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Men find green clay that is soft as long as it is in Quacks, figure-fingers, pettifoggers, and republican

Collier. fae water, so that one may print on it all kinds of plotters cannot well live without it. dair bynes, and give it what shape one pleases.


This is a figurative expression, where the words are Here is a strange figure invented against the plain used in a different sense from what they signify in and natural sense of the words; for by praying to their first ordinary intention.

Rogers. bestow, must be understood only praying to pray. Tho custom of the apostle is figuratively to transfer

Stillingfleet. to himself, in the first person, what belongs to others. How often have we been railed at for understand

Hammond. ing words in a figurative sense, which can not be lite Now marks the course of rolling orbs on high, bent rally understood without overthrowing the pla inest O'er figured world now travels with his eye. Pope. evidence of sease and reason.


The figure of a syllogism is the proper disposition
The blue German shall the Tigris drink, of the middle term with the parts of the question.
Ere 1, forsaking gratitude and truth,

Watts's Logick. orget the figure of that godlike youth. Dryden. If it be his chief end in it to grow rich, that he may

While fortune favoured while his arms support live in figure and indulgence, and be able to retire 02. The cause, and ruled the counsels of the court, from business to idleness and hurry, his trade, as to she I made some figure there; nor was my name him, loses all its innocency:

Law. Obscure, nor I without my sbare of fame. Id.

I grant you the periods are very well turned : so, In the principal figures of a picture the painter is a fresh egg is a very good thing, but when thrown a co to employ the sinews of his art; for in them consists at a man in a pillory it does not at all improve his the pricipal beauty of his work.

Id. figure, not to mention the irreparable loss of the egg. Lach thought was visible that rolled within,

Burns. As thro' a crystal glass the figured hours arc seen. SIR ANTH. and it is my wish, while yet I live, to


have my boy make some figure in the world, I have Sablime sabjects ought to be adorned with the resolved, therefore, to fix you at once in a noble ine sublimest and with the most figurative expressions. dependence.

Sheridan. Id. Juvenal, Preface. There's one, though tall and stiffer than a pike, Satyr is a kind of poetry in which hunnan vices Yet has a sentimental kind of air are reprehended, partly dramatically, partly simply; Which might go far, but she don't dance with bat, for the most part, figuratively and occultly.

vigour; Id. Dedication. The more's the pity, with her face and figure. Figure-fingers and star-gazers pretend to foretell

Byron. ibe fortunes of kingdoms, and have ao foresight in Like the figures on arras, that gloomily glare, that concerns themselves.

L'Estrange. Stirred by the breath of the wintry air,
Pigures are properly modifications of bodies ; for

So seen by the dying lamp's fitful light,
pare space is not any where terminated, nor can be :

Lifeless, but life-like, and awful to sight. bether there be or be not body in it, it is uniformly

Id. Siege of Corinth. costosed.

Locke. Figure, in logic, denotes a certain order and They have been taught rhetorick, but never taught disposition of the middle term in any syllogism. language ; as if the names of the figures that embel- Figures are fourfold. 1. When the middle term inbed the discourse of those, who undorstood the art is the subject of the major proposition, and the of speaking, were the very art and skill of speaking predicate of the minor, we have what is called well. Figured and metaphorical expressions do well to

the first figure. 2. When the middle term is the ilustrace more abstruse and unfamiliar ideas, which predicate of both the premises, the syllogism is the mind is not yet thoronghly accustomed 10. Id. said to be in the second figure. If the middle As in accounts cyphers and figures pass for real term is the subject of the two premises, the rams, so in human affairs words pass for things them- syllogism is in the third figure. And lastly, by selves.

South's Sermous. making it the predicate of the major, and subject A good figure, or person, in man or woman, zives of the minor, we obtain syllogisms in the fourth credit at first sight to the choice of either. Clarissu. figure. Each of these figures has a determinate

The emperor appears as a rising sun, and holds a number of moods, including all the possible zlobe in his hand to figure out the earth that is el ways in which propositions differing in quantity lightened and actuated by his beams. Addison. or quality can be combined, according to any Nor a woman shall be unexplained that makes a disposition of the middle term, in order to arrive jgure either as a maid, a wife, or a widow. at a just conclusion. See Logic.

