostly of a licentious nature; but is mie

morable for his macaronic verses. This mode FOLD, n. s., v. a. & v. n. Sax. fild, faldan; of writing, which has not very frequently been Goth. faldan. See the foregoing word. A dou- imitated with success, consists in interweaving ble; a complication; an involution; one part with Latin verse a number of words and phrases added to another ; one part doubled upon another. From the foregoing signification is de- and made to fit the metre by Latin terminations.

in the vernacular tongue, thrown in at random, rived the use of fold in composition. Fold sig- Folingio, if not the inventor of macaronic verse, nifies the same quantity added : as two-fold, was the first who brought it into vogue. lle twice the quantity; twenty-fold, twenty times died in 1544. repeated. To double; to complicate; to inclose; include; to close over another of the same kind;

Lat. foliaceous, folia to join with another of the same kind.

tus, foliatio, from


FO'LTATE, v.a.
The two leaves of the one door were folding, and


Fr.feuillage. Con

Folia'tion, n. s. the two leaves of the other door were folding.

sisting of lamine or 1 Kings vi. 34.

leaves. Leaves ; tufis Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding rel of leaves to a plant. To beat into laminæ or

of leaves; the appaof the hands to sleep.

Prov. vi. 10.
They be folden together as thorns.

leaves. Foliation is the act of beating into thin

Nah. i. 10.
But other fell into good ground, and brought forth being the collection of those fugacious colored

leaves; it is also one of the parts of the flower, frait; some an hundred fold, some sixty fold, some leaves called petala, which constitute the compass thirty fold.

As a vesture shalt thou fold them up. Heb. i. 12.

of the flower, and sometimes guard the fruit And if that excellent were hire beautee,

which succeeds the foliation, as in apples and A thousand fold more vertuous was she.


and sometimes stand within it, as in cherChaucer. The Doctoure's Tale. ries and apricots; for these, being tender and She in this trice of time

pulpous, and coming forth in the spring, would

će injured by the weather if they were not lodged Commits a thing so monstrous, to dismantle

up within their fowers.—Quincy. Foliature

, Shakspeare. King Lear. is the state of being hammered into leaves. FoI bave seen her rise from her bed, unlock her clo- liomort (folium mortuum), is a dark yellow; the sct, take forth paper, fold it, write upon't, read it, color of a leaf faded : vulgarly called philomot

. Shakspeare. Gold foliated, or any metal foliated, cleaveth.



FoʻLIAGE, n. s.

FoʻLIATURE, n. s.
FoʻLIOMORT, adj.

So many folds of favvur !

seal it, and again return to bed.
We will descend and fold him in our arms.

Witness my son, now in the shade of death,
Whose hright outshining beams thy cloudy wrath
Hatha in eternal darkness folded up.

Bacon. The great colnmns are finely engraven with fruits and foliage, that run twisting about them from the very top to the bottom.




lowly li



If gold be foliated, and held between your eyes and FOLK, n. s. Sax. folc, from folgian, the light, the light looks of a greenish blue.

Folks, n. S. Sto follow; Swed. folc, fol

Newton's Opticks. FOLK'MOTE, n. s. ) gia, to follow ; Belg. volk, A piece of another, consisting of an outer crust, from Goth. folgia, to follow. It is properly a of a suddy talky spar, and a blue talky foliacious spar. noun collective, and has no plural but by modern

Woodward on Fossils. corruption. People, in familiar language; any A finty pebble was of a dark green colour and the

kind of people as discriminated from others. It

is now seldom used but in familiar or burlesque exterior cortex of a foliomort colour.

language. And too

Infinite ben the sorwe and the teres The trees with foliage, cliffs with flowers are crownd,

Of olde folk and folk of tendre years Pure rills through walls of verdure warbling go,

In all the town, for deth of this Theban. And wonder, love, and joy, the peasant's heart o'er.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale flow.


Those hills were appointed for two special uses, and FOLIAGE, in architecture, used for the repre- built by two several nations. the one is that which sentations of flowers, leaves, branches, rinds, &c.. you call folkmntes, built by the Saxons, and signifies whether natural or artificial, that are used for en

in the Saxon a meeting of folk. Spenser on Ireland.

