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and open the European and North ries. In the great race upon the ocean American line to St. John and Halifax, we shall lose a race more important, and possibly to Sydney, whence we can unless we put our men who can win it reach the Cove of Cork in six days on an equal footing with their oppofrom Boston. Shall we confine this nents. line to mails and passengers ?

If Collins undertook too much, and

sacrificed frugality to display, does it SUBSIDIES TO STEAMERS.

follow that others may not begin where If no other nation gave subsidies to Scotland has left off, and excel the prosteamers, it might be wise for us to totype ? Screw steamers of iron have withhold them ; but have we not seen been built on the Clyde, admirably the Cunard line, under a subsidy of adapted for the Pacific, to run under $ 800,000 a year, grow from five thou steam or sail, and thus avail themsand to sixty thousand tons, and launch selves of the trade-winds, steamers magnificent steamers like the Scotia able to convey in twenty days 2,000 and Persia, and furnish some of them tons of goods 5,000 miles, with 400 as frigates during the Trent affair, and tons of coal; and rich veins of coal prepare to use them against us? Have have been opened at Sangalien, at the we not seen England build up her Pen- northern end of Japan. With such insular and Oriental line, until it has steamers and such coal-beds, we might put afloat a hundred sail of vessels, at once triple our trade with China and and extended its lines to China, Japan, Japan, if we were willing to remit unand Australia ; and have we not seen necessary duties, and give necessary her increase her subsidy to two and a subsidies, to be returned eventually by half millions, when France entered the postages. field and reduced profits? Have we At present we have but 1,199,000 not seen England establish other sub tons propelled by steam, as shown by sidized lines to Canada, New Granada, the following official tables : St. Thomas, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and

American Steam Tonnage. Chili, and thus put afloat half a million

On Atlantic and Gulf Coast 653,730 Tons. tons of steam frigates, ready to pounce

49,895 upon the commerce of any nation with

351,671 which she may be at war ?

Have we not seen France follow this example, and pay to her ships $ 10,000 Less than half of this is adapted to sea a trip between the ports of France navigation. We require tri - weekly and New York ? And in view of all lines from Boston and New York to this, are we to content ourselves with England, the Continent, and the Meda monthly line to China and Brazil, iterranean, and new lines from San and none to Europe, while England Francisco to Japan, China, and Ausand France have twenty lines to Ameri- tralia. ca? Our government has found it wise

THE FISHERIES. to grant subsidies to coaches for the But if we have ships and steamers, carriage of the mail and who can run we must have mariners. Down to a against them? But how can we, with recent period the masters, mates, and all the burdens on our navigation, mariners of the United States have exrun successfully against the subsidized celled those of other nations. Where steamers of France and England ? did they gain their superiority? It

In the late race on the Thames our was in the schools of the North, and in boat was over-weighted, our oarsmen the colleges and universities for mariwere weakened and deterred by some ners, which were founded by our faabsurd theory from taking the advan thers. Those colleges and those unitages that were taken by their adversa versities are the great fisheries, which

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our ancestors classed among " the great be ascribed to the exhaustion of our and inalienable rights of the United timber. It is still abundant in the States," for which they fought and suf- Provinces, in Virginia, Puget Sound, fered, and not in vain, — the fisheries Alaska, and our Northern States, and for whales, cod, and mackerel. In would be easily accessible under imthese were reared the men who fought proved legislation. We have, too, iron the sea-fights of the Revolution, who of superior quality. It is well underferried Washington on that stormy stood that such is the strength and tenight across the Delaware, who manned nacity of our iron, that we could reduce the Constitution and the Essex, who the weight of our iron ships 15 per cent blockaded the Southern coast. We below the English standard, and proshould cherish these fisheries and all duce stronger and more buoyant vesschool-ships and other nurseries for sels, which should be rated as high as seamen. Have we done so ?

are those of England; and Congress We give bounties to agricultural col- should appoint a commission to fix a leges; we have, doubtless, converted standard for insurance. some cabin-boys, who would have made Nor are we deficient in artistic skill. mates and masters, into farmers ; but If our shipwrights command high what have we done for our seamen ? wages, they bring to their work great We have taken away their bounties, intelligence and energy, and use implewhich Congress accorded, nearly a ments so much superior to those of century since, to develop seamanship, Europe, that they accomplish more for and place our people on a footing with a given amount of money than foreign those of France and England. While artisans. we repeal bounties and merely remit We have inducements to build in the duty on salt, England liberates the petroleum, which adds 300,000 tons everything to her fishermen. Canada to our exports, in our increasing crops grants $ 4 per ton bounty to hers, and of cotton, and in the 600,000 tons France $ 2 per quintal for every pound of grain which youthful California and of codfish she exports to the United Oregon now offer us for shipment. States ; while our hardy fishermen are They tender us cargoes for voyages overweighted with duties, and find no that must occupy a year before the weight in the currency. But we can ship can return to the Pacific, and in do something for them by the remis- which she may often earn half the cost sion of worse than useless duties, and it of construction. is time this remedy was administered. We are opening a new trade with