Id. Guardian. FILACER, FILAZER or Filizer. Filizarius. I was charmed with the gracefulness of his figure Fr. file, filace; from Lat. filum, a thread. An und delivery, as well as with his discourses. officer of the court of common pleas, so called

Addison. because he files those writs whereon he nakes Several statnes, which seemed at a distance the

out process. There are fourteen of those filazers whitest marble, were nothing else but so many figures in their several divisions and counties, and they


make forth all writs and processes upon original None that feels sensibly the decays of age, and his writs, issuing out of chancery, as well real, as life wearing off, can figure to himself those imaginary personal and mixed, returnable in that court; cbarms in riches and praise, that men are apt to do and in actions merely personal, where the dein the warmth of their blood.


fendants are returned summoned, they make II love, alas. be pain, the pain 1 bear No thought can figure, and no tongue declare.

out pones or attachments; which being returned

and executed, if the defendant appears not, they

My favourite books and pictures sell ;

make forth a distringas, and so ad infinitum, or Kindly throw is a little figure,

until he doth appear; if he be returned nihil, Aad set the price upon the bigger.

ja. then process of capias infinite, &c. They enter ali

appearances and special bails, upon any pro- these figures, and incommodes the reins, hipster cess made by them: and make the first scire &c. facias on special bails, writs of habeas corpus, FILANGIERI (Gætan), one of the few more! distringas nuper vice comitem vel ballivum, and dern Neapolitan writers of eminence, was bori all supersedeas's upon special bail : in real ac in 1752, and destined, as the younger son of de tions, writs of view, of grand and petit cape, of noble family, to the army. He however appliers withernam, &c.; also writs of adjournment of a himself in 1774 to the study of the law, and pro 2008 term, in case of public disturbance, &c. An duced a tract, in which he defended a new enact order of court, 14 Jac. I., first limited their pro- ment against the arbitrary decision of a judge fri ceedings to all matters before appearance, and He soon after withdrew from public life, but it the prothonotaries to all after. The filazers of 1777 at the advice of his uncle, the archbishop o last the common pleas have been officers of that Naples, entered into the service of the court, ang Toe court before the stat. 10 Hen. VI. c. 4., wherein was appointed gentleman of the bed-chambe piante they are mentioned: and in the king's hench, of and an officer in the royal corps of marine volup. later times, there have been filazers who make teers. In 1780 he published the first part of his ** out process upon original writs returnable in that great work on The Science of Legislation, the whole court, on actions in general.

of which was to be completed in seven books, FIL'AMENT, n. š.) Fr. filament ; Lat. fila- In the first he proposed to expound the general

Fila'ceous, adj. S menta. A slight or slen- rules of legislation; in the second, civil and eco--* der thread : filaceous is thread-like, or composed nomical laws; in the third, criminal laws; in the of threads.

fourth, legislation as applied to education and user's They make cables of the bark of lime trees; it is morals; in the fifth, ecclesiastical laws; in the the stalk that maketh the filaceous matter commonly, sixth, laws respecting property; and in the ad bas han and sometimes the down that groweth above.

seventh, laws relative to paternal authority and a ser Bacon's Natural History. domestic economy. Of this work the first four unit care The lungs of consumptives bave been consumed, books only appeared during the life of the author. Dezed. nothing remaining but the ambient membrane, and á In 1783, having married a lady from Hungarye site number of withered veins and filaments. Harvey. who was governess to one of the princesses, he i dhe bore se

Men that louk no further than their outsides, think resigned his employments and resided for some ta, vtiers health an appurtenance unto life, and quarrel with time in the country; but in March, 1787, was their constitutions for being sick; but I that have appointed to a place in the royal college of the recta examined the parts of man, and know upon what ten- finance. He died suddenly while engaged in 3 lady's bear der filaments that fabric hangs, do wonder that we are

some extensive plans of improvement in the re-day fuck the not always so; and, considering the thousand doors

sources of the state, in July 1788. A part of it has that lead to death, to thank my God that we can die

the fifth book of his Science of Legislation was but once.

