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price and quality, - an Inferno of ali to some other suburb of the Inferno), mentation in which I wonder that Doré and smoke his cigar in the glare of never dipped.
lights and blare of brazen throats over Having dined comfortably at Simp- the marketing of the poor, and then son's some Saturday afternoon, let the (remembering that this is not the cheapAmerican visitor to London go up est in London, for to some no stranger Tottenham Court Road about 9 P. M., ought to venture) make his comfortable (it may be changed now or “ moved on estimate of John Bull at feed.
W. 7. Stillman.
REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.
The Life and Times of David Zeisberger, the time may not be far distant,” says our au.
Western Pioneer and Apostle of the In thor, “when even these will disappear, and dians. By EDMUND DE SCHWEINITZ. nothing remain of the Moravian mission Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. among the North American Indians, as
nothing remains of the work of the Jesuit In an article entitled “Gnadenhütten,” fathers, except its wonderful history, to which was printed in the Atlantic for Janu teach future generations zeal for God and ary, 1869, the principal facts of the noble faithfulness unto death.” He contrasts the career here so fully described were sketched, failure of this mission with the success of and the present work, which we heartily the Moravian missions to other heathen, and welcome, was mentioned as in preparation. attributes it to the vastly more indocile charIt has all the value which we then predicted acter of our aborigines, as well as the more for it, and is certainly “a most important adverse circumstances; and a less generous contribution to American history in a de and patient historian would perhaps have partment hitherto neglected by students, inferred from his facts that the Indians were and almost an unknown land to the mere not worth the sublime sacrifices made for general reader”; it is something more than them. But neither the Moravians nor the this, and is to be praised, not only for the Jesuits would admit this, and every one else thorough research and conscientious industry should be loath to do so. It is not a justishown in it, but for the enlightened spirit in fiable interpretation of Bishop de Schweiwhich it is written, and the candid manner nitz's language even where he deals most in which Zeisberger's labors are considered. frankly with the subject, and paints the InThe author, who is now a bishop of the dians in a spirit which is very far from ideal Moravian Church, yields to none probably or romantic. His colors are from Zeisberin zeal for his ancient faith, and pride in its ger's own records, now for the first time apostles ; but as to the practical result of used ; but we do not know that they are the Moravian mission to our Indians, no darker than those of other observers of In. one could be more courageously and un dian life, though they are certainly not those sparingly outspoken. This mission resulted of the novelist :at Gnadenhütten and elsewhere in the con “Morally considered, they belonged to version and civilization of a limited number the most ordinary and the vilest of savages. of Indians, who, as long as they were isolat Upon this point Zeisberger's testimony is ed from the influences of the border, main as clear as it must be deemed conclusive. tained themselves in Christian communities, He loved the Indians. He spent his but who disappeared before the advancing life in doing them good. It is impossible whites almost as quickly as their wild heath to suppose that he would have depicted their en brethren. Of all the stations established character in darker colors than truth waramong the Indians by the Moravians, during ranted. And yet, ir tead of clothing it the last century and a half, but three are now with those illustrious features which other left, --- one in Canada, another in Kansas, and writers have portrayed, he represents it as another in the Cherokee country. “The low and detestable. Lying, cheating, and
theft were universal. The marriage relation He entered upon his work among them was of the lowest kind. Husbands forsook when a very young man, and he labored their wives whenever they pleased. To grow for their conversion and civilization with weary of a woman was a sufficient cause of varying success in different parts of Penndesertion. Fornication and adultery pre sylvania, New York, Ohio, and Canada, vailed. The ordinary state of a majority of though nearly always among Indians of the both sexes was unchastity. Other vices, of great Delaware race. Whatever could be the most abominable kind, were common. done to ameliorate or enlighten them by the The false estimate which has been made devotion of a clear, sound mind and strong, of the aborigines of the last century arose loving heart, he did for sixty-two years. He from their aptitude to dissemble and their founded community after community, and eagerness for praise. Zeisberger has laid saw them wasted and dispersed by the malice this bare by a single pithy sentence. “They of circumstances, by war, murder, and corlove to be deemed honest and good,' he ruption ; but, undismayed, he proceeded to writes, 'even when detected in the worst of other efforts in new fields. In the midst of villanies.' In almost every respect, there the labors of his vocation, and its manifold fore, they were double-faced and double dangers and deprivations, he was able to hearted; one character they assumed for study scientifically the native dialects, and show, the other was theirs in reality.” to publish many works in them and upon
Bishop de Schweinitz concludes that them. He took all a scholar's pride and ainong such a race the triumphs of the interest in these matters, and it is amusingly Cross were the more wonderful,” and no characteristic that, commenting upon Bishop one, in spite of the early decay of the Chris Loskiel's History of the Mission to the tian communities, can deny this when he North American Indians, n which Zeis. considers the changes wrought in the sav berger is himself the chief figure, he should ages by the efforts of the missionaries. praise it somewhat, and then add, that "the
It is probable that the question of the orthography of the Indian words, however, conversion and civilization of the Indians was a disgrace to the work.” An affecting will not be settled much before the extinc. evidence of the same fondness for his litertion of their race; it is and always has ary performances is the fact that, in his last been principally in the hands of the savages hours, “nothing soothed him so much as themselves and the frontiersmen who could Delaware hymns from his hymn-book, esnot offer them a life desirable for imitation, pecially those appointed for the dying, which but who freely made an exchange of vices the Indians sung grouped around him." with them, the heathen for once, in a bar This was at Goshen, the town on the gain with the whites, getting probably as Muskingum founded near the site of Gnamuch as they gave. It is not for us here to denhütten, where the dreadful massacre took pronounce which side is more or less in the place. The poor fellows who
these wrong ; we do not believe in the relegation hymns were often given over to the sin of of the Indian question to the next world ; drunkenness, to which they were tempted but this appears to be its destiny, whatever with a devilish perseverance by the white the right opinions may be, and we acquiesce settlers; and Zeisberger was now dying, to without being persuaded.
