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August. The black Ischia fig; a middle sized, a native of several parts of the East Indies. It shortish, flat-crowned, blackish fruit, having a has a woody stem, branching to a great height bright pulp; ripening in the middle of August. and vast extent, with heart-shaped entire leaves The yteen Ischia fig; a large, oblong, globular- ending in acute points. Of this tree Milton has headed, greenish fruit
, slightly stained hy the given a description equally beautiful and just, pulp to a reddish-brown color; ripens in the end in his Paradise Lost, b. ix. The Banian tree is of August. The brown Ischia fig; a small, py- perhaps the most beautiful of nature's producramidal
, brownish-yellow fruit, having a purp- tions in that genial climate, where she sports * lish very rich pulp; ripening in August and with the greatest profusion and variety. Some
September. The Malta fig; a small flat-topped of these trees are of amazing size and great extent;
brown fruit, ripening in the middle of August or as they are continually increasing, and seem fatin beginning of September. The round brown Na to be exempted from decay. Every branch from
ples bg; a globular, middle-sized, light brown the main body throws out its own roots; at first, fruit
, and brownish pulp; ripe in the end of in small tender fibres, several yards from the August
. The long, brown, Naples fig; a long ground: these continually grow thicker until dark brown fruit, having a reddish pulp; ripe in they reach the surface; and there striking in, they September. The great blue fig; a large blue increase to large trunks, and become parent trees, fruit
, having a fine red pulp. The black Genoa shooting out new branches from the top: these big; a large, pear-shaped, black-colored fruit, in time suspend their roots, which, swelling into with a bright red pulp; ripe in August. The trunks, produce other branches; thus continuing carica is frequently cultivated in this country, in a state of progression as long as the earth, the and is the only species which does not require io first parent of them all, contributes her susbe kept in a stove. It may be propagated either tenance. The Hindoos are peculiarly fond of by suckers arising from roots, by layers, or by the Banian tree; they look upon it as an emblem cuitings. The suckers are to be taken off as low of the deity, from its long duration, its outdown as possible ; trim off any ragged part at stretching arms, and overshadowing beneficence. bortom, leaving the tops entire, especially if for Near these trees the most esteenied pagodas are standards; and plant them in nursery lines at generally erected; under their shade the Brahtwo or three feei distance, or they may at once mins spend their lives in religious solitude; and be planted where they are to remain; observing, the natives of all casts and tribes are fond of that ii they are designed for walls or espaliers, recreating in the cool recesses, beautiful walks, they may be headed to six or eight inches in and lovely vistas of this unbrageous canopy, March, the more effectually to force out lateral impervious to the hottest beams of a tropical shoots near the bottom; but, if intended for sun. The largest known Banian tree grows on standards, they must not be topped, but trained an island in the Nerbedda, ten miles from the with a stem, not less than fifteen or eighteen inches city of Baroche in the province of Güzerat, It for dwarf standards, a yard for half-standards, is distinguished by the name of Cubbeer Burr, and four, five, or six feet for full standards. Then which was given it in honor of a famous saint. they must be suffered to branch out to form a It was once much larger, but high floods have head; observing, that, whether against walls, carried away the banks of the island where it espaliers, or standards, the branches or shoots grows, and with them such parts of the tree as must never be shortened unless to procure a ne- had thus far extended their roots : yet what recessary supply of wood : for the fruit is always mains is about 2000 feet in circumference, meaproduced on the upper parts of the young shoots; sured round the principal stems; the over-hanging and if these are cut off, no fruit can be expected.-- branches, not yet struck down, over a much The best season for propagating these trees by larger space. The chief trunks of this single layers is in autumn; but it may be also done any tree (which in size greatly exceed our English time from October to March or April. Choose elms and oaks), amount to 350; the smaller the young pliable lower shoots from the fruitful stems, forming into stronger supporters, are more branches; lay them in the usual way, covering than 3000 ; and every one of these is casting out the body of the layers three or four inches deep new branches, and hanging roots, in time to in the ground, keeping the top entire, and as form trunks, and become the parents of a future uprizht as possible; and they will be rooted and progeny.