Sir T. Browne.

published in 1791, and attracted great public at- a facris The ever-rolling orb's impulsive ray

tention, from the bold and original views, and 't Ls erighe On the next threads and filaments does bear,

the liberal ty of sentiment by which it is characWhich form the springy texture of the air; And those still strike the next, 'till to the sight

terised. Several editions appeared in Italy, and The quick vibration propagates the light.

it was translated into the French, German, Eng

Blackmore. lish, and Spanish languages. The dung of horses is nothing but the filaments of FILBERT', n. s. A hazel nut. A corruption. the hay, and as such combustible. Arbuthnot. as Junius and Skinner think, of full beard', from

FILANDERS, in entomology and falconry, the long beard or husk of this fruit. Dr. John-! are worms as small as thread, and about an inch son conjectures it may have been originally called to be long, that lie wrapt up in a thin skin or net, near after some proper name, like Filbert or Filibert. the reins of a hawk, apart from either gut or Mr. Horne Tooke reminds us of the following users furber gorge. The malady is known by the hawk's curious passage in Gower's Amantis on the subpoverty; by her ruffling her tail; by straining ject of its etymology:The fist, or perch, with her pounces; and, lastly,

Upon a grene bough by croaking in the night, when the filanders

A seynt of sylke, which she (Phillis) there had, prick her. The disease proceeds from bad food; She knit; and so herself she lad, and must be remedied early, to prevent its spread That she about her white severe ing over the whole body, and destroying the bird. It did, and henge hirselfe there. These worms must not be killed as others are, Whereof the goddes were amoved, for fear of imposthumes from their corruption,

And Demophon was reproved, being incapable of passing away with the hawk's

That of the goddes' providence feces. They must only be stupified, to prevent

Was shape such an evidence their being offensive, by giving the hawk a clove

Ever afterwarde ayen the slowe,

That Phillis in the same throwe of garlic; after which she will feel nothing of

Was shape into a nutte tree, them for forty days. The falconer, when he

That all men it might see : observes the hawk poor and low, should give

And after Phillis Philberd her a clove of garlic once a month by way of This tree was cleped in the yerd : prevention.

And yet, for Demophon to shame, FILANDERS, in falconry, are also the name of Unto this day it beareth the name. another disease in hawks, &c., consisting of fila

Gover. Confess. drawis. ments or strings of blood coagulated; and In August comes fruit of all sorts; as plums, pears, occasioned by a violent rupture of some vein, apricots, barberries, filberts, muskmelons, monkshoods by which the blood extravasating, hardens into of all colors.

Bacon's Essays.

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Thou hast a brain, such as it is indeed!

If remarkable considerations be put into it by others, 0s what else should thy worm of fancy feed ? they are as some loose pearls, which, for want of Yet in a filbert I have often known

filing upon a string, shake out of our pockets. Maggots survive, when all the kernel's gone.

Bp. Hall. Dorset.

So saying, on he led his radiant files, There is also another kind, called the filbert of Dazzling the moon. Milton's Paradise Lost. asastiaople; the leaves and fruit of which are The' apothecary train is wholly blind;

er than either of the former; the best are those of From files a random recipe they take, en shell.


Ang many deaths of one prescription make. FILCH, v.a.) Fr. filouter; Goth. fela,

Dryden. d. All ran down without order or ceremony, 'till we Fruch'er, .s. filgia ; Swed. filska: probably, a

drew up in good order, and filed off. Fruce'iso. Sas Minsheu suggests, from the


Did all the grosser atoms at the call Litin fallar, fallacis. To steal; thieve; particu Of chance file off to form the pondrous ball, ay in a secret and paltry manner.

And undetermined into order fall ? Blackmore. The champion robbeth by night,

From the day his first bill was filed he began to And drowleth and filcheth by daie.

collect reports. Tusser's Husbandman.

Arbuthnot and Pope's Martin Scriblerius. He shall find his wealth wonderfully enlarged by

Now at the camp arrived, with stern review ping his cattle in inclosures, where they shall al Thro' groves of spears from file to file he darts e bave safe being, that none are continually filched His sharp experienced eye.

Somervile. a malen.

Spenser. Then broader leaves in shadowy files advance, bo steals iny purse, steals trash; 'tis something, Spread o'er the crystal flood their green expanse ; nothing;

And, as in air the adherent dew exhales, Tras pine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands; Court the warm sun, and breathe ethereal gales. te be that filches from me my good name,

Darwin. Lits me of that which not enriches him,

File, n. s. & v. a.). Sax. feol; Goth. thil ; and makes me poor indeed. Shakspeare. Othello. Fi'lE-CUTTER, n. s. (Swed. fil; Belgic, vyle: Be could discern cities like hives of bees, wherein Fi'LINGS.

