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God, that they would make use of every artifice, and every spe-, cies of deceit, to accomplish in any way their infamous purposes. But it is matter of surprise and grief, that men of principle, who stand in the attitude of guides and instructors to christian communities, should be gulled by their specious fictions, and extensively aid them to forward their evil devices. Unfavourable reports, vague and to a great extent unfounded, with regard to Liberia and Sierra Leone, the two strong holds of freedom and religion in Western Africa, have from time to time gone forth, and have been carried, by the public journals, without comment, into every corner of Christendom, to damp and darken the rising light of Africa; while at the same time, well-authenticated and highly important facts, that would have disarmed such bantlings of crime and carelessness, have been entombed in the columns of two or three only of these distributers of general intelligence. This is a fact which the judgment and conscience of editors can best explain, and for which it is pleasant to see they are beginning to make an atonement.
It has been confidently affirmed that the British were about to abandon Sierra Leone, a colony of many years standing, and with many thousands of inhabitants, because they have atlength discovered that its climate is exceedingly unhealthy; and in proof of this it was stated, what is doubtless true, that they had removed their Court of Mixed Commission to Fernando Po, an island in the Gulf of Guinea. But it happens that this region is the principal field of the slave-trade, where the Court of Mixed Commission can perform their duties with the greatest facility.
Another report stated that Sierra Leone was a pestilential swamp, though its very name signifies the Mountain of the Lioness; that its grave-yards at the time, were daily filled with the dead; though we were not told what was done with the yard full that were buried there on each day preceding; and in making out the mutilated details of this fearful account, the names of deceased white people were given, to the number of less than half a dozen. Perhaps the number of coloured victims was not given, because, forsooth, it might appear incredible. It is said the yellow fever has been raging there the past sea
And so at New Orleans it rages almost every year; and in
all probability, the sacrifice of human life is, on the whole, greater there than at Sierra Leone. And yet no one has ever dreamed that New Orleans ought to be abandoned. And why? Be. cause there the risk is run for the sake of money. Satan and his servants make an uproar about danger and death, only when their own interests are assailed, or the cause of religion and humanity is promoted. The world is indeed disgraced, if infinite motives can be so easily outweighed by the love of gold.
During the past season, Liberia too has been quite unhealthy. Twenty-six of the last company of emigrants have died. This, for Liberia, is a very remarkable mortality. Still the discredit thrown upon it by its enemies, is undeserved; for it yet continues, and there is no reason apparent why it should not always continue, an animating and indisputable fact, that it flourishes far more, with much less expense of life and treasure, than the colonies, hitherto unrivalled, of Plymouth and of Jamestown.
Since the commencement of the colony, it is believed, that the life of less than one white person in a year has been sacrified, of those who went out for the promotion of its interests. Can this be said of a single slave vessel that has been in the practice of trading on the coast? Such as these, it is true, can better be spared. But it is incredible that the most magnanimous motives should not inspire at least as much moral courage, as the base and thievish incitements of the slave-trade. Scarcely enough, however, has yet been manifested, to save professions of benevolence from the reproach of hypocrisy. And in the sacrifice of the lives of Africans, doubtless the Colony is often surpassed by a single slave-ship.
The above remarks are made merely as an introduction to an extract from the Twenty-first Report of the Directors of the African Institution in Great Britain, which they will, in some measure, serve to illustrate.
"In the midst of the general gloom which covers the face of this quarter of the globe, (Africa,] there is one district of coast, from which a better day promises to dawn on Africa. The colony of Sierra Leone, in common with all similar establishments, has indeed had to struggle with danger and difficulties. From peculiar circumstances, it has not only had more than its full share of these to contend against, but it has had to encounter, throughout the whole course of its esistence, a bitter and unsparing hostility, ever
aiming to bring into discredit the humane and liberal principles which gave it birth. It has been felt, and not perhaps without reason, that a colony of Negroes, blessed with free institutions, instructed civilized and prosperous, living in peace and subordination, and exhibiting in their conduct the charities of Social, and even of Christian life; while they creditably discharge their duties as members of a civil society, by turns administering and obeying laws which equally protect the rights of all, and know no distinction of class and colour;--it has been naturally felt, that an establishment of this kind, if once constructed and matured, would shake to its foundation the fabric of African Slavery. It cannoi therefore appear extraordinary, to any who know the influence of self-interest and prejudice combined, that the utmost pains should have been systematically taken to malign this colony, and to deprive it of the public favour and countenance. But, as a parliamentary inquiry will probably take place in no long time, which will serve to dissipate all illusions on the subject, it is now the less necessary to enter upon it. It is obvious, that in the case of a colony mainly composed, as Sierra Leone is, of the very rudest and most intractable human materials which could be collected into a social union—of persons drawn from the most remote points of the African coast and continent; speaking probably fifty different languages; disembarked there in a state of absolute nakedness, after having been shut up for months in the holds of slave-ships, sunk to a level almost below the brute;-it is obvious, that in the case of a colony constructed of such materials, just emerging; in their different degrees, from a state of the very lowest debasement both of body and mind, the ingenuity of an enemy may find much, especially when addressing an uninformed audience, to give an edge to his calumnies, and to heighten the discredit and contempt which it is his object to excite. But the candid and discriminating reasoner will not be deluded by such arts; and he will form his estimate of the value, and of the progress of such an establishment, not by applying to it the standard of European civilization, but by viewing it in contrast with the depth of the debasement of the African while crossing the Desert in chains, or while crowded into his floating dungeon of disease and death.