Cubbeer Burr is famed throughout fit to
separate from the parent in autumn; when Hindostan for its great extent and surprising they may be planted either in the nursery, or beauty: armies have encamped around it; and, where they are to remain. The time for propa- at stated seasons, solemn jatarras, or Hindoo maliuz by cuttings is either at the fall of the festivals, are held here, to which thousands of of in March : choose well ripened shoots of the votaries repair from various parts. It is said preceding sumner; short, and of robust growth, that 7000 persons find ample room to repose from at out twelve to fifteen inches long; having under its shade. The English gentlemen, on an inch or two of the two years wood at their their hunting and shooting parties, used to form base
, the tops left entire; and plant them six or extensive encampments, and spend weeks togeeight inches deep, in a bed or border of good ther under this delightful pavilion, which is geearth, in rows two feet asunder,
When planted nerally filled with green wood pigeons, doves, in autumn, it will be eligible to protect their tops peacocks, and a variety of feathered songsters in time of hard frost, the first winter, with any crowded with families of monkeys performing kind of long loose litter. For an account of the their antic tricks; and shaded hy bats of a large CAPRIFICATION of the fig tree, see that article.
size. This trec not only affords shelter, but susF. religiosa, the Bapian troe, or Indian fig, is tenance to all its inhabitants, being covered
amidst its bright foliage with small figs of a rich A fiddlestring, moistened with water, will sink a scarlet color.
note in a little time, and consequently must be reF. sycamorus, the sycamore tree, is very coin- laxed or lengthened one-sixteenth.
Id. mon in Lower Egypt. It buds in the end of Others import yet nobler arts from France, March, and the fruit ripens in the beginning of
Teach kings to fiddle, and make senates dance.
Pope. June. It is cut by the inhabitants at the time
All human actions seem to be divided like Themisit buds ; for without this precaution they say it tocles and his company; one man can fiddle, and would not bear fruit. The wood of the sycamore another man can make a small town a great city; tree is not subject to rot; and has therefore been and he that cannot do either one or the other, deused for making coffins, in which embalmed
serves to be kicked out of the creation. Swift. bodies were put. Hasselquist affirms, that he I do not call him a poet that writes for his own disaw in Egypt coffins made of this kind of wood, version, any more than that gentleman a fiddler who which had been preserved sound for 2000 amuses himself with a violin.
There is nothing in which the power of art is shown FID, n. s. Ital. fitta. A pointed iron with so much as in praying on the fiddle : in all other things which seamen untwist their cords.-Skinner. we can do something at first. Any man will forge a Fids or Finds, are likewise used at sea to
bar of iron, if you give him a hammer; not so well
as a smith, but tolerably. A man will saw a piece splice or fasten ropes together. There are also
of wond, ana make a box, though a clumsy one; but fids of wood, made tapering at one end, but give him a fiddle and a fiddle-stick, and he can do nomuch larger than the iron ones._The pin in the thing.
As inoffensive, what offensive in cards?
fidla; Swed, fidla ; Layinen have leave to dance, if parsons play.
Belg. vedel ; Lat
cula. A stringed mu-
Which turned the isle into a place of pleasure;
A life which made them happy beyond measure. often and do nothing like a fellow that plays
Byron. upon a fiddle,' as Dr. Johnson says: the fiddle- FIDDLE-FADDLE, n. s. & adj. ?
From stick is otherwise called the bow, and the fiddle
FID-FAD, n. s.
) fiddle. A string a portion of the stringed part of this in- toying with the fingers ; trifling; making much strument.
ado about nothing.'
She said that her grandfather had a horse shot at
Arbuthnot. There is a subordinate wit, as much inferiour to
FIDEL'ITY, n. s. Fr. fidelité ; Lat. fidelitas , a wit of business, as a fiddler at a wake is to the lofty Ital. fedelita; Span. fidelidud, faithfulness. Hosound of an organ.
Saville. nesty; veracity.
The church, by her publick reading of the book of
God, preached only as a witness; now the principal Ben Jonson.
thing required in a witness is fidelity. Hooker. Nero put the fiddlers to death, for being more skil
He, that after the misuse of the one talent, would not ful in the trade than he was.
trust the evil servant with a second, because he saw For what can be more ridiculous than we do make a wilful neglect; will crust Moses with his second ourselves, when we do thus fiddle and fool with our law, because he saw fidelity in the worst error of his own souls ; when, to make vain people merry, we in- zeal.
