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he. stripped of its honors. The delightful pierre he was arrested and dragged to prison for environs of Florence next engage Mr. Eustace, having affixed to his Numa some verses in praise ever powerful for description. Amongst these of the queen, and while in this situation be com Vallombrosa, the supposed original of Milton's posed the first book of his Guillaume Tell, and description of Eden, claimed first the traveller's a poem called Ebrahim. On his release he fell attention. The sketch of this picturesque spot, into a decline, which terminated his life on the the account of the abbey, its inhabitants, and 13th of September 1794. their hospitality, is here given with much spirit FlorID STYLE, a style too much enriched with and precision.
figures and flowers of rhetoric. FLORENTIA, in ancient geography, a town FLORIDA, a country of North America, of Etruria, on the Arnus, of great note in the bounded on the north by Georgia, on the east by wars of Sylla, now called Florenza, or Fiorenza, the Atlantic, on the south by the Gulfs of Mexico by the Italians, and Florence by the English. and Florida, and on the west by the Mississippi. See FLORENCE.
It was the most southerly province of the BriFLORENTIN, or St. Florentin, a town of tish empire in America before the war of indeFrance in Champagne, situated at the conflux of pendence. the Armance and Armançon; it has some cotton It was first discovered in 1479, by Sebastian manufactures, and 3000 inhabitants. Thirteen Cabot, a Venetian in the English service; whence miles north-east of Auxerre, and twenty-four a right to it was claimed by the kings of Engsouth-west of Troyes.
land; and it was included with Georgia in the FLORENTINÉS, the people of Florence. charter granted by Charles II. to Carolina. In Dr. Moore gives the following account of the 1512 Florida was more fully discovered by amusements of the Florentines. Besides the Ponce de Leon, an able navigator, but who unconversazionis, which they have as in other towns dertook his voyage from the most absurd moof Italy, the nobility meet every day at a house tives. The Indians of the Caribbee Islands had called the casino. This society is much on the among them a tradition, that somewhere on the same footing with the clubs in London. The continent there was a fountain whose waters hrad members are elected by ballot. They go at any the property of restoring youth to all old men who time that is convenient. They play at billiards, tasted them. The romantic imaginations of the cards, and other games, or continue conversing, Spaniards were delighted with this idea, Many as they think proper. They are served with tea, embarked in voyages to find out this imaginary coffee, lemonade, ices, or what other refresh fountain, who were never afterwards heard of. ments they choose; and each person pays for Their superstitious countrymen never imagined what he calls for. There is one material differ- that these people had perished. They concluded ence between this and the English clubs, that that they did not return, only because they had women as well as men are members. The com- drunk of the immortalising liquor, and had dispany of both sexes behave with more frankness covered a spot so delightful, that they did not and familiarity to strangers, as well as to each choose to leave it. Ponce de Leon set out with other, than is customary in public assemblies in this extravagant view, as well as others, fully other parts of Italy.' Dr Moore adds, 'that, at persuaded of the existence of a third world, the the opera, they pay much more attention to the conquest of which was to immortalise his name. dancing than to the music, though it is at best In the attempt to discover this country, he remere athletic jumping, compared with the elegant discovered Florida; but returned to the place dancing of the French
from whence he came, visibly more advanced in FLORES, one of the Azores, so named from years than when he set out. For some time this the multitude of flowers found growing sponta- country was neglected by the Spaniards, and neously on it. It is thirty miles long, nine broad, some Frenchmen settled in it. But the new and contains two towns, several villages, and colony being neglected by the ministry, and about 1400 inhabitants. It exports wheat and Philip II, of Spain pretending to be the sole salt pork, and has excellent poultry. Cattle are proprietor of America, fitted out a fleet at Cadiz also numerous, but they are small. Santa Cruz to destroy them. The tyrant's orders were exeis the capital. Lagena on the east coast is also cuted with barbarity. The French entrencha thriving town. Long. 30° 55'. W. lat. 39o ments were forced, and most of the people killed. 34'. N.