“But, whatever may be the discredit which the laborious and inveterate hostility of some persons may have succeeded in attaching to this colony in the public opinion of England, it is most certain that it is viewed with no such unfavourable eyes by the surrounding tribes. They have better learnt to appreciate the blessings and immunities to be enjoyed under its protection, as contrasted with the wretchedness and insecurity which prevail within the sphere of the Slave Trade.
"The Directors, in the last Report, announced the voluntary cession, by the native chiefs of the Sherbro' district, of about a hundred miles of coast adjoining the colony southward-a cession made on the express ground of their desiring to be shielded from the ravages of the Slave Trade.
“Measures have been taken to maintain that exclusion of the Slave Trade from this line of coast, which had been effected by General Turner; and which, it is hoped, that nothing will occur to impede. Similar cessions might have been obtained to the northward of the colony, had the policy of our Government permitted the local authorities to fall in with the desire of the natives to have the shield of British protection thrown over them. A large district, however, to the north-east of the colony, comprising the banks of Port Logo, a branch of the River Sierra Leone, has been incorporated with the British possessions; and a great step in advance has thus been made towards a more free communication with the countries bordering on the Niger. A considerable cession of territory has also been negotiated in the Gambia, at the mouth and on the north bank of that noble river, comprehending a great part of the kingdom of Barra.”
“Proceedings On the Formation of the New York State Colonization Society."
This is a publication for which we have long and anxiously waited. Knowing the talent and interest that were manifest at the formation of that Society, we had no doubt that they were well calculated to give new light and impulse to the cause of Africa. In this we are not disappointed. The sketch of the proceedings, of Mr. Smith's address, and the address of the Managers to the public, show that they were worthy of the high character of the individuals concerned, and of the state that claims them as her citizens. Of these, however, there is only a sketch. The Address of Dr. Nott, President of Union College, is published entire; and to this we shall for the present chiefly direct our attention.
Dr. Nott waives entirely the motives which might have led to the formation of the National Colonization Society, and very justly rests its present claims to public patronage, only on its promise of future benefits. We are confident that the opinions of one so distinguished for his intelligence, learning, and piety, will receive general attention. The great questions, which he proposes for decision, are, “Is the plan practicable? and if practicable, expedient?"
"Is it then practicable? Here doubtless, experience is the wisest counsellor and the safest guide. What has been done, and done often, can
again be done. How stands the balance of probabilities, in the ascertained issues of kindred enterprises, as they are found recordeå on the pages of authentic history?
But, not to insist on this; to say nothing of Greece civilized by colonies from Egypt; of Italy, by colonies from Greece; and of Europe, by colonies from Italy; the rising and the risen republics of America stand forth before our eyes, impressive monuments of what colonization can effect in climes more remote, and amid circumstances less auspicious, than even distant and tropical Africa now presents.
“Much must, doubtless, be done and suffered, before the colony at Montserado will have attained the same celebrity. Nor is it to be concealed that much has already been done and suffered, in creating and merely sustaining it in being. Its history is brief, and, till lately, it has been a history of woes. Houseless and unsheltered, the colonists have had to contend with heat and rain, and war and pestilence. And yet, from these combined causes, the amount of suffering and the waste of life, have been less at Montserado than at Plymouth, that sacred locality where the pilgrims landed, and to which the children of the pilgrims from their ten thousand places of joyous habitations, still look back with so many tender and grateful recollections. Ah! had those pioneers of civilization, in this new world, a moiety of whose numbers perished during the rigors of the first New-England winter, been disheartened; or, had those friends, whence succors were derived, been disheartened; how different had been the fame acquired for themselves-how different the inheritance bequeathed to their children? Neither the climate nor the natives of Africa are so terrible to the Negro now, as the climate and the natives of New-England were to the Britain then.
“That the millions of Africa, especially that part of it with which this discussion is concerned, are ignorant, degraded, and wretched, needs no proof. And are they to continue thus for ever? Not surely, if revelation be true, and Gud merciful. But how is a change in their condition to be produced? We have heard of nations sinking into barbarism by their own inertia, but never of their having thus arisen therefrom. So far as history reaches, at least, barbarians have been civilized, and only civilized by the influence of those who were not barbarians. In effecting the elevation of a degraded nation, a nation already elevated supplies to the philanthropist what Archimedes wanted -a fulcrum on which to plant his lever, that he might raise the world.
“It is not by legal arguments, or penal statutes, or armed ships, that the slave trade can be prevented. Almost every power in Christendom has denounced it. It has been declared felony—it has been declared piracy; and the fleets of Britain and America have been commissioned to drive it from the ocean. Still, in defiance of all this array of legislation and of armament, slave ships ride triumphant on the ocean; and in these floating caverns, less terrible only than the caverns which demons occupy, from six