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least twenty or thirty years before it would be sufficient to carry instruction into every family.
2 If nursed with the most assiduous care, one generation must pass away before it would be productive of any benefit to the community. In these portentous times, it seems rather a hazardous experiment to permit one generation to sleep in ignorance, in order that light and knowledge may be extended in the succeeding. The best way to secure the blessings of education to the next generation is to confer them upon the present. .
3 Ignorance cannot appreciate what it never enjoyed : they alone who have been favored with the blessings of education, can estimate them at their proper value; and they alone will be anxious to transmit them, unimpaired, to their posterity.
4 If the rising generation is permitted to remain in ignorance, there is little security that the treasures you design for their children will not be directed into some other channel : but if we bestow upon the rising youth those benefits which flow from virtue and knowledge, it seems a needless apprehension to suppose that they will be less solicitous than we are, to transmit to their descendants those blessings from which they themselves have derived such sensible comforts.
5 I would, therefore, recommend to your consideration the propriety of calling the school fund into active operation, and of supplying its deficiency to promote the object for which it was originally designed, by a school tax. Such a tax would be a blessing to the people, rather than a burden, for it would tend to relieve them from the most intolerable of all burdens, the burden of immorality and ignorance.
6 In a country like ours, where all power, directly or indirectly, flows from the people, it is a matter of astonishment that the diffusion of knowledge and the extension of religion and morality among the people were not the first object of public patronage. Some of our sister states have wisely extended the arm of public protection over the education of the poor. I trust that you will not be backward in following this example.
7 No longer satisfied with passing laws to punish bad habits, let us unite our efforts in the enactment of laws to prevent their formation. If the fountain is permitted to remain open, it is a useless labor to throw barriers across the stream. It is in vain that we sivell our penal code, if every rising generation is permitted to be raised in ignorance and
in vain do we boast of our elective franchise, and of vur civil rights, if a large portion of our citizens are unable to read the tickets which they annually present at the polls.
8 Some men may think themselves free, but in fact they are slaves. Ignorance always has been, and always will be, the slave of knowledge. If information is generally diffused among a people, that people will always be their own masters—they will always govern. An enlightened people never has been, and never can be, enslaved. But, if the door of knowledge is closed upon the poor, who are always the great mass of the people; if education is confined to the circles of the rich, the few will govern.
9 The people may, for a while, be flattered with the idea that they are free, and rest contented under the delusion; but this dream will vanish, and they will soon openly be constrained to wear the chains which their own ignorance forged.
10 The unhappy situation of foreign nations induces me, thus urgently, to press upon you the subject of education. What but ignorance, and its necessary accompaniment, vice, have reared that disgusting spectacle of moral debasement which Europe at present exhibits ? Sensible of the incompatibility between knowledge and slavery, the masters of the old 'world have closed every avenue against the people, and openly declared that a nation, to be kept in chains, must be kept in ignorance.
11 The circulation of all books that advocate political liberty and civil rights, has been suppressed, and the freedom of the press is totally destroyed. If we would avoid these effects, let us avoid the cause. Human nature is the same in every clime, and in the same circumstance with the same causes pressing upon it, will always produce the same effects.
12 Every page of history exposes to us the shoals upon which other nations have shipwrecked their liberty, and the present state of Europe dreadfully confirms the lesson. Enlighten the people-open schools for the instruction of the poor, and our liberty will be perpetual. But, if we close our ears against the admonitions of history, and shut our eyes against the light of experience, the fairest prospects that ever opened upon the world will be blighted, and the hopes of humanity, and the prayers of the pious, will be fruitless and unavailing.
13 I would also earnestly recommend to you the abolish
ment of imprisonment for debt. That a practice so obviously opposed to every principle of justice and humanity, should, in an age like this, still remain sanctioned by the laws of the land, is truly a matter of surprise and regret. It is a source of pleasure, to observe the attention of some of our sister states awakening to this subject. It is worthy of our serious consideration, whether upon this subject also we will linger behind the age, and still refuse to do homage to the spirit of improvement that is moving over our land.
