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ing season, when they bring a vast quantity of trussed his claws and carried them off; skimming prey to their young. Smith, in his history of slowly along the ground as he had come, till he herry, relates, that a poor man in that country disappeared behind a cliff. But being observed obtained a comfortable subsistence for his family, at his departure to look wistfully at the large during a sunimer of famine, out of an eagle's piece, which remained in the warm water, it was nest, by robbing the eaglets of the food the old concluded that he would soon return; in expecones brought; whose attendance he protracted tation of which Mr. Bruce loaded a rifle gun beyond the natural time, by clipping the wings with ball, and sat down close to the platter by and retarding the flight of the former. In order the meat. It was not many minutes before le to extirpate these pernicious birds, there was caine, and a prodigious shout was raised by the formerly a law in the Orkney isles, which entitled attendants, 'He is coming, he is coming !' enough every person that killed an eagle to a hen out of to have discouraged a less courageous animal. every house in the parish where it was killed. Whether it was not quite so hungry as at the Eagles seem to give the preference to the carcases first visit, or suspected something from Mr. of dogs and cats. Those who formerly made it Bruce's appearance, it made a small turn, and their business to kill these birds, fired the instant sat down about ten yards from him, the pan with they alighted; for the eagle at that moment looks the meat being between them. In this situation about before she begins to prey. Yet, quick as Mr. Bruce fired, and shot him with the ball her sight may be, her sense of hearing seems through the middle of his body about two inches still more exquisite. If hooded crows or ravens below the wing, so that he lay down upon the happen to be nearer the carrion, and resort to it grass without a single flutter. Upon laying hold first, and give a single croak, the eagle instantly of his monstrous carcase, our author was not a repairs to the spot. These eagles are remarkable little surprised at seeing his hands covered and for their longevity, and for sustaining a long ab- tinged with yellow dust. Upon turning him stinence from food. Mr. Keysler relates, that upon his belly, and examining the feathers of his an eagle died at Vienna after a confinement of back, they produced a brown dust, the color of 104 years. This length of days seems alluded to the feathers there. This dust was not in small by the Psalmist, “Thy youth is renewed like the quantities; for, upon striking his breast, the eagle's.' One of this species, which was nine yellow powder flew in greater quantity than years in the possession of (wen Holland Esq. of froin a hair dresser's powder puff. The feathers Conway, lived thirty-two years with the gentle- of the belly and breast, which were of gold color, man who made him a present of it; but what its did not appear to have any thing extraordinary age was, when the latter received it, from Ireland, in their formation, but the large feathers in the is unknown. The same bird also furnishes us shoulders and wings seemed apparently to be fine with a proof of the truth of the other remark; tubes, which upon pressure scattered this dust having once, through the neglect of servants, upon the finer part of the feather, but this was endured hunger for twenty-one days without any brown, the color of the feathers of the back. sustenance whatever.-It is perhaps proper here Upon the side of the wing, the ribs, or hard part to notice a very singular variety of the golden of the feather, seemed to be bare as if worn, or, eagle, described by Mr. Bruce, in his travels in in our author's opinion, were rather renewing Abyssinia; for, whether it properly belongs to themselves, having before failed in their function. this species or not, we do not find that it has been What is the reason of this extraordinary proviis yei either arranged under any other, or ranked sion of nature, Mr. Bruce does not attempt to as a different genus. Mr. Bruce says, it is not determine. But, as it is an unusual one, it is only the largest of the eagle kind, but the largest probably meant, he thinks, for a defence against bird that flies. By the natives it is vulgarly the climate in favor of those birds, which live in called abon duchen, or father long-beard. It is those almost inaccessible heights of a country, not an object of any chase, nor stands in need of doomed even in its lower parts to several months any stratagem to bring it within reach. Upon of excessive rain. This bird, from wing to wing, the highest top of mount Lamalmon, while Mr. was eight feet four inches; from the tip of his tail iv Bruce's servants were refreshing themselves the point of his beak, when dead, four feet seven after their toilsome ascent, and enjoying the inches. He was remarkably short in the leys, pleasure of a most delightful climate, eating being only four inches from the joining of the their dinner in the open air with several large foot to where the leg joins the thigh, and from dishes of boiled goat's flesh before them, this the joint of the thigh to the joining of his body noble bird suddenly made its appearance; he six inches. The thickness