Teut, and Dan. fiel (q.?) mer bee did nought else but sting ; some like hornets, of the same origin as the preceding word, the rewae like filching wasps, others as drones.

gular teeth lying like threads or hairs on the inBurton on Melan

strument. A rubbing or cutting instrument to What made the venture to betray,

smooth prominences, sharpen other instruments, And filch the lady's heart away. Hudibras. &c. To file is to apply this instrument: hence Pain would they filch that little food away, to smooth or polish in any way. A file-cutter is Thile unrestrained those happy gluttons prey. a maker of files: filings, the fragments worn or

Dryden. cut off by a file. The pismire was formerly a busbandman, that

A file for the mattocks and for the coulters. ttely filched away his neighbour's goods,

1 Sam. xiii. 21. L'Estrange. So speeds the wily fox, alarmed by fear,

They which would file away most from the largewho lately filched the turkey's callow care. Gay.

ness of that offer, do in more spariug terms acknow. Your business is not to steal from them, but to im.

ledge little less.


His humour is lofty, his discourse peremptory, his Tre upon them, and make their sentiments your ; which is an effect of great judgment; and, though

tongue filed, and his eye ambitious. Shakspeare. sealt, yet very possible without the scurvy imputa

The filings of iron infused in vinegar, will, with a Swift.

decoction of galls, make good ink, without any copThe tree of knowledge has been plucked-all's P


Browne. IDOW

The smiths and armourers on palfreys ride, Lad life yields nothing further to recall

Files in their hands and hammers at their side.

Dryden. Worthy of this ambrosial sin, so shown, Jadsobe in fable, as the unforgiven

Let men be careful how they attempt to cure a blee which Prometheus filched for us from heaven.

mish by filing or cutting off the head of such an overByron.

grown tooth.

The rough or coarse-toothed file, if it be large, is FILE, n. s., v.a.&v.n. Fr. file ; Lat. flum (à called a rubber, and is to take off the unevenness of Nas, Gr. rlos, hair). A thread; a line on your work which the hammer made in the forging : sich papers are strung; a muster-roll; line of the bastard-toothed file is to take out of your work the diers : to place papers or documents on a file; deep cuts, or file-strokes, the rough file made : the fine

toothed file is to take out the cuts or file-strokes, the Our present musters grow upon the file

bastard file made ; and the smooth file is to take out To ave and twenty thousand men of choice.

those cuts, or file-strokes, that the fine file made.

Those goodly eyes,

Gad-steel is a tough sort of steel : filecutters use it sat o'er the files and musters of the war to make their chissels, with which tbey cut their files.

Id. die glowed like plated Mars, now bend, now turn poca a taway front.

The chippings and filings of these jewels are of Shakspeare. Antony and Cleopatra. more value than the whole mass of ordinary authors. All records, wherein there was any memory of the

Felton on the Classics. attainder, should be cancelied and taken off the

File 0.a. Sax. apylan, to foul ; defile; sully:

Bacon. said to be still in use in this sense in Scotland. Sat let me resume the file of my narration, which For Banquo's issue have I filed my minil,

ject of books, best agreeable to my course of For them the gracious Duncan have I murdered. 5, batli a little interrupted. Wotton.


noi fiching.


i garch in file.



His weeds divinely fashioned,

Fine tools of this description are called floats. All filed and mangled. Chapman's Niad. When teeth are crossed they are called files ; File, in law, is a record of the court; ard and when, instead of the notches standing in a the filing of a process of a court makes it a re- right line, a number of single teeth are raised cord of that court. An original writ may se all over the surface, it is called a rasp. Files filed after judgment given in the cause, issued are cut upon the surface with a sharp-edged forth before ; declarations, &c., are to be filed, chisel. In rasps, the tooth is raised with a triand affidavits must be filed, some before they are angular punch. The file is adapted for working read in court, and some immediately after. Be- metals, but the rasp is more fitted for wood, fore filing a record removed by certiorari, the bone, and horn. Files are distinguished by justices of B. R. may refuse to receive it, if it being single or double cut. The single cut file appear to be for delay, &c.; and remand it back is simply cut once over, and is employed for for the expedition of justice; but if the certiorari filing brass, and the softer metals. A second. be once filed, the proceedings below cannot be course of teeth is cut to form the double cut revived. An indictment, &c., cannot be amended file, crossing the first diagonally. This kind is after it is filed.