Bp. Hall's Contemplations. cense God's earnest displeasure.
Having laken leave of my friends, and interchanged ** Is sung; but breaks off in the middle.
promises of fidelity with Miss Read, I quitted PhilaHudibras. delphia.
Franklin. His grisly beard was long and thick,
As good subjects of God's kingdom, we are bound With which he strung his fiddlestick.
to pay a due regard and reverence to his ministers; In trials of musical skill the judges did not crown
especially if they discover an uncorrupted fidelity to his cause,
Mason. the fiddle, but the performer.
But nothing unpleasant, or sad, or severe,
Or that indicates life in its winter-is here.
Yet all is expressed with fidelity due,
FIDES, Faith or Fidelity, beart, find whereabout the tune lay. Addison. tues deitied by the Romans, had a temple near
A cunning fellow observed, that old Lewis had the capitol, founded by Numa Pompilius; but stole away part of the map, and saw him fiddling and no animals were offered, or blood spilt, in hei turning the map, trying to join the two pieces toge sacrifices. During the perforinance of her rites, sher
Arbuthnot. her priests appeared in white vestments, with
one of the vir
their heads and hands covered with linen, to among whom the customs and laws relating to sbour that fidelity ought to be sacred. The fiefs seem very early to have made rapid adgreatest oaths were taken in her name. Horace
See Giannone, History of Naples. clothes her in white, places her in the retinue of They were introduced into Spain before the inFortune, and makes her the sister of Justice, Od. vasion of the Moors, A. D. 710.
Lands were e direktor 24, 35, I. i. Public faith is represented on a granted for service and attachment among the
great aumber of ancient medals; sometimes with Goths; among whom also the person who rea basket of fruit in one hand, and some ears of ceived the gift was the retainer of him who cora in the other; and sometimes holding a granted it.
If he refused his service, the grant turtle dove. But the most usual symbol is two
was forfeited, and he was said to receive it in Fake bands joined together. The inscriptions are ge- patrocinio: he also swore fealty to his lord; and Am nerally, Fides Augusti, Fides exercitus, or Fides on this footiņg the national militia was regulated.
Leg. Wisigoth, lib. v. tit. 7. There can be little FIDGE, or Fing'et, v. n. & n.s. Goth, fika, doubt that the feudal law was known in England feyka; Dan. fikke (to move briskly). To move in the Saxon times. See Whitaker's History of in a hurried restless manner: restless agitation. Manchester. In Scotland the history of fiefs is Why what can the viscountess mean?
more uncertain ; which has been ascribed partly Cried the square hoods in woful fidget. Gray.
to the mutilated state of the Scottish records, and Tim, thou'rt the Punch to stir up trouble; partly to the want of able antiquaries in the naYou wriggle, fidge, and make a rout,
tion. But Dr. Stuart, in Observations on the Law Pat all your brother puppets out. Swift. and Constitution of Scotland, insists, that alloBut sedeptary weavers of long tales,
diality and feudality have existed ever since the Give me the fidgets, and my patience fails. foundation of the Scottish monarchy. It has in
Cowper. deed been supposed, that these customs were FIDUCIAL, adj. Lat. fiducia. Con- introduced from some foreign model by Malcolm Fipu'cuany, n. s. & adj. ) fident; undoubting. II. Some say they were introduced directly Faith is cordial, and such as God will accept of, from England; and the policy of Malcolm in when it affords fiducial reliance on the promises, and establishing then has been highly extolled : but, obediential submission to the commands.
according to our author, there is no foundation Hammond's Practical Catechism. for this notion. Both these opinions either asThe second obstructive is that of the fiduciary, that gert or imply, that the feudal maxims were introfaith is the only instrument of his justification ; and duced into this country upon the principle of scludes good works from contributing any thing to imitation: but it is very improbable that they
could be imported from one people to another, fiduciary obedience, unless at her own home, where
on account of their excessive contrariety to the be is exemplarily Joyal to herself in a high exact
common usages and precepts of government obedience.
It must undoubtedly have That faith, which is required of us, is then perfect, been very absurd, if not altogether impracticable, when it produces in us a fiduciary assent to whatever to transplant the feudal tenures when the grants the Gospel has revealed.