of his thigh was little did not stoop rapidly from a height, but came less than four inches; it was extremely muscular flying slowly along the ground, and sat down and covered with flesh. His middle claw was close to the meat within the ring the men had about two inches and a half long, not very sharp made round it. A great shout, or rather cry of at the point, but extremely strong. From the distress, which they raised, made the bird stand root of the bill to the point was three inches and for a minute as if to recollect himself, while the a quarter, and one inch and three-quarters in servants ran for their lances and shields. His breadth at the root. A forked brush of strong attention was fully fixed upon the flesh. He put hair, divided at the point into two, proceeded his foot into the pan where was a large piece in from the cavity of his lower jaw at the beginning water nearly boiling; but, feeling the smart, he of his throat. His eye was remarkably small in withdrew it, and forsook the piece which he held. proportion to his bulk, the aperture being There were two large pieces, a leg and a shoulder, scarcely half an inch. The crown of his head, and lying upon a wooden platter; into these he the front where the billand skull joined,were baid. 4. F. aquila fulvus, the tawny eagle or white so great taat toe young eagles appeared no larger tailed eagle of Edwards, has the whole plumage than pigeons. After placing us in a secure situaof a dusky brown : the breast marked with trian- tion on a projecting ledge of the rock, that comgular spots of white, but which are wanting in manded a view of the scene of action, Tomson the British kind : the tail is white, tipt with left us, carrying his rope in his hand, and disapblack; but in young birds dusky, blotched with peared for upwards of half an hour; when, to white: the legs are covered to the toes with soft our great joy, we discovered him creeping on his rust-colored feathers. These birds inhabit Hud- hands and knees up the spiry fragment, on which son's Bay, and northern Europe as far as Dron- lay the unfledged eaglets; when, knowing he theim. They are found on the highest rocks of was then in our sight, he knelt on the top, and the Uralian chain, where it is not covered with looking towards us, waved his hat. At this time wood; but are most frequent on the Siberian, it was impossible to see the situation he was in where they make their nests on the loftiest rocks. without trembling for his safety; the slender They are inferior in size to the sea eagle; but are point of the rock on which he knelt was at least spirited, and docile. The Tartars train them for 800 feet above the surges of the Atlantic, which the chase of hares, foxes, antelopes, and even with unbroken violence were foaming beneath wolves. The use is of considerable antiquity; him. Yet he deliberately took from his pocket for Marco Polo, the great traveller of 1269, ob- a cord, and tying the wings of the young birds, served and admired the diversion of the great who made some resistance with their bills and cham of Tartary; who had several eagles, which talons, he put them into a basket, and began to were applied to the same purposes. The Tartars descend, and in a few minutes the overhanging also esteem the feathers of the tail as the best for masses of stone hid him from our view. The pluming their arrows. This species is frequent old birds were in sight during the transaction, in Scotland; where it is called the black eagle, and made no attempt to defend their young; but, from the dark color of its plumage. It is very soaring about a quarter of a mile above, occadestructive to deer, which it will seize between sionally uttered a short shrill scream, very difthe horns; and, by incessantly beating it about ferent from their usual barking noise. Had they the eyes with its wings, soon makes a prey of the attempted a rescue, the situation of the climber harassed animal. The eagles in the isle of Rum would have been extremely dangerous, as the have nearly extirpated the stags that used to slightest deviation or false step would have preabound there. They generally build in clefts of cipitated him into eternity, a misfortune that a rocks near the deer forests; and make great havoc few years since befel his brother on the same among them, the white hares, and the ptarmigans. spot, when in his company. Willoughby gives the following curious account After waiting in a most painful state of susof the best of this species. In 1668, in the pense for near an hour, our climber suddenly woodlands near the river Darwent, in the peak made his appearance, and, laughing, presented of Derbyshire, was found an eagle's nest made his prize.' of great sticks, resting one end on the edge of a 5. F. aquila Groenlandicus, the falco fuscus rock, the other on two birch-trees; upon which of Latham, the dusky falcon of Pennant, or was a layer of rushes, and over them a layer of Greenland eagle, has dusky irides ; lead-colored heath, and upon the heath rushes again ; upon cere and feet; brown crown, marked with irrewhich lay one young one and an addle egg; and gular oblong white spots; whitish forehead, by them a lamb, a hare, and three heath poults. blackish cheeks; the hind part of the head and The nest was about two yards square, and had throat white; breast and belly of a yellowish no hollow in it.