best suited to iron and steel. File, in the art of war, is the depth of the The steel employed for files requires to be battalion or squadron. The files of a battalion very hard, and in consequence undergoes a of foot are generally three deep; as are some- longer process in the conversion (see STEEL). times those of a squadron of horse. The files It is said to be doubly converted. The very must be straight and parallel one to another. beavy files, such as smiths' rubbers, are made

A File on horseback occupies in the ranks of the inferior marks of blistered steel : the about two feet eight inches; thus three file eight more delicate kind, such as watch-makers’ files, feet. A file on foot occupies in the ranks twenty- of cast steel. The steel is previously drawn at two inches.

the tilt, into rods of suitable size. The flat and ,FILES, Close, of infantry, are soldiers standing square files are made wholly with the hammer, in rank, contiguous to one another, upon any and the plain anvil. Two workmen, one called given depth of line or column. The soldiers in the maker and the other striker, are required in the ranks should then touch lightly each other, the forging of heavy files. The anvil is pro- ; without crowding or pressing.

vided with a groove, for the reception of bosses : FILES, Open, are soldiers standing in rank or dies, which are used for the purpose of at given distances without touching each other. forging the half-round and three-angled files.

Files, Indian, a line of men advancing or re- The half-round boss contains a hollow which is treating from either of the flanks, from the centre, the segment of a sphere, less than half a circle. or from any proportion of a line in succession to That used for the triangular files has a hollow one another.

consisting of two sides, terminating in an angle, FILE-LEADER is the soldier placed in the front at the bottom. In forging the half-round file, of any file, or the man who is to cover all the steel is drawn out, as if intended. to make in those that stand directly in the rear of him, a flat file. It is then laid in the die, and hamand by whom they are to be guided in all their mered, till the under side becomes round. The movements. File-leaders must be particularly steel for the triangular file is tilted into square careful to preserve their proper distances rods. The part to form the file is first drawn from which ever hand they are to dress to, and out with the hammer, as if intended to form a the followers of each file must only be attentive square file. It is then placed in the die with to cover, and be regulated by their proper file- one of the angles downwards, and by striking leaders.

upon the opposite angle, two sides of the square Files, Close, in cavalry, are at the distance are formed into one, and consequently a threewhen each man's boot-top touches, but does not sided figure produced. By successively prepress, that of his neighbour.

senting the different sides to the action of the FILES, Loose, in cavalry movements, are six hammer, the figure is rendered still more cominches distant from boot-top to boot-top, being plete. In forming the tangs of most files, it is calculated for the gallop as well as the walk of a necessary to make the shoulders perfectly square squadron.

and sharp. This is performed by cutting into Files, Open, in cavalry, are the full breadth the file a little on each side with a sharp instruof a horse from boot-top to boot-top. They ment, and afterwards drawing out the part 50 contain the distance which is leít, when from marked off, to form the tang. close files, the left files rein back to dismount. After forging, and previcusly to their being

Fule Making. Many useful tools have been ground and cut, the files require to be annealed. invented for performing mechanical operations, This process is generally performed by piling up which consist of a number of wedges or teeth, a great quantity together in a furnace for the which may be conceived to stand upon, or rise purpose, and heating them red hot; suffering out of a flat or curved metallic surface. When ihem afterwards to cool slowly; on the whole these teeth are formed on the edge of a plate, a very objectionable method, since the surface the instrument is called a saw (see Saw); but of steel, when heated red hot in the open air, when they are formed ipon a broad surface, it is so liable to oxidation. A superior method constitutes what is denominated a file. The of annealing is practised by some file-makers, comb-makers use a tool of this description, and, since hardness in a file is so essential a procalled a quonet, having coarse single teeth, to perty, it ought to be generally adopted. This the number of about seven or eight to an inch. method consists in placing the files in an oven

of trough, having a close cover, and filling up strap, which goes over each end of the file and the interstices with sand. The fire is made to passes round his feet, which are introduced into play on every side of the vessel, as gradually the strap on each side in the same manner as and uniformly as possible, till the whole mass stirrups are used. The file-cutter, therefore, becomes red hot. The fire is then discontinued, sits as if he were on horseback, holding his and the whole suffered to cool before the cover chisel with one hand, his hammer in the other, is removed from the trough. Another evil may at the same time he secures the file in its place however arise from keeping steel red hot, even by the pressure of his feet in the stirrups. in a close vessel, for too great a length a time. Great pains ought to be taken in preparing It assumes a kind of crystallisation, under the edge of the chisel. It is, in the first place, which its tenacity is much impaired. Steel hardened and tempered by heating it gradually annealed in this