Wake. of land were precarious, or depending entirely on FIEF, n. s. Fr. fiet. A fee: a manor; a pos- the will of the prince, to a country which had session held by some tenure of a superior. See never known superiority or vassalage.
would have required an alteration of all the orTo the next realm she stretched her sway,
ders of society from the king to the peasant ; For painture near adjoining lay,
while the whole chain of customs, as well as the A plenteous province and alluring prey ;
jurisdiction of the kingdom, both high and low, A chamber of dependencies was framed,
must have sustained a corresponding alteration, And the whole fief, ia right of poetry, she claimed. to conform them to the new system. It is like
wise obvious, that no conquest could be made on lands vere in the nature of fiefs, for which the pos- had already received the knowledge of fiefs.
purpose to obtain a settlement by any nation who Medbors were obliged to do personal service at sca.
Arbuthnot on Coins.
The establishment of them implied, that the Towards the end of the thirteenth century, this people had already a fixed and settled residence; monarch (Edward I. of England) called in question and accordingly history does not furnish us with the independence of Scotland; pretending that the any account of a nation among whom fiefs were Kingdom was held as a fief of the crown of England, known, who ever migrated from the country they and subjected to all the conditions of a feudal tenure. already possessed, to seek for one in which they
Robertson's History of Scotland. might settle. Feudal institutions must have oriFier. See Fee, Feod, and Feudal SYSTEn. ginated wherever they have been observed to i has been an object of enquiry among the fourish. Scotland was formerly a feudal kingburned, in what nation of barbarians fiefs had dom, and we know pretty nearly the time when their origin? It is probable, that they took place the fiefs were hereditary in it; but in that form in the different nations of Europe, nearly about they could not be introduced by the sovereign; the same time, on the same principles, and were and there was no nation among whom fiefs were continued by similarity of manners, conquests, already known, who conquered, or made an esa lac.; so that we cannot ascribe the prevalence of tablishment by conquest, in Scotland. Fiefs them to imitation. In France, we find fiefs men
therefore must have gradually advanced to sucl. tioned as early as the age of Childebert I. They a state of perfection. The progress they made were introduced into Italy by the Lombards; may be likewise pointed out. At first they wers
precarious, or at the pleasure of the lord; after
Falling back where they wards they were granted for life; then for a Might field-room find.
Drayton. course of years longer than the natural life of a It is a base cowardliness, so soon as ever we are man; and, lastly, they became hereditary, which called from the garrison to the field, to think of run. was their most perfect stage. This progress has ning away.
Bp. Hall's Contemplations. been observed in every country where feudal
What though the field be lost, tenures exist; and the same must have been
All is not lost.
Milton's Paradise Lost. known in Scotland, though in considering it we Around the fields did nimble lightning play, are necessarily carried back to periods of remote Which offered us by fits, and snatched the day; antiquity; for as fiefs were hereditary as early as
'Midst this was heard the shrill and tender cry the time of Malcolm I!. they must have been in
Of well pleased ghosts, which in the storm did fly.
Dryden. their precarious state several centuries before. See FEUDAL SYSTEM.
The fieldmouse builds her garner under ground.
Id. FIELD, n. s. Sax. geld; Goth. field;
Let the field or ground of the picture be clean, FIELDED, adj. Teut. feld; Belg. velt; light, and well united with colour.
Id. FIELD-BASIL, n. s.
all from Goth. fa, level, The god a clearer space for heaven designed; FIELD-BEN, flat, as Mr. Thomson
Where fields of light and liquid ether Now, FIELDFARE,
suggests. Champaign; Purged from the ponderous dregs of earth below. FIELD-MARSHAL,
Id, open ground; meadow; FIELD-MOUSE,
Yany wide space or ex- When a man is in the field, a moderate skill in FIELD-OFFICER,
panse; the ground of a fencing rather exposes him to the sword of his enemy, FIELD-PIECE,
Locke. picture or drawing; the than secures him from it. FIELD-PREACHINC, ground of a battle; the
Field lands are not exempted from mildews, nor FIELD-ROOM,
yet from smut, where it is more than in inclosed action or exploits of an lands,
Mortimer. FIELD-SPORT, ariny in the field : Gelded
Fieldmice are apt to gnaw their roots, and kill FIELDY, adj. is used byShakspeare for, them in hard Winters.