Our shipping in the fisheries has China and Japan. These populous redwindled from 332,000 tons in 1860 to gions call with a voice that echoes 135,000 tons in 1867. The decline is across the continent for the cheap flour, principally in the whale and cod fishery, fruit, and quicksilver of California, for and with this decline has come a dimi- the silver bars of Nevada, and the timnution in the number and quality of ber, fish, and furs of Alaska, and they our mates and mariners, while England offer return cargoes of tea, sugar, and is improving her ships and her navi- spice. We require their low-priced lagators.

bor for our mines and cotton-fields, and Is it not a fact, that little has been their skilled gardeners for the gardens done for seamen with the hospital mon- and vineyards of California. These ey we have for the last eighty years sons of Asia may not become permadeducted from their wages, and that we nent residents, nor can they be nathave left it to the benevolence of pri- uralized under our laws, but they will vate citizens, like Robert B. Forbes and add to our stores of the precious metGeorge M. Barnard, to provide them als by their patient industry. They with houses of refuge and school-ships ? employ both sailing-vessels and pro

The decay of our shipping cannot pellers, and the country will secure a

valuable accession in a supply of full tion by removing the incubus under grown and frugal laborers whom it has

which it is wasting. cost nothing to educate or produce. England encourages navigation, and

We shall have taken a most impor- protects her ships by exempting them tant step towards the recovery of our from all taxes local or general; why shipping, if we induce our legislators may not we do the same, and thus to go back to the duties on metals, revive navigation as well as lighten manufactures, cigars, and spirits which freights? If we did so, we should still preceded the war. They may then have our tonnage duty, and not exempt strike from the statute-book half our

one per cent of our whole property from taxes and revive our drooping naviga- other taxes.

E. H. Derby.


Tis an odd sort of fortune to have on honesty ; since it happens that I am

lived an out-of-the-way or adven- forced into veracity by the fact that turous life. There is always a temp- there are scores of people yet in the tation to tell of it, and not always a prime of life who are cognizant of the reasonable surety that others share the main events of this narrative. interest in it of the conteur himself. I cannot tell when the idea of goIt would, indeed, be a nice problem in ing abroad first came into my mind, the descriptive geometry of narrative but, in a little journal kept in my thirto determine the exact point where the teenth year while travelling with the lines of the two interests meet, — that minstrels, I find the fact that I was goof the narrator and that of the people ing to Europe alluded to as a matter who have to endure the narration. I of which there was not the shadow of cannot say that I ever hope to solve a doubt. There is a jolly sort of begthis problem ; and in the present in- gar in San Francisco who says hope stance, especially, I would respectfully is worth twenty-five dollars a month. submit its solution to the acuter intel. It must be that I shared with him his lects of others. Those persons, for ex principal income during the four years ample, who were good-natured enough of college life which almost immedito read in the last July number of this ately succeeded my wanderings as a magazine the account of my juvenile minstrel, and which launched me again experiences as a negro minstrel can on the world at twenty. What else decide for themselves whether it is besides the hope of Continental travel worth their while to accompany the sustained me during those four years I same adventurous youth across the

now say.

My pecuniary reocean, with such scant provision for sources for that whole period were so the voyage and for a two years' so small that they have tapered entirely journ in the Old World as they will out of my remembrance. Leaving colsee stated in the title of this paper. lege, I had served, I recollect, but a There is certainly some merit in tell- few months in the post-office of Toledo, ing the truth, for it is hard work when Ohio, when I took a deliberate account one is his own hero, and not what of my savings one morning, and was is sometimes termed a moral hero at gratified. , I found in my possession too that I can claim this merit from the large a sum to permit of deferring the start, with a meekness almost bordering realization of my long-cherished dream


another day. Counting my money over West and brought with it a lucky and over, I could make no less of it thought. I scanned the faces of the than one hundred and eighty-one dollars, drovers till I found one that looked bein new United States treasury notes; nevolent, and the owner of it I engaged and I resigned “mine office," not with in conversation. He was going on the heart-broken feeling of Richelieu, in East with his cattle the next morning, the play, but still, like him, with the lin- and I made a plain statement of my gering cares of Europe on my mind. case to him. When I had done, he