The prisoners were hanged on trees, with this FLORIAN (John Peter Claris de), a popular inscription,— Not as Frenchmen, but as Here modern French writer, was born at the chateau tics.' "This cruelty was soon after revenged by of that name in Languedoc, in 1755. His father Dominic de Gourgues, a skilful and intrepid was a gentleman of fortune, who spared no ex- seaman of Gascony, an enemy to the Spaniards, pense on his education; and being related to and passionately fond of glory and hazard. He Voltaire, he obtained for him through that per- sold his estate, built some ships, and with a son's interest the rank of page to the duke of select band of bold adventurers embarked for Penthievre. The duke soon gave him a com- Florida. He drove the Spaniards from all the mission in the army, but, observing the success posts with incredible valor and activity, ,! of his literary efforts, judiciously confined him feated them in every rencounter-and, by way to literature, and furnished him with a library. retaliation, hung the prisoners on trees with His first production was Galathea, which was inscription - Not as Spaniards, but as followed by the two volumes of his Theatre, the sins.' He then blew up the forts he had sacred drama of Ruth, and a succession of very and returned home. This patriotic an.' successful dramas and novels. Under Robes- act of justice certainly merited rewar!
notice whatever was taken
.:French government. Florida S D I co 3- T T 1539, by the Spaniaris :
[ - = Soto, not without a treat itu 03. 1. THE the natives were very war ka e e *
-*1ous resistance. The setten. fully established the foc. TA
UT S II was founded. In 150 s 125 m2 1
: les pillaged by Sir Franes
. taken and pizodered - N o t buccaneers. in 11.
- it by colonel More IT E
T I . set out with 500 ESSE
. I haviog reached S
C E * three monis:
having seni sote SIDE liged to retire I14 Z Z made by genera
I want i = = to raise the siegt L . 212
- E =
nued in tbe tanas te when it was ceded it I I I
I the American War II a 2 E .
S T* " -- . Spaniards, in 1781, and
2 Crown of Spain at the De =
The length of this cou.. T has been estimated at aLLA I breacth is various. TIZE IT WH I TE - Florida is about 130 miles. * *
P 2 insula of East Florida entre R
$ north 400 miles. The $12 irreguiar, and nearly resem . It
: was divided by the Britisi gore
: and West Florida.
FLORIDA, WEST, as designZX " I tain, is situated between the r ee west, auc the Appalachieoia on *+ * . strip of land running aiong for 400 miles. All the west
o sula of Fiorida is low, sanu" 23" red. The Gulf of Funce of of the Englist, is much me lation of sanc. Cerasetos
- .. the Eag sl., is an externe: isladds Deiure I., SOTIE the dress of wluch depte is five fee Caloosa Tan Sors F :Islands, is 0.8 DTE - pir.tt Saul. B
Em charsei iL I te are the sam
. like the US. IL
2 . the esses is $. Si
: bay of the sesse . 2
Toe casi te sien -is tolezbiórss place to servisu:ducirz a s
Y TOS which is re - .
in the heart of the peninsula, and pursues a temperate. On the eastern coast the trade winds northern course in a broad navigable stream, prevail, and cool the air in summer; but in the expanding into lakes, of which Lake George is west the air is refreshed by breezes from the fifteen iniles broad, and fifteen to twenty feet Apalachian Mountains, which are still more deep, with many beautiful islands, covered with cool and temperate. During the summer heavy orange, palm, and magnolia trees. Near Long gales of wind beat against the east side of the Lake, which communicates with the St. Juan by peninsula, while the interior is subject to dreada creek, is a warm mineral spring of great vo- ful squalls. Along the gulf storms and hurrilume; the St. Juan is crossed by a bar at its canes are common just before and after the aumouth with fifteen feet. Indian or Hillsborough tumnal equinox; but thunder and lightning are River runs from north to south parallel to the less frequent and violent than in the neighbourcoast; its mouth is crossed by a bar with but ing territory of Georgia, or in the Carolinas. In five feet.
the forests and deserts are found the panther, St. Augustine, the chief town of East Florida, wild cat, buffalo, fox, bare, goat, rabbit, otter, is on the main opposite the north end of Anas- racoon, flying squirrel, armadillo, opossum, tasia Island. It consists of four streets, inter- guano, and several sorts of serpents. Birds are secting each other at right angles; is fortified in great variety, and numerous: among others, by bastions, encompassed by a ditch and wall, are found the crane, heron, goose, wild duck, and defended by the castle of St. John, mount- pigeon, partridge, thrush, jay, hawk, maccaw, ing fifty guns. The entrance to the harbour is and a great number of others. The rivers abound crossed by a bar, with only five feet at low water in fish, but are at the same time infested with and ten at high. St. Anastasia Island is six voracious alligators. leagues long, and affords good building stone, From the first of July to the middle of Ocwhich is not to be had on the main.