white, striped downwards with dusky streaks ; The following account of the capture of four the back dusky, tinged with blue; the ends of the young of this species, when about three weeks feathers lightest, and sprinkled over with a few old, is given by Mr. Bullock :- On the 10th of white spots, especially towards the rump; the June, 1812, they were seen in their aëry on the wings of the same colors, variegated with white treinendous cliff called the West Craigs, in the and black; the upper part of the tail dusky Isle of Hoy (one of the Orkneys), the towering crossed very faintly with paler bars, the under rocks of which rise to the perpendicular height side whitish. They inhabit all parts of Greenof 1200 feet from the sea. "About one-third of land, from the remotest hills to those which imthe way down this awful abyss a slender-pointed pend over the sea; and are even seen on the rock prv;ected from the cliff, like the pinnacle of islands of ice remote from shore. They retire a Gothic building; on the extremity of this is a in the breeding season to the farthest part of the hollow, scarcely of sufficient size for the purpose country, and return in autumn with their young. for which these birds had fixed on it, i.e. as a place They breed in the same manner as the cinereous of security for rearing their young; the situation eagle, but in more distant places; and lay from was such as almost to defy the power of man to three to five eggs. The tail of the young is black, molest their habitation; yet with the assistance of with great brown spots on the exterior webs. a short slender rope made of twisted hogs' They prey on ptarmigans, auks, and all the small bristles, did the well-known adventurous climber, birds of the country. They have frequent dise or Rocksman, · Woolley Tomson,' traverse the putes with the raven, but seldom come off victors; face of this frightful precipice, and for a trifling for the raven, on being attacked, Alings itself on remuneration broughi up the young birds. its back; and either by defending itself witn its
After a fatiguing scramble up the sides of the claws, or by calling, with its croaking, numbers mountains, we arrived at the place from whence of others to its help, obliges the eagle to retire. we could see the aëry bencath; the distance was The Greenlanders use the skin for unei inner
garments; the wings for brushes; the feet for varied with oval white spots; the primaries amulets; but seldom eat the flesh, unless com. dusky, the ends of the greater white; the breast pelled by hunger.
and belly are of a deeper color than the rest 6. F. aquila halıætos, the balbuzard of Buf- of the plumage, streaked downwards with bn, the osprey of Pennant and Latham, or dull yellow; the tail is dark brown, tipped the fishing-hawk of Catesby, weighs three pounds with dirty white; the legs are feathered to the and a quarter; it measures from one tip of the feet, which are yellow. The length of the bird wing to the other five feet and a half, but is is two feet. This species is found in many parts hardly two feet long. The bill is black, with a of Europe, but not in Scandinavia; is frequent blue cere; the iris of the eye is yellow, and the in Russia and Siberia ; and extends even to crown of the head brown, with a mixture of Kamptschatka. It is less spirited than other white feathers; from each eye backwards runs a eagles, and is perpetually making a plaintive brown stripe; the back, wings, and tail, are of noise; from which it was styled by the ancients a dark brown; the throat, neck, and belly, white; planga; and anataria, from its preying on ducks, the legs and feet are rough and scaly, and of a which Pliny describes with great elegance. Lib. pale blue color; the talons are black, and nearly X. c. 3. The Arabs used to train it for the of an equal size ; the feathers of the thighs, con- chase; but its quarry was cranes and other birds; trary to others of the hawk kind, are short, and the more generous eagle being flown at anteadhere close to them, for the more easily pene- lopes and various quadrupeds. This species was trating the water. Notwithstanding this bird is itself an object of diversion, and made the prey so persecuted by the bald eagle, yet it always of even so small a bird as the sparrow-hawk; keeps wear its haunts. It is very quick-sighted, which would pursue it with great eagerness, and will see a fish near the surface from a great soar above, then fall on it, and, fastening with its distance, descend with prodigious rapidity, and talons, keep beating it about the head with its carry the prey with an exulting scream high into wings, till they both fell together to the ground. the air. Sometimes the bird perishes in taking Sir John Chardin saw this practised about its prey; for, if it chances to fix its talons in an Tauris. overgrown fish, it is drawn under water before it 9. F. aquila milvus, the kite, is a native of can disengage itself, and is drowned.
