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two Bushmen, who had promised to lead them to the place where some of their countrymen were concealed.
Their conduct was such as would have been honoured in the days of Roman patriotism.
“But these Bushmen, instead of conducting them right, only deceived them. A few days afterwards, therefore, seven other spies were sent out with them; and they were assured that, in case of a second failure, they should certainly suffer death; but if they pointed out their comrades, they would as certainly be spared. After proceeding about an hour, the Bushmen, resolved not to betray their countrymen, fell upon the ground, and on being commanded to rise, behaved as if they were dead. When no answer could be obtained from them, blows were inflicted, but as their determination was inflexible, and the invaders could not remove them, they slew them on the spot. As the Bushmen were fully aware of the consequences of their resolution, their conduct was an instance of patriotism not surpassed by any thing in ancient or modern history. But the individuals who composed the expedition appear to have been utterly incapable of appreciating this magnanimous action; and it failed to save those in whose behalf it was performed: for the spies, having ascertained their places of refuge, conducted the whole commando thither; and early in the morning firing into their caves, they suffered not an individual to escape. Forty-three were killed, and seven children made captives, who informed them that a captain was among the slain, but not the chief captain who had the command over the whole Sea-cow River. The commandant, having informed the government that he was in great want of powder and lead, received, in consequence, fifteen hundred pounds of powder, three thousand pounds of lead, and three thousand flints.”
For many years the spirit of hostility which prevailed against these
poor Hottentots, was such, that the colonists considered the murder of a free Bushman, wherever found and under whatever circumstances, as a duty or a meritorious act. It was not merely by the commandoes (the one half of which we have not enumerated) that the natives were hunted down like the lions, and other wild beasts of their land.
"In their hunting parties, or when travelling across the country for pleasure or on business, the boors massacred these natives as game or as noxious animals; and it is not improbable, that the numbers killed by the regular commandoes fall short of those murdered by private individuals. “A farmer," says Barrow in 1797, “thinks he cannot proclaim a more meritorious action than the murder of one of these people. A boor from GraafReinet, being asked in the Secretary's office before we left town, if the savages were numerous or troublesome on the road, replied, "he had only
shot four,' with as much composure and indifference as if he had been speaking of four partridges. I myself have heard one of the humane colonists boast of having destroyed, with his own hands, near three hundred of these unfortunate wretches."
“The effect of this system upon the Bushmen was to transform them from peaceable, contented, and useful neighbours and visiters, into ferocious and vindictive enemies, till they rivalled, in some measure, the colonists them. selves in cruelty and rapacity. Stripped of their plains and fountains, deprived of their and herds, and finally, robbed of their wives and children, and, followed with the rifle, even to their hiding places among the caverns and holes of the rocks, they had few resources besides plunder, no gratification but revenge. “One of them," says Mr. Barrow, "represented to us the condition of his countrymen as truly deplorable.
That for several months in the year, when the frost and snow prevented them from making their excursions against the farmers, their sufferings from cold and want of food were indescribable; that they frequently beheld their wives and children perishing with hunger, without being able to give them any relief. The good season even brought little alleviation to their misery. They knew themselves to be hated by all mankind, and that every nation around them was an enemy planning their destruction. Not a breath of wind rustled through the leaves, not a bird screamed, that were not supposed to announce danger. Hunted thus like beasts of prey, and ill treated in the service of the farmers, he said that they considered themselves driven to desperation. The burden of their song was vengeance against the Dutch!"
(To be continued.)
Lynchburg Colonization Society. At an annual meeting of the Lynchburg Auxiliary Colonization Society, at the Presbyterian Church, on Saturday the first day of August, 1829, the Rev. Wm. S. Reid, (1st V. P.) presided in the absence of the President.
On motion, made and seconded, John D. Urquhart was appointed Secretary pro tem.
The Treasurer's Report was read and adopted.
The Annual Report of the Board of Managers was offered and read by Mr. Urquhart, adopted by the Society, and ordered to be published in the newspapers of the town.
The Anniversary Address was delivered by Wm. M. Rives, Esq.; and, on motion, it was Resolved, that the thanks of the meeting be tendered him for his appropriate address, and that he be requested to furnish a copy of the same for insertion in the newspapers published in this town.
The Society then proceeded to ballot for their officers for the ensuing year; whereupon, the Rev. John Early was elected President; Rev. Wm. S. Reid,
1st Vice-President; Rev. F. G. Smith, 2d Vice-President; E. Fletcher, Treasurer; R. H. Toler, Secretary; and Messrs. J. Caskie, J. Newhall, J. R. D. Payne, Edward Cannon, John D. Urquhart, John Victor, Christopher Winfree, John M. Gordon, John Thurmon, John Percival, Wm. J. Holcombe and Josiah Cole were elected Managers.
It having been announced to this meeting that the Rev. Joseph Turner, a man of colour, late of the county of Bedford, hath departed this life since his arrival at the colony of Liberia; Resolved, That this Society bearing in mind his worth, high respectability and distinguished virtue while living, do deeply deplore the loss of the deceased, and sincerely sympathize with his surviving relatives, and also with the Colonists at Liberia, for the loss they have sustained in his death.