14 Pecuniary embarrassments are seldom the result of moral turpitude: They most frequently flow from causes to which the honorable and upright are equally exposed with the worthless; and against which, often, no human prudence can guard. Your own observation will warrant me in the assertion that ninety-nine debtors out of a hundred are such from improvidence or misfortune.
i5 It is difficult to perceive why, in the case of the debtor, the benign maxim of the criminal law should be reversed, and that ninety-nine innocent persons should be forced to suffer, rather than one guilty person should escape. Our law relative to debtors is unjust, for innocence and guilt are treated with indiscriminating severity,-It is inhuman, for neither the weakness of woman, nor the helplessness of age is secure from its operation,-it is partial, for it exempts the rich, and falls exclusively upon the poor.
16 To imprison for debt, is, in effect, to tax our virtues for the gratification of our vices. It seems calculated to promote no good end. If a debtor has property and is honest, the law is useless: if he has property and is a rogue, no law will be of any service:—but if he has really no property, the law is not only useless, but oppressive and cruel.
17 The unhappy debtor, by being thus deprived of his personal liberty, is deprived of the only means left him of discharging his debts. His only prospect, perhaps, is his labor, and his personal attention to business. This prospect imprisonment destroys;—and it has often happened that large families, whose daily subsistence depended upon the personal labor and attention of their head, have thus by being deprived of that head, by an unfeeling creditor, been scattered and thrown upon the charity of the public. The many exhibi. tions of hardship which the prisons of our country frequently present, will, it is confidently hoped, quicken your attention to this subject.
SECTION Xİ. Early rising conducive to health and longevity. 1 The first sensation of drowsiness is nature's call for sleep. Waking shows the body is rested. After the degree of strength, of which the state of the system is capable, is restored by sleep, longer stay in bed only relaxes. He
perverts reason, who, by habit or artificial excitement, keeps awake so late that he is not ready to rise at day break, nature's undoubted signal for quitting repose, obedience to which secures desire of rest at the fit hour. Some people close their shutters against it.
2 George III. consulted his household physicians, separately, as to the modes of life conducive to health and longevity; as to the importance of early rising, there was full coincidence. Old people, examined as to the cause of longevity, all agree that they have been in the habit of going to bed early and rising early.
3 We lose vigor by lying abed in health, longer than for necessary sleep; the mind is less tranquil, the body less disposed for refreshing sleep, appetite and digestion are lessened. Few things contribute so much to preserve health and prolong life, as going to bed early and rising early.
Boston Medical Intelligencer. 4 It is a reprehensible practice, in many parents, to prevent their younger children from acquiring the pleasant habit of early rising, for the purpose of “ keeping them out of the way in the morning ." The habit of rising at daybreak or earlier during the winter season, and washing the face and hands with cold water, ought to be enjoined as an indispensible duty in every public school, or domestic nursery.
5 Rising early is not only a healthy and agreeable habit, and cheap,--and easy to preserve, when once acquired,-but profitable,—and generally absolutely necessary to success in the pursuit of wealth, prosperity, and happiness.
6 Mr. John M‘Leod, the proprietor and principal of the Central Academy, at Washington City, has given an example worthy of universal imitation, and demonstrated how easily children can be led into the path of duty by rewards and proper discipline. His pupils rise voluntarily and con stantly at day light or earlier.
POPE'S ESSAY ON MAIT &c.
AN ESSAY ON MAN ; IN FOUR EPISTLES TO H. ST. JOHN, LORD
BOLINGBROKE. то WHICH IS ADDED, THE UNIVERSAL PRAYER. BY ALEXANDER POPE, ESQ.
2 Together let us beat this ample field,
3 Say first, of God above, or man below, What can we reason, but from what we know; Of man what see we, but his station here, From which to reason, or to which refer? Through worlds unnumber'd, though the God be known, 'Tis ours to trace him only in our own.
4 He, who through vast immensity can pierce,