Id. Husbandry. being in a field of battle: field-basil is a plant: The ill-natured man gives himself a large field to a field-bed, one contrived for ready use in the expatiate in; he exposes failings in human nature. field: fieldfare, the bird turdus pilaris: field
Addison's Spectator. marshal is, strictly, the commander of a whole I should enter upon a field too wide, and too much army in the field : as a field-officer is one asso- beaten, if I should display all the advantages of ciated in the command of a whole regiment: a peace.
Smalridge. field-piece is a piece of ordnance used in fields
Who can this field of miracles survey, of battle as distinct from sieges: a field-mouse,
And not with Galen all in rapture say,
Behold a God, adore him and obey. the NITEDUIA, which see: field-preaching, field
Blackmore. room, and field-sports, are sufficiently plain:
Ask of yonder argent fields above, fieldy, is an excellent old adjective, meaning
Why Jove's satellites are less than Jove ? roomy; open as a field.
Or great Osiris, who first taught the swain
Id. Jhesus cam down fro the hil with hem, and stood
All field-sports I look upon as frivolous. in a foeldy place, and the cumpany of hise disciples.
Lord Chesterfield. Id. Luk. vi.
The tumults of field-preaching and the freaks of the I was borne free; and because I might live freely new birth.
Warburton. I made election of the solitude of the fields. The Let us venture into this large field, and take a view trees of these mountaines are my companions : the of the political, of the moral, of the religious, and of cleare water of these streams my mirrours. With the the domestic state of the world. Robertson's Sermon. trees and waters I communicate my thoughtes and
Not yet the hawthorn bore her berries red, beautie.
With which the fieldfare, wintry guest, is fed : The bassa planting his fieldpieces upon the hills, Nor Autumn yet had brushed from every spray, did from thence grievously annoy the defendants. With her chill band the mellow leaves away. Knolles.
Cowper. You maintain several factions ;
First with fond gaze blue fields of air they sweep, And whilst a field should be dispatched and fought, Or pierce the briny chambers of the deep ; Yor are disputing of your generals. Shakspeare. Earth's burning line, and icy poles explore, Romeo, good night ; I'll to my truckle bed,
Her fertile surface, and her caves of ore.
Darwin. This fieldbed is too cold for me to sleep. Id. Since his majesty went into the field,
Field-marshal is a modern military rank in England, I have seen her rise from her bed.
but superior to all others (except the captain-general), Id. Macbeth.
having the chief command of the whole army in the field.
James. Now, Mars, I pry'thee, make us quick in work;
When there is a field-officer of the day, it is his That we with smoking swords may march from hence, To help our fielded fricuds.
duty to visit all guards frequently during the day and
night. In the morning, on the dismounting of the Live with me, and be my love,
guards, he will collect the reports, and carry them to And we will all the pleasure prove,
FIELD, in heraldry, is so called, because it
contains those achievements anciently acquired Winter birds, as woodcocks and fieldfares, if they in the field of battle. It is the ground on which come early out of the northern countries, with us the colors, bearing, metals, furs, charges, &c., are shew cold winters,
Bacon. represented. Ainong the moderp heralds, field
La toree years; and then applied to the study of
is less frequently used in blazoning than shield by the besieged to defend the place. Such are of escutcheon. See SHIELD.
the fortifications of camps, highways, &c. Field Colors, in war, are small flags of about FIEND, n.s. Sax. 1
Sax. fiend, fiond, a a foot and a half square, which are carried
FIEND-LIKE, adj. | foe; Goth, and Teut. along with the quarter-master general, for mark- fiend ; Dan. fiende. An enemy; the great enea sing out the ground for the squadrons and batta- my of mankind; the devil.
I nyle that ghe be maad felowis of fendis. For
cuppe of fendis ; ghe moun not be parteneris of the general Fielding who served under the duke of boord of the lord, and of the boord of fendis. Jlarlborough, was born in 1707. On the death
Wiclif. 1 Corynth. x. of his mother, his father married again; and Sir Here hauntis that feend, and does bis daily spoyle ; John Fielding, who succeeded him in the com- Therefore henceforth be at your keeping well, mission of the peace for Middlesex, was his And ever ready for your foeman fell. hrother by this marriage. Henry was sent to
Spenser's Faerie Queene.
Shakspeare. ishga sody at Leyden; but a failure in his remittances Tom is followed by the foul fiend.