tober fevers are prevalent. They are usually From Cape Florida, near the south-east ex- preceded by heavy rains, and sultry weather. tremity of the peninsula, a great belt of keys Those of plethoric habits, and sanguine constiand reefs curves round the promontory into the tutions, are the most liable to be attacked. Ingulf of Mexico, bearing the general name of the flammatory fevers, of domestic origin, are rarely Martyrs, or Florida Keys; the numerous experienced. The yellow fever occasionally channels or inlets between them are only fit for makes its appearance; but it has always been small craft. Almost all these keys are covered traced to the islands, particularly to the Hawith the mangrove, and frequented by turtle; vannah. Intermittents are endemical, and often all of them have received names from the En- prove tedious; but they commonly yield to the glish, when in possession of Florida. The only prescriptions of skilful physicians. farther notice they deserve is, that on the north In 1810 a revolution took place in West end of Old Matacumbe, an islet four miles long Florida, and agents were despatched to Washand two broad, is a barbour for vessels of seven ington, who had an interview with the American or eight feet, where fresh water may be procured president, for the purpose of being admitted from a natural well, in a rock four feet deep. into the confederation of the United States. In On Key Hueso, or West, which is seven miles the mean time the American government took long, is also a good harbour, with four fathoms means for occupying the country, conformable at the west end, and at the south-west several to a claim which they had been urging since the wells of tolerable water. The dry tortugas year 1801. In that year they had purchased (turtle) are a cluster of keys, forming the western Louisiana from the French, of which they conextreme of the Florida Keys. Punta Blanco, or tended that West Florida formed a part. It Cape Sable, is the south-west point of the penin- was declared by the treaty to be ceded with the sula of Florida, doubling which we enter the same extent that it had in the hands of Spain, gulf of Mexico.
and as it had been ceded by Spain to France. The Floridas abound in vegetable productions The terms of this cession gave rise to a claim on of the most luxuriant and rank growth. They the part of the United States to the country west are said to produce eight different kinds of oak, of the Perdido River; and, to prevent the occuwhite and black walnut, hickory, chestnuts, three pation of this territory by any other power, the kinds of mulberry, four of the magnolia, orange, government of the union took possession, in and fig trees, persimmon and sycamore; as also 1811, of the principal posts, except the town a vast variety of plums, and other indigenous and fort of Mobile, which was surrendered to Fruits, such as limes, prunes, peaches, figs, grapes, their forces in the following year. East Florida, melons, &c. Olives are also cultivated with however, remained in the undisturbed possession success; and St. John's River, and some of the of the Spanish authorities, with the exception of lakes, are bordered with orange groves. The some revolutionary movements of no long conannona, lime, and mahoe, are indigenous, as tinuance, until the second war between the United also many medicinal plants.
States and Great Britain. In 1814 a British exWest Florida is the most fertile in grain: pedition having been fitted out from Pensacola wheat, oats, barley, rice, peas, buck-wheat, and against the American territories, General Jackrye, flourish. The climate is various.
son resolved to take possession of the place. In winter it seldom freezes, nor is the cold Accordingly, with a small body of regulars and ever so severe as to injure the orange tree. In some mounted volunteers, he marched from West Florida the mercury seldom falls below 30° Mobile, and, after a show of resistance from the of Fahrenheit, and seldom rises above 94° in Spaniards and British, carried the town. The the shade. The climate towards the west is more fort of Barrancas was soon afterwards destroyed by the British, and general Jackson having no cumulation in a particular place, as it otherwise authority to rebuild it, evacuated the place, and would have donc, if that coast had been more returned to Mobile. A similar disregard of the oblique to the direction of the tide, though the duties of neutrality on the part of the Spanish Bahama Islands, and shallows, must prove a congovernment, drew upon this province another siderable obstruction to the flood-tide setting invasion in 1818. The Seminole Indians, with diectly westerly, near Florida, and will have whom the United States were at war, residing some tendency to cause it to flow more to the within the limits of Florida, and making their north. incursions thence without restraint from the If we now turn our attention to the northern Spaniards, it became necessary, for the purpose coast of South America, we shall find that it follows of chastising them, to cross the territorial line, and nearly the direction of a parallel of latitude, or subsequently possession was taken by general east and west, and of course, very oblique to the Jackson of Fort St. Marks and Pensacola. The tide coming from the east; and, therefore, it is American troops remained in these posts until natural to suppose, that a current will be proNovember, 1818, when they were restored by duced, setting westward, from Cape St. Roque, the government of the United States to Spain. along the shores of Guiana, Cumana, Terra A negotiation, which had been for a long time Firma, the Musquito Shore., &c, towards Cape pending, for the transfer of the whole province Catouche in Yucatan. This, indeed, is verified to the United States, was consummated by by observation, for it is found, that the flood-tide treaty in 1819; and, after many vexatious de- combined with a current, runs along these coasts, lays, the treaty was ratified by Spain in October, generally at about the rate of two or three miles 1820, and finally by the United States in the an hour. This current setting along the Caribmonth of February, 1821. Possession was de bean Sea, will enter the Gulf of Mexico between livered to general Jackson, the commissioner of Cape Antonio, in Cuba, and Cape Catouche, in the United States, in July, 1821, and the pro- Yucatan, and must, of course, raise the waters vince now forms one of the territories of the of that Gulf, to a considerable height above the United States.
