Democratic Enlightenment: Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights 1750-1790

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OUP Oxford, 11.08.2011 - 1066 Seiten
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That the Enlightenment shaped modernity is uncontested. Yet remarkably few historians or philosophers have attempted to trace the process of ideas from the political and social turmoil of the late eighteenth century to the present day. This is precisely what Jonathan Israel now does.

In Democratic Enlightenment, Israel demonstrates that the Enlightenment was an essentially revolutionary process, driven by philosophical debate. The American Revolution and its concerns certainly acted as a major factor in the intellectual ferment that shaped the wider upheaval that followed, but the radical philosophes were no less critical than enthusiastic about the American model. From 1789, the General Revolution's impetus came from a small group of philosophe-revolutionnaires, men such as Mirabeau, Sieyes, Condorcet, Volney, Roederer, and Brissot. Not aligned to any of the social groups represented in the French National assembly, they nonetheless forged "la philosophie moderne"--in effect Radical Enlightenment ideas--into a world-transforming ideology that had a lasting impact in Latin America, Canada and eastern Europe as well as France, Italy, Germany, and the Low Countries. In addition, Israel argues that while all French revolutionary journals powerfully affirmed that la philosophie moderne was the main cause of the French Revolution, the main stream of historical thought has failed to grasp what this implies. Israel sets the record straight, demonstrating the true nature of the engine that drove the Revolution, and the intimate links between the radical wing of the Enlightenment and the anti-Robespierriste "Revolution of reason."

Acclaim for earlier volumes in the trilogy:

"His vast--and vastly impressive--book sets out to redefine the intellectual landscape of early modern Europe. Magnificent and magisterialwill undoubtedly be one of the truly great historical works of the decade." -- Sunday Telegraph

"The scholarship is breathtaking. Israel has read everything, absorbed every nuance, followed up every byway." -- New Statesman

"An enormously impressive piece of scholarship. The breadth and depth of the author's reading are breathtaking and Enlightenment Contested is set to become the definitive work for philosophers as well as historians on this extraordinary period." -- Tribune
 

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Inhalt

1 Introduction
1
THE RADICAL CHALLENGE
37
RATIONALIZING THE ANCIEN RÉGIME
207
EUROPE AND THE REMAKING OF THE WORLD
411
SPINOZA CONTROVERSIES IN THE LATER ENLIGHTENMENT
631
REVOLUTION
759
Bibliography
953
Index
1031
Urheberrecht

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Über den Autor (2011)

Jonathan Israel taught successively at the universities of Newcastle, Hull, and at University College London from 1970 to 2000. Since 2001 he has been Professor of Modern History at the Institute for Advance Study, Princeton. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and corresponding fellow ofthe Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. His previous books include The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness and Fall, 1477-1806 (OUP, 1995); The Radical Enlightenment (OUP, 2001) and Enlightenment Contested (OUP, 2006).

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