-This dead butcher and his fiend-like queen. obliged him to return in two years, when his
Id. Macbeth. for a propensity to gaiety and profusion drove
What now, had I a body again, I could, bim to write for the stage at twenty years of age. Coming from hell; what
fiends would wish should be, His first dramatic piece, Love in several Masques, And Hannibal could not have wished to see. Bu sraita which was well received, appeared in 1727:
Ben Jonson's Catiline. all his plays and farces, to the amount of eigh The hell-lounds, as ungorged with flesh and blood, léen, were written before 1737; and many of Pursue their prey, and seek their wonted food; them are still acted with applause. While thus The fiend remounts his courser.
Dryden. employed, he married a young lady with a for O woman! woman! when to ill thy mind tune of £1500 and inherited an estate of £200 Is bent, all hell contains no fouler fiend. Pope. a year from his mother; all which, though he Vain wish! for lo, in gay attire concealed, retired into the country, he contrived to dissipate Yonder she comes ! the heart infamiag fiend!
(Will no kind power the helpless stripling shield ?) the law for a maintenance. "In losing his fortune,
Swift to her destined prey see Passion bend.
Beattie. he acquired the gout; which rendering it impossible for him to attend the bar, he therefore FIENUS (Thomas), an ingenious and learned bad recourse to his pen for immediate supplies; physician, born at Antwerp in 1566. He went Conil he obtained the office of acting justice for into Italy to study physic under Mercurialis and Middlesex, an employment more profitable than Aldrovandus; and on his return distinguished bonorable to him. Reduced at last by the fa- himself so much in the university of Louvain, tyrues of this office, and by a complication of that he was chosen professor of physic, and was disorders, he by the advice of his physicians afterwards made physician to the duke of Bawent to Lisbon, where he died in 1754. He varia. He wrote several works, among which wrote a number of fugitive pamphlets and pe- were, De Viribus Imaginationis; and De Forriodical
essays; but is chiefly distinguished by matione Foetus. He died at Louvain in 1631. His Adventures of Joseph Andrews, his Amelia, FIERCE, adj. Fr. fier, feroce ; Ital. and bus History of Tom Jones. His works have FIERCEʼLY, adv. feroce ; Lat. ferus ; Heb. been collected and published, with his life pre Frence'ness, n. s. Syno, violence.- Minsheu. fred, by Mr. Murphy. Besides these mentioned, Cruel ; savage; ravenous; furious; violeni. ha published The Champion, 2 vols.; A Journey from this World to the next; The History of Jo
Therfore se the goodnesse and the fersnesse of god, pathan Wild ; and after his death appeared his ghe the fersnesse into hem that felden doun, but the Voyage to Lisbon.
goodnesse of god into thee, if thou dwellist in good.
Wiclif. Rom. xi. FIELDING (Sarah), sister of Henry Fielding, was born in 1714, and lived unmarried, and died
Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their
Gen. xlix. 7. at Bath in April 1768. She was the author of wrath, for it was cruel. the novel of David Simple; a less popular pro- winds ; yet are they turned about with a very small
The ships, though so great, are driven of fierce duction of a kindred class, called "The Cry, a
Jumes iii. 4. dramatic Fable ; Xenophon's Memoirs of So Soone as thy dreadful trompe begins to sound, gutes, translated from the Greek (for which she The god of warre with his fiers equipage was favored with some valuable notes by Mr. Thou doest awake, sleepe never he so sownd, Harns of Salisbury); The Countess of Delwyn; And scared nations doest with horror sterne astownd. The History of Ophelia ; The Lives of Cleopa
Spenser's Faerie Queene. tra and Octavia, &c. &c.
With greedy force each other both assail, FIELD-STAFF, a weapon carried by the gunners, And strike so fiercely that they do impress ahejut the length of a halbert, with a spear at the Deep-dinted furrows in the battered mail : cad; having on each side ears screwed on like The iron walls to ward their blows were weak and frail. the cock of a match-lock, where the gunners
Id, screw in lighted matches when they are upon
The defendants, fiercely assailed by their enemies command; and then the field-staffs are said to before, and beaten with the great ordnance behind,
were grievously distressed.
Knolles. Field-Works, in fortification, are those Battle joined, and both sides fiercely fought. thrown up by an army in besieging a fortress, or