general level of the ocean. A part of these waFLORIDA, GULF OF, is a common name for ters after the time of high water, will fall back the channel between the peninsula of Florida, into the Caribbean Sea, and there actually has and the Bahama Isles, north of Cuba.
been observed a current off Cape Antonio, setThrough this gulf the celebrated stream, some- ting eastward along the south coast of Cuba. times called the gulf, sometimes the FLORIDA- Indeed it has been asserted, by Captain ManSTREAM, first inake sits way to the north-east along derson of the Royal Navy, in his Observations the coast of America.
on the Gulf Stream, that the waters about Cape Various attempts have been made to account Antonio, move sometimes one way, sometimes for this current, and as it is an object of general another, and are sometimes stationary,' which interest in natural history, though we have no- may be expected, according as it is flood-tide, ticed it in another place (see AMERICA, Index) ebb-tide, or high water. we conceive it may gratify our readers to present From what we have already advanced, it is thein with a concise view of its causes from an clear that the waters between Cuba and Yucatan, able paper in the Edinburgh Philosophical Jour- must be higher than those between Cuba and nal, for 1820. “It is known, that the tides in Florida ; and, therefore, the mass of waters carthe ocean are produced by the combined actions ried into the Gulf of Mexico, in the manner alof the sun and moon, causing the waters, in ge- ready mentioned, must flow out between Cuba neral, when their course is not obstructed by and East Florida. If we also take into consicontinents, islands, &c., to take a westerly direc- deration the number of great rivers, and among tion. The winds in the tropical climates, from them the Mississippi, itself like a sea, that falls nearly the same cause, blow generally the same into the Gulf of Mexico, which is, comparatively i way. It is also observed by navigators, that speaking, small, their waters must endeavour to when a wind blows for any length of time, in a extend themselves over a portion of sea greater given direction, the waters of the sea move in than that gulf; and since, from the accumulation the same direction, forming a current, at least at of water coming from the Caribbean Sea, dethe surface, more or less strong, according to pending on causes already pointed out, the wacircumstances, setting in that direction. The ters of the Mississippi, and other rivers, falling whole body of the waters of the Atlantic, then, into the Gulf of Mexico from the west and north, must have a general tendency to move from the cannot extend themselves over that sea towards coasts of Europe and Africa, towards the shores the south, they must flow along its northern shore of America, which must be modified in its ef- towards the east. That the waters of great fects, according to the different conformations of rivers do flow to a considerable distance in the the coasts and other combining circumstances. ocean, can be easily proved. In Columbus's If we examine the coast of North America, we first vovage to America, he found his vessel in shall find, that its direction is nearly that of the fresh water, at the mouth of the Orinoco, before meridian, or north and south, at least from about he discovered land, whence be inferred, he was New York to Cape Sable in East Florida. near some great continent, which alone could Therefore, the mass of waters coming from the produce such a stream. In Macleod's voyage east, will strike it nearly at right angles, which, io China, a stream of fresh water was found at a after high water, will gradually retire into the considerable distance from the shores of Java, ocean towards the east, without producing any and the British fleet, which blockaded Toulon, considerable current along the coast, or any ac- occasionally took in fresh water at the mouth of
the Rhone, at a considerable distance from land. tains the general rubrics, psalter, canticles, the Hence, then, it is clear, that the streams of large horologium, and the office of the feriæ, &c. rivers flow a considerable way into the ocean. FLO'RIN, n. s. Fr. A coin first made by the The Mississippi, and other large rivers which fall Florentines. That of Germany is in value 2s. 4d.; into the Gulf of Mexico, must therefore, in some that of Spain 4s. 4 d.; that of Palermo ana direction or other do the same. But since a cur- Sicily 2s. 6d. ; that of Holland 2s. rent of water flows generally into the Gulf of In the Imperial chamber the proctors have half a Mexico, between Yucatan and Cuba, the waters florin taxed and allowed them for every substantial of the Mississippi cannot flow out in that direc- recess.