Europe, Asia, and Africa. This species gene7. F. aquila leucocephalus, the bald eagle of rally breeds in large forests or woody mountainCatesby and Latham, and the white-headed ous countries. Its nest is composed of sticks, eagle of Pennant, is ash-colored, with the head lined with several odd mate:ials, such as rags, and tail white; the iris of the eye is white, over bits of flannel, ropes, and paper. It lays two, which is a prominence covered with a yellow or at most three eggs; which, like those of other skin ; the bill and cere are yellow, as well as the birds of prey, are much rounded and blunt at legs and feet; and the talons are black. Though the smaller end. They are white, spotted with it is only three feet long, it weighs nine pounds, dirty yellow. Its motion in the air distinguishes is strong and full of spirit, preying on lambs, it from all other birds, being so smooth and even pigs, and fawns. They always make their nests that it is scarce perceptible. Sometimes it will near the sea or great rivers, and usually upon remain quite motionless for a considerable space; old pine or cypress trees, continuing to build at others glide through the sky without the least annually on the same tree till it falls Though apparent action of its wings; from thence dehe is so formidable to all birds, yet he suffers riving the old name of glede, from the Saxon them to build near his nest without molestation; glida. They inhabit the north of Europe, as particularly the fishing-hawk, herons, &c., which high as Jarisberg, in the south of Norway; but all build on high trees. The nests are very large do not extend farther. They quit Sweden in and very fetid by reason of the relics of their flocks at the approach of winter, and return in prey. Lawson says, they breed very often, laying spring. Some of them winter about Astrakan, again under their callow young; whose warmth but the greater part are supposed to retire into hatches the eggs. In Bhering's Isle they make Egypt, being seen in September passing by Contheir nests on the cliffs nearly six feet wide and stantinople in their way from the north; and one thick; and lay two eggs in the beginning of again in April returning to Europe, to shun the July. This species inhabits Europe, but is more great heats of the east. They are observed in common in America. It feeds also on fish. vast numbers about Cairo, where they are exThis, however, it does not procure for itself; tremely tame, and feed even on dates, probably but, sitting in a convenient spot, watches the for want of other food. They also breed there; diving of the osprey in the water after a fish, so that, contrary to the nature of other rapacious which, the moment it has seized, the bald eagle birds, they increase and multiply twice in the follows close after, when the osprey is glad to year; once in the mild winters of Egypt, and a escape by dropping the fish from his bill; and second time in the summers of the north. They such is the dexterity of the eagle, that it often appear in Greece in the spring. In Britain they seizes the prey before it can fall to the ground. are found the whole year. Lord Bacon observes, Catesby says, the male and female are much that when kites fly high, it portends fair and dry alike.