is perfectly free from that till it appears of a yellowish brown. It is next scaly surface acquired in the open air; and if ground very true to form the edge, which is each corticle be perfectly surrounded with the afterwards finished upon a Turkey stone with sand, and the cover not removed before the steel oil. It is not required to be very sharp, the is cold, the surface will appear of a silvery bottom of the tooth requiring to be rather open, white color. If the steel be suspected to be to prevent the file from clogging with the subtoo kind, from containing too little carbon, pow- stance to be filed. The edge is also required to dered charcoal may be employed instead of be very smooth, in order that it may slip easily sand, or sand mixed with charcoal. In this upon the surface of the files : this is also facicase the files should be stratified alternately litated by slightly greasing the surface. From with the charcoal, in order that the extra-con- this advantage the worker, after making one version may be uniform.

tooth, is enabled by feeling only, to form at its The next thing is to prepare the files for proper distance the succeeding tooth, by sliding cutting, by making the surface to 'contain the the chisel close up against the back of the preteeth as level as possible. This was formerly ceding one. effected by means of files, and the process is

In the double-cut files, the first set of teeth, called striping. The same is still practised by which the workmen call up-cutting, are, prethe Lancashire file-makers, and by others not vious to cutting the second course, filed slightly having convenience for grinding. The greatest upon the face, in order to allow the chisel to quantities of files, however, are ground to slide freely. The single-cut file is more durable prepare them for cutting. The stones employed than the double-cut, and ought to be preferred for the purpose are of the sand-stone kind, the for all purposes excepting for iron and steel. texture of which is compact and sharp, but The same method is employed in cutting the rather rough. They are of as great diameter rasp. The workman is, however, guided comas can be used with convenience; and about pletely by his eye in regulating the distance of eight inches broad over the face. When used, the teeth from each other. The rasp ought to the surface is kept immersed in water. The be cut in such a manner that no one of the teeth grinder sits in such a position as to lean over may stand opposite to another; this not only the stone, while its motion is directly from him. allows the rasp to cut faster, but makes the Its surface moves at about the same speed with surface either of wood or other substance much those used in grinding cutlery. Since the object smoother. in grinding files is to make the surface as even The operation of simple file-cutting seems to and Hat as possible, and as this cannot be done be of such easy performance that it has for so completely upon a small stone, the stones of the almost two centuries been a sort of desideratum ble-gtinder are laid aside when they are reduced to construct a machine to perform that, which to a certain size, and are employed for grinding is not only done with great facility by the hand, other articles. Though grinding is by far the but with wonderful expedition. We are told tost expeditious method, it does not give that that a lad not very much experienced in the truth to the surface which can be effected by business will produce, with his hammer and bing. If the price of the articles would admit, chisel, nearly 300 teeth in a minute.

With bowever, it would be well to render the surface respect to machinery, it is said, that a Frenchmore even by the file after grinding. If the man

named Mathurin

Jousse, in a work surface be not flat, it is obvious, that when the entitled La fidelle Ouverture de l'Art de Serfile is used for filing a large surface, those teeth rurier, published at La Fleche, in Anjou, so to the hollow parts of the file will not be brought long ago as the year 1627, gives a drawing and Ito action. It is from attention to this circum- description of one, in which the file is drawn stance, to the care in annealing and harden- along by shafts by means of wheel-work, and ing, that the Lancashire file-makers bave gene- the blow is given by a hammer. There are rally, excelled. They are, however, confined several machines of this kind, or at least to ethiefly to the small articles, since the larger files effect the same purpose, in the Machines would not pay for the process of striping. The Approuvées par l'Academie Royale de Paris : tasks of the file-cutter consist of an anvil placed there is also one published in the second volume epuo a block of such a height that the man sits of the Transactions of the American Philos bis work. He has also a piece of lead al- sophical Society, of which we shall give some insed with tin , on which

he lays the files when account, as we shall of another for which Mr. one side is cut. The chisel and hammer are William Nicholson obtained a patent in the year of such size as the size and cut of the file re- 1802 ; premising that the principal requisites, quire. He is also provided with a leathern in a machine for file-cutting, are that the metal

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