Ayliffe. tion; they must therefore, with more or less ve- Florin is sometimes used for a coin, and locity, flow out between Cuba and Florida. sometimes for a money of account. As a coin, This, combining with the superabundant waters it is of different values, according to the different of the ocean collected in the Gulf, flowing round metals, and different countries where it is struck. between Cuba and Cape Sable in Florida, is, by The gold fiorins are most of them of a very coarse the north-west shores of Cuba, the Bahama alloy, some of them not exceeding thirteen or Isles, and banks, turned round the eastern shores fourteen carats, and none of them seventeen and of East Florida, and must set northward along a half. As a money of account, it is used by the east coast of America, with considerable ve- the Italian, Dutch, and German merchants and locity, constituting what is called the Florida or bankers, but admits of different divisions in difGulf Stream. This conclusion is verified by ferent places. See Coins. observation; for the waters in the Gulf Stream, FLORINIANI, or FLORIANI, a sect of herein the greater part of its course to the north of iics, of the second century, so named from its the Bahama Islands, are found, by the thermo- author Florinus. Philastrius says, that they were meter, to be warmer than those of the seas im- the same with the Carpophorians. He adds, mediately bordering on it, whence they must that they were also called soldiers, milites, quia come from a warmer climate, and, when chemi- de militaribus fuerunt. St. Irenæus calls them cally examined, to possess a less degree of salt- Gnostics; St. Epiphanius, Phibionites; and ness, and therefore must consist chiefly of fresh Theodoret, Borborites, on account of the impuriwater. Hence, from these two causes, namely, ties of their lives. the current formed by the flood-tide setting in FLORINUS, or FLORIANUS, a heretic of the between Cuba and Yucatan, and the fresh water second century, and a priest of the Roman from the Mississippi, and other large rivers, fal- church, deposed for his errors along with Blastus. ling into the Gulf of Mexico, combined and He had been a disciple of St. Polycarp, along modified in the manner we have described, and with Irenæus. He made God the author of not either of them separately, as has been some- evil; or rather asserted, that the things forbidden times affirmed, making its escape northward, by God are not evil, but of his own appointing; along the eastern coast of America, we think, it in which he followed the errors of Valentinus, will evidently appear, is derived the true cause and joined himself with the Carpocratians. of the Gulf Stream. Hence, too, the circular FLORIS (Francis), an eminent historical motion of the waters in the northern Atlantic, painter, born at Antwerp in 1520. He foland other phenomena, attempted to be esta lowed the profession of a statuary till twenty blished by Humboldt, will receive a satisfactory years of age; when, preferring painting, he ensolution.'
tered the school of Lambert Lombard, whose FLORIDA BLANCA (Francis Anthony Mo- manner he initated very perfectly. He afternino, count de), a principal minister of Spain in wards went into Italy, and completed his studies inodern times, first distinguished himself as an from the most eminent masters. The great proopponent of the French revolution: his ene- gress he had made in historical painting, at his inies availed themselves of his unpopularity to return procured him much employment; and procure his dismission from the king's service in his countrymen complimented him with the title the beginning of 1792. He was shortly after of the Flemish Raphael. He obtained consipermitted to retire to his estates in the province derable prices for his pictures, and might have of Murcia, and to retain his titles and dignities, rendered himself more worthy of the attention out arrested again in July the same year, and of the great, had he not debased his character by committed to the castle of Pampeluna, and again frequent intoxication. He died in 1570, aged soon released. After several years of seclusion, fifty. he was in 1808 chosen president of the cortes, FLORIS, or Ende Isle, a considerable island and died in that year November 20th, aged near of the Eastern Seas, situated between the go and eighty.
go S. lat., and the 120° and 123° of E. long. In FLORILEGIUM, FLORILEGE, a name the length, it is about 200 miles, by thirty-six the Latins have given to what the Greeks call avdo- average breadth. The interior is mountainous Loylov, anthology ; viz. a collection of choice and woody, but near the sea is a fine open pieces, containing the finest and brightest things country; but this island is little known to Euin their kind.
ropeans. Over the greater part, the Birma, a FJORILEGIUM, or Anthologia, is particularly kindred language to the Javanese, prevails. At used for a breviary, in the eastern church, com- the village of Larantooca in the straits, which piled by Arcadius, for the conveniency of the separate Floris from Sabraon and Solor, EuroGreek priests and monks, who cannot carry with pean vessels procure refreshments in exchange them, in their travels and pilgrimages, all the for ammunition, cutlery, &c. Formerly sandal volumes wherein their office is dispersed. It con- wood might be procured here in considerable