Resolved, that the proceedings of this meeting be inserted in the newspapers published in this town. Resolved, That this meeting do now adjourn.
WM. S. REID, Chairman. J. D. URQUHART, Sec. pro tem.
REPORT. The Board of Managers of the Lynchburg Auxiliary Colonization Society have the honour to submit the following RePORT:
Since the last annual meeting of this Society, there has been received, from the regular contributions of its members, collections of ministers and agents, and donations of benevolent individuals, the sum of $148 65 cents, of which $138 have been transmitted to the Parent Society at Washington, leaving on hand, according to the Treasurer's Report, a balance of $37 32 cents.
In closing the labours of the present year, the Board of Managers cannot permit this opportunity to pass by, without an endeavour, on their part, to present to the Society such considerations as
to have an immediate connexion with the cause of African Colonization, in general, and especially, such as relate to the interests of this Society in particular.
This day completes the 4th anniversary of the Lynchburg Colonization Society. During its existence, it has contributed to the general cause the aggregate sum of $483, which has been transmitted to the Parent Institution, to be disbursed, under its direction, to the general purposes of Colonization. At the period of the formation of this branch, it was understood, and, indeed, expressly stipulated, as one of the fundamental conditions of the compact between the Parent Society and it, -that, in the
removal and transportation of free persons of colour from the United States to Liberia, with the funds of the Society, each Auxiliary Association should be entitled to nominate and select within the sphere of its operation, a proportion of emigrants, corresponding, in an equitable ratio, to the amount of contributions made by such Auxiliary Society. Notwithstanding this stipulation, it seems to this Board that, in practice, it has been unavailing—owing, doubtless, to causes not within the control of this Board. It is true, that no applications for removal to Liberia were made to this Society till the fall of 1828. Such has been the change in public sentiment in relation to this scheme, within the space of one year, and such the increase of applications, that the resources of the Parent Society are found to be wholly inadequate to the object. On the application of this Board to the Parent Society for leave to select emigrants immediately previous to the departure of the Colonists from Norfolk last winter, they were apprised of the fact. This Board is authorized in stating that there are at this time between 50 and 100 free persons of colour within the range of the operations of this Society, who are now soliciting a passage to Liberia. Moreover, the Board has the satisfaction to add, that, in several instances within the past year, they have received communications from highly respectable persons, owners of slaves, not far from this place, who express a desire to liberate them, on condition, that this Society will undertake to guaranty their immediate removal to Liberia, and to supply them with an outfit in clothing, &c. suitable to their condition.
In calling the attention of the Society to the subject, the Board do not mean to be understood as intending to convey the slightest imputation of blame on the Parent Society. Their purpose is, merely to remind this Society of its privileges, and also to urge the immediate adoption of such measures as will be likely to result in a successful assertion of its just claims. It is a fact, well known to the Board, that applications have been made in the course of the last year, from several quarters, in behalf of free persons of color, residing at no great distance from Lynchburg, whose characters and testimonials were such as fairly to entitle them to the notice and favour of the Parent Society at Washington. Reasons, it is likely, have dictated the course
heretofore pursued by the Parent Society in its selection-and it is but a courtesy due to that Society, (which this Board cheerfully accords) to ascribe their conduct to considerations alike just and wise. Still, the duty of this Board requires that the subject should be brought to the attention of this Society.
In adverting to the present condition of this Society, the Board has no reason to doubt that it will ultimately redound to the promotion of the great cause of African Colonization. Though there has not been, within the last year, any considerable increase in the number of its members; yet, there has been no diminution either in its size, or in the efforts of those who have ever been actively and zealously engaged in its behalf. In defiance of natural and artificial impediments, the system of American Colonization is progressing with a sure and steady step, that well justifies the hope and belief, that its blessings will, at no distant period, be felt and admitted-not only throughout United America, but in every region of the world, where the principles of Christianity and the dictates of an enlarged humanity, and liberal philosophy, are received, cherished and acknowl. edged.
This Board has been long satisfied of the expediency and policy of the system. The ultimate practicability of it cannot be demonstrated by any known rules of reasoning or calculation.It must await the developements of natural and artificial causes, which sleep as yet, in the womb of futurity.
It is a source of no small consolation to this Board, to believe, that, there are persons among us, who, though adverse at one time to the cause of Colonization, have ceased to be so, and are now numbered among its warmest advocates. To trace the his. tory of the origin and progress of American Colonization is not regarded as falling properly within the scope of the duties of this Board. Howsoever full of interest it might be, and certainly is, it belongs, as they consider, to another department. Feeling, though, a very natural solicitude for the promotion of this association, they cannot forbear to express a firm conviction, which history will sustain, that the present condition of American emigrants at Liberia is a sufficient solution of the many imaginary difficulties and obstacles, that have from time to time been interposed between the colonists and their beneficent supporters.