The river thrice hath flowed, no ebb between; richments on capitals, friezes, pediments, &c.

And the old folk, time's doting chronicles, FOLIATING OF Glass PLATES For Mir

Say it did so a little time before. Shakspeare. RORS, the spreading the plates over, alter they A nger is a kind of baseness: as it appears well in are polished, with quicksilver, &c., to make thein the weakness of children, women, old folks, and sick reflect images. It is performed thus:-A thin folks.

Bacon. blotting paper is spread on the table, and then a

When with greatest art he spoke, tipe lamina or leaf of tin, called foil, is laid over You'd think he talked like other folk; the paper; upon this is poured mercury, which For all a rhetorician's rules is to be distributed equally over the leaf with a Teach nothing but to name his tools. hare's foot, or cotton : over this is laid a clean

Hudibras. paper, and over that the glass plate, which is

Dorilaus, having married his sister, had his mar. pressed down with the right hand, and the paper

riage in short time blest, for so are folk wont to say,

how unhappy so ever the children after grow, with a drawn gently out with the left; this being done,

son. the plate is covered with a thicker paper, and

Old good man Dobson of the green, loaded with a greater weight, that the surperflu

Remembers he the tree has seen, ous mercury may be driven out and the tin ad And goes with folks to sbew the sight. Swift. here more closely to the glass. When it is dried, He walked and wore a thrradbare cloak; the weight is removed, and the looking-glass is He dined and supped at charge of other folk. Id. complete. Some add an ounce of marcasite When I call • fading' martial immortality melted by the fire; and, lest the mercury should I mean, that every age and every year evaporate in smoke, they pour it into cold water; And almost every day, in sad reality and when cooled, squeeze through a cloth, or Some sucking hero is compelled to rear, through leather. Some add a quarter of an

Who, when we come to sum up the totality ounce of tin and lead to the marcasite, that the

Of deeds to human happiness most dear, glass may dry the sooner.

Turns out to be a butcher in great business, FOLIATING OF Globe GLASSES FOR MIRRORS,

Affecting young folks with a sort of dizziness. Byron. is done as follows. Take five ounces of quick

FOLKES (Martin), an English antiquary, silver and one ounce of bismuth; of lead and tin mathematician, and philosopher, born at Westhalf an ounce each: first put the lead and tin minster about 1690, a fellow of the Royal Sointo fusion, then put in the bismuth; and, when

when ciety of London, and of the Academy of Sciences that is also in fusion. let it stand till it is almost at Paris. He was admitted into the former at cold, and pour the gnicksilver into it: after this twenty-four years of age; made one of their take the glass globe, which must be very clean,

council two years after; named by Sir Isaac and the inside free froin dust: make a paper

Newton himself, as vice-president; and, after fupnel, which put into the hole of the globe, as

Sir Hans Sloane, became president. Coins, annear the glass as possible, so that the amalgam,

cient and modern, were bis great object : and when poured in. may not splash, and cause the his last production was a book upon the English glass to be full of spots; pour it in gently, and

nd Silver Coin, from the conquest to his own times. move it abont so that the amalgam may touch

av louch A table of all the English gold coins, drawn up every where: if the amalgam begin to be curdly by Mr. Folkes, was afterwards printed at the reand fixed. hold it over a gentle fire, and it will quest of the Royal Society, before whom he laid easily flow again: and, if it be too thin, add a his Remarks on the Standard Measure preserved little more lead, tin, and hismuth to it. The

The in the Capitol of Rome, and a inodel of an anfiner and clearer the globe is, the better will the cient sphere preserved in the Farnesian palace. looking-glass be.

A representation of this sphere was published in

Dr. Bentley's edition of Manilius. "He died in FOʻLIO, n. s. Lat. in folio. A large book of

London in 1754. Dr. Birch drew up riaterials which the pages are formed by a sheet of paper for his life, which are preserved in the Anece once doubled.

dotes of Bowyer. Plumbinus and Plumeo made less progress in

FOLKESTONE, a sea-port and market town knowledge, though they had read over more folios. of Kent, between Dover and Hythe, and which

Watts on the Mind appears to have been a very ancient place, from

« ZurückWeiter »