all human perception, amidst the final ruin In the mean time, the history of such a of his life-long hopes. man as Zeisberger is very melancholy, very In the article “Gnadenhütten” we disinteresting reading. The man's character cussed so fully the Moravian theory and is brought out clearly, and the facts of his practice of civilizing the Indians, that it endurance and perseverance are not more would be repetition to say anything here. surprising than the fact that he was not a Zeisberger was the great embodiment of zealot or an enthusiast. He certainly was their system, and in his life its history is a firm believer in the power of Christianity told. How well Bishop de Schweinitz has over all other forces, and if ever it seemed done his work in acquainting us with this to fail, he recognized the will of God where life we have said in general terms, but we a less religious spirit would have seen only must not fail to speak of the means he has evil. But he judges the Indians with per had for making it thoroughly good. He fect common sense, both before and after has based it mainly upon the manuscripts in their conversion, and from the most thorough the archives of the Moravian Church, which acquaintance with every phase of their life. consist not only of the reports of Zeisberger
and his fellow-missionaries to the Mission ever having actually taken place. But since Board, but of the “voluminous journals of we can neither conceive of specific things as their every-day life among the Indians, as without being, nor yet as giving being to also complete reports of any occurrences themselves, we are forced to conclude that of special interest.” The author's careful they are created, only stipulating at the study of these gives peculiar value to his same time for liberty to push back their chapters on Indian history and character, creation so far into the unrecorded past, as and freshness to his whole work. It is in practically to identify the event with the every way complete, one of its final chap. constitution of nature. This is what gives ters being devoted to an account of Zeis. the controversy its great philosophic interest, berger's literary labors, some notion of that it is thus driving men of science, who which may be gained by an examination of are too often superbly prone to sniff at such several of his manuscript works presented inquiries as metaphysical, to investigate the to the library of Harvard College.
origin of existence, or demand an adequate The style of Bishop de Schweinitz’s his. philosophy of Mother Nature herself. For tory is very clear and simple, with no ambi- if species interpret themselves into Nature, tion for mere artistic effect; while the work what does Nature interpret herself into ? is at once full of a sincere piety, and re- There can be at bottom but one source of markably free from the cant of “other- being ; so that it really does not seem imworldliness.”
probable from present tendencies that sci. ence may erelong conclude that material
things have a rigidly spiritual origin, consist. Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selec. ing in the uses they promote to higher exist.
tion : a Series of Essays. By ALFRED ence : thus that there is nothing so verita. RUSSEL. WALLACE. New York: Mac- bly supernatural, on the whole, as nature millan & Co.
On its face, however, the controversy is The reader of Mr. Wallace's Essays will no way philosophic, but purely scientific. be greatly interested in the new facts and The question debated is, whether species reasonings here brought to bear upon the obey a natural law of evolution, each being theory of Natural Selection ; and not a a modification of some broader and cruder little interested in the person of Mr. Wal. species; or whether they must all bc relace himself, who, in addition to his qualities garded as so many original but successive as a scientific observer, shows himself even types of creative power.
This question beremarkably free from that vicious temper of gets any amount of conflicting ratiocination, self-seeking and dogmatism with which the because, like all scientific questions, it adpursuit of science is not infrequently asso- mits only of an approximate solution, being ciated. Certainly no man can well exceed dependent for its settlement upon an endless Darwin himself in the modesty, candor, and array of counter-probabilities on either side. sapreme devotion to truth which character. And we need not expect, therefore, that the ize all his researches. But we may freely problem in its strictly scientific aspect is say that in all these characteristics Mr. going to be put at rest in our day. But we Wallace does not fall observably behind repeat that there is every reason to suppose him.
that the controversy will soon be taken off Mr. Wallace's work consists of ten essays, this limited ground, and put upon a truly all bearing more or less closely upon the philosophic foundation. If the rival dispu. law of Natural Selection, but all tending tants can only be led to discern, as it would quite equally to spiritualize our conception seem they cannot long avoid doing, that all of creative order, in leading us to regard true questions of material origin or nature creation no longer as a direct exhibition of are at bottom questions of spiritual destiny, Divine power, exerted in the production of they will at once and gladly leave off rumexisting species, but rather as an indirect or maging the underground cellars of history mediate exhibition of it, employed in giving in search of the mystery of existence, and them generic or universal substance. Ac- turn to its illumined upper stories, which are cording to Mr. Darwin, Mr. Wallace, and even now looming large upon the horizon of indeed the whole strain of our recent scien. men's living faith, for the light that they tific martyrology, there is no evidence appre. alone are competent to supply. The scienciable to science of any specific creation tific instinct hitherto, and especially of late, has been to deal with facts exclusively, and fancied haunt of Deity within the mata. ignore doctrine. But all signs show, and rial realm, and relegating us to the spiritual this Darwinian controversy irresistibly, that