weather. Kerr enumerates three varieties of this 8. F. aquila maculatus, the spotted eagle of species, viz. the Siberian, Russian, and Jaic kites. Latham and Catesby, and crying eagle of Pen- 10. F. aquila ossifragus, the osprey, or sea pant, has a dusky bill and yellow cere; the co- eagle, with yellow cere, and half-feathered lor of the plumage is a ferruginous brown; the legs; is about the size of a peacock ; the Coacoverts of the wings and scapulars are elegantly thers are white at the base, iron-colored in the
middle, and black at the points; and the legs eye-lids bristly; the orbits yellow; and irides
It inhabits South
very fact which he saw in Scotland, is of this of the hawk kind in England. It breeds in large cho
pointing downwards: the back of the head and 11. F. aquila Peruvianus, or furcatus ; the neck, and coverts of the wings, are of a deep Peruvian kite, or swallow-tailed hawk, has a brown, edged with a pale rust-color; the middle black bill, less hooked than usual with rapacious of the back covered only with a thick white birds ; the eyes are large and black, with a red down. The tail is barred with black, and ashiris; the head, neck, breast, and belly, are white; color, and sometimes with ferruginous. the upper part of the back and wings a dark 16. F. cachinnans, the laughing falcon, has purple; but more dusky towards the lower parts, yellowish legs and cere, and white eye-brows; with a tincture of green. The wings are long the body is variegated with brown and white; in proportion to the body, and, when extended, and it has a black ring round the top of the head. measure four feet. The tail is dark purple mixed It makes a laughing kind of noise when it with
green, and remarkably forked. This most observes any person, and is a native of South elegant species inhabits only the south parts of America. North America; and that only during summer. 17. F. candicans, the white gyrfalcon of PenThey feed chiefly flying; for they are much on nant, has legs and cere of a bluish ash, the bill wing, and prey on various sorts of insects. They bluish, and greatly hooked; the eye dark blue; also feed on lizards and serpents; and will kill the throat of a pure white; the whole body, the largest of them with the utmost ease. They wings, and tail of the same color, most elegantly quit North America before winter, and are sup- marked with dusky bars, lines, or spots, leaving posed to retreat to Peru.
the white the far prevailing color. There are 12. F. aquila Sinesis, the Chinese eagle, is one instances, but rare, of its being found entirely of the largest of the sub-genus. The cere and white. In some the whole tail is crossed by legs are yellow; the body is reddish brown remote bars of black or brown; in others, they above and yellowish beneath. The bill and claws appear only very faintly on the middle fcathers: are large and black; the irides brown; the the feathers of the thighs are very long and uncrown dusky; the coverts and quill-feathers spotted: the legs strong, and of a light blue. marked with a dusky band. It inhabits India Its weight is forty-five ounces Troy; length near and China.
two feet; extent four feet two inches. This spe13. F. aquila tharus, the Chilese ex le, has a cies has the same manners and baunts with ihe crest of black feathers on the head; legs and Iceland falcon. It is very common in Iceland; cere yellow; the body blackish white; feet scaly, is found in Lapland and Norway ; but rarely in with very strong claws. It is common in Chili; the Orkneys and North Britain. In Asia it is about the size of a large capon, and feeds on dwells in the highest points of the Uralian anů dead carcases, like the bastard eagles. The fe- Other Siberian mountains, and dares the coldest male is smaller than the male, and grayish ; and climates throughout the year. It is kept in the lays five eggs at a brood.
latitude of Petersburgh, uninjured in the open 14. F. aquilinus, the aquiline falcon, or small air during the severest winters. This biril is American eagle, of Buffon, has yellow legs and pre-eminent in courage as well as beauty, and is cere; the upper parts blue; the under reddish- ihe terror of other hawks. It was flown at all white; the neck purplish-red; the sides of tle kinds of fowl, how great soever, but its chief bead downy, and laruly covered with feathers; game was herons and cranes. This species, with
the Iceland and Greenland falcons are reserved days of falconry. It makes its nest in rocks: it for the kings of Denmark; who send their is larger than the goshawk; the cere and legs falconer with two attendants annually into Ice- are yellow, the head of a light rust color, with land to purchase them. They are caught by the black streaks; the whole upper side from chin natives, a certain number of whom in every dis- to tail white, with dusky heart-shaped spots : trict are licensed for that purpose. The falconer the back of a brown color; the tail barred with examines the birds, rejects those which are not four or five bars of black, and as many of ashfor bis purpose, and gives the seller a written color; the tips of all the tail feathers white. certificate of the qualities of each, which entitles 20. F.gypætus albicilla, the cinereous bastard him to receive payment from the king's receiver- eagle, is inferior in size to the golden eagle; the general. They are taken in the following man- head and neck are of a pale ash color; the body ner :-Two posts are fastened in the ground, near and wings cinereous, clouded with brown; the their haunts. To one is tied a ptarmigan, a quill feathers very dark: the tail white; the legs pigeon, and a cock or hen, fastened to a cord, that it feathered but little below the knees, and of a may flutter, and so attract the attention of the very bright yellow. The male is of a darker falcon. On the other post is placed a net, dis- color than the female. The bill of this species is tended on a hoop, about six feet in diameter. rather straighter than usual, which seems to have Through this post is introduced a string, above induced Linnæus to rank it among the vultures. 