Not the smallest fraction of this vast patted me on the back in such a corsum, I had resolved, should be squan- dial and stalwart manner, that — as dered on the ephemeral railroads of soon as I could get my breath - I took our younger civilization. My treasury it all as a good augury. And so it was. notes were to be dedicated, green, vo- I wish I could reproduce more of the tive offerings, on the older shrines of dialogue which took place between this our race. But the city of Toledo is sit- honest Westerner and myself, at that uated about seven hundred miles from first interview. Some of it, at least, I the sea, and it now became an interest- never shall forget, it impressed me as ing question how this distance was to so extraordinary at the time. I can, be compassed for — nothing. To a however, convey no idea of the contrast good-natured friend of mine in one of between his mild, kindly face and his the railroad offices I explained, at con- harsh bovine voice. It may help you siderable length, and with no lack, I to a kind of silhouette view of the sitflatter myself, of boyish eloquence, uation, if you will take the pains to imthe great advantage that would ac- agine the frequent excursions of my crue to me from a residence in Europe puzzled attention from his face to his which the liberality of the companies, voice, during the scene which immediin the matter of furnishing passes, ately followed. He had given me to would tend to prolong. I think he understand that he had eight car-loads became my convert, for he came to of live stock, and that he was entitled me, several hours afterward, with a to a drover's pass for every four carlong face, and gave me to understand loads. Then he suddenly paused, thrust that the railroad officials were in the both hands into the pockets of his longhabit of building no dreams of æsthetics skirted coat, and, feeling about in those that were not founded on a ground-plan spacious alcoves for a silent moment of dollars and cents. At this I be- as if in search of something, he asked, came — I do not know which to say - in an abrupt bass which seemed to desperately vindictive or vindictively issue from the depths of the coat-tails desperate. Any way, the unfeeling themselves : conduct of those corporations induced,

-on cattle ?" then and there, a state of mind which That was before the days of Mr. led me into an adventure the least cal. Bergh and his excellent society; but, culated, probably, of any in this history having consulted the speaker's beto establish my claims as a moral hero. nevolent face and not his voice, as The next morning I brought my trunk the last authority on the meaning of down to the depot and had it checked his question, I answered that I was through to New York. The rules seem very kind to cattle as a general thing. not to have been so strictly observed That, he assured me, was not exactly then as they are now. The baggage- what he meant; he wanted to know master in this instance, at least, taking whether I had ever done any “ drovfor granted that I had already secured ing." On my intimating that, almy ticket, did not ask me to show it; though I had not had much experiand I was at liberty to stroll about the ence, I was perfectly willing to be of station all day, listlessly. Just before service, “ Never mind, never mind,” he dusk a cattle-train arrived from the said ; " but can you play cards ? "

" How air you

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“No," was my ingenuous reply. of " The Bull's Head." There was a

“Now that's bad,” and he scratched smack of old times in the homely comhis head vigorously. “Can you smoke, forts as well as in the moderate charges then?”

of these quiet taverns. My expenses “A little," faltered I.

on the whole journey from Toledo to My new-made friend seemed much the sea were, if I recollect aright, a pleased by this response, and contin- little over three dollars. ued :

At New York I found that I should “All right; you jist git a lot of be obliged to pay 130 for exchange clay pipes and some tobaccy, and I 'll on my money. This I did, after buygit you a pass !"

ing a through third-class ticket to LonAs I was turning in utter bewilder- don for thirty-three dollars in currency. ment to have his strange prescription My memories of a steerage passage filled, “I say, look a here,” he said ; across the Atlantic are rather vivid “ take off all that nice harness, or you than agreeable. Among all my fellowcan't pass for no cattle - man ! I'll passengers in that unsavory precinct I lend you some old clothes and a pair found only one philosopher. He was of big boots. These stock conductors a British officer who took a third-class is right peert, they air. You 'll bave to ticket that he might spend the differsmoke a heap, and lay around careless ence between that and a cabin fare for in the caboose or they 'll find you

out. English porter, which he imbibed from The next morning I took my seat morning to night. He announced as in what he called the “caboose," his firm belief, after much observation sort of passenger-car at the end of the upon the high cheekbones of our countrain. When we had been under way trymen, that the Americans in a few about an hour, the burden of my own years would degenerate to Indians, conscience, or of my friend's boots, or the natural human types of this contithe contemplation of my unsightly dis- nent. guise, or the amount of tobacco I had It was during the World's Fair that smoked, made me deathly sick, - which, I arrived in London. My whole life on the whole, was rather a fortunate there might be written down under the circumstance. It explained to the con- general title of “ The Adventures of a ductor why I did not get out at the Straw Hat," for the one which I wore way-stations to tend my cattle, and it was the signal for all the sharpers of that also enabled me to hide my face from great city to practise their arts upon me. the conductor, to whom I happened to They took me for some country youth be known. I found, as most boys do, come up to see the Exhibition, and the that I could smoke better the farther I number of skittle alleys and thief dens got from home. What with stopping into which they enticed me was, to say to let our cattle rest and other delays, the least, remarkable. Through the it took us nearly a week to reach friendly advice of a police detective, I New York; but before three days had was finally prevailed upon to purchase passed I could perform the aston- a new English hat, and with this, as a ishing feat of putting my friend's boots sort of ægis, I passed out of the British out of the car window, and of smoking dominions, without being robbed, serenely the while, without touching and, indeed, without much of which to my pipe with my hands. All the hotels be robbed. at which we stopped along the route At Paris I witnessed the magnificent seemed, like the Crêmeries of Paris, to fêtes of the Emperor, and took the thirdexult in the importance of a spécialité ; class cars for Strasburg and Heidelberg. and that was that they were support- At this latter city, with a sum equal to ed almost entirely by drovers, and as- nearly eighty dollars in gold, I prosumed, without a single exception that posed, for an indefinite series of years, I can call to mind, the device and title to become a student of the far-famed

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