100 yards long, which is fastened to the net, in But Pennant observes, that it can have no title to order to pull it down; and another is fastened to be ranked with that genus, the characteristical the upper part of the hoop, and goes through the mark of which is, that the head and neck are post to which the bait is tied. As soon as the either quite bare, or only covered with down; falcon sees the fowl futter on the ground, he whereas this bird is wholly feathered. This spetakes a few circles in the air, to see if there is cies is in size equal to the black eagle, and any danger, then darts on his prey with such inbabits Europe as high as Iceland and Lapland, vicience as to strike off the head, as nicely as if and particularly the north of Scotland. It is it was done with a razor. He then usually rises common in Greenland, but does not extend to again, and takes another circle, to explore the America; or according to Pennant, if it does, it place a second time; after which he makes varies into the white-headed eagle, to which it another stoop, when, at the instant of his de- has great affinity, particularly in its feeding scending, the man pulls the dead bird under the much on fish; the Danes therefore call it fiskenet; and, by means of the other cord, covers the orn. It is common in the south of Russia, and falcon with the net at the moment it has seized about the Volga, as far as trees will grow; but is the prey; the person lying concealed behind very scarce in Siberia. It inhabits Greenland some stones, or flat on his belly, to elude the the whole year, sitting on the rocks with fagging sight of the falcon. As soon as one is caught, it wing, and flies slowly. It makes its nest on the is taken gently out of the net, for fear of break- lofty cliffs, with twigs, lining the middle with ing any of the feathers of the wings or tail: and mosses and feathers : lays two eggs, and sits in a cap is placed over its eyes. If any of the tail the end of May, or beginning of June. These feathers are injured, the falconers have the art of birds prey on young seals, which they seize while grafting others.
Aoating on the water; but oftentimes, by fixing 18. F. coluinbarius, the pigeon-hawk of Cates- their talons in an old one, they are overmatched, by, weighs about six ounces. The bill is black and drawn down to the bottom, screaming horriat the point, and whitish at the base: the iris of bly. They feed also on fish, especially the the eye is yellow; the base of the upper mandi- lump-fish, and a sort of trout : on ptarmigans, ble is covered with a yellow wax; the upper auks, and eider ducks. They sit on the top of parts of the body and wings are brown: the tail rocks, attentive to the motion of the diving-birds; is brown, but has four white bars. The interior and with quick eyes observe their course by the vanes of the quill feathers have large red spots. bubbles which rise to the surface of the water, The tail is marked with large regular transverse and catch the fowls as they rise for breath. The white lines; the throat, breast, and belly, are Greenlanders use their skins for clothing next white, mixed with brown; the small feathers that to their bodies; eat the flesh, and keep the bill cover the thighs reach within half an inch of the and feet for amulets. They kill them with the feet, and are white, with a tincture of red beset bow, or take them in nets placed in the snow with long spots of brown; the legs and feet are properly baited; or tempt them by the fat of yellow. It inhabits America, from Hudson's seals, which the eagles cat to an excess, and Bay as low as South Carolina. In the last which occasions such a torpidity as to make it attains to a larger size. In Hudson's Bay it them an easy prey. In Scotland and the Orkappears in May on the banks of the Severn, neys they feed on land animals as well as fish. breeds, and retires south in autumn. It feeds on 21. F. gypætus barbatus, the bearded bastard small birds; and on the approach of any person eagle, or bearded vulture of Linnæus, is of a whiflies in circles, and makes a great shrieking. It tish fiery-red color, brown on the back, with a black forms its nest in a rock, or some hollow tree, stripe above and below each eye. It inhabits the with sticks and grass, and lines it with feathers: Alps, is four feet long, and ten feet in extent; and lays from two to four eggs, white, spotted the bill is of an ash color, mixed with reddish; with red. In Carolina it preys on pigeons, and fringed at the sides and below with stiff black the young of wild turkeys.
bristles. The wings have twenty-eight bright 19. F. gentilis, the gentle falcon, inhabits the ash-colored quill feathers, and the tail twelve. north of Scotland, and was in high esteem in the This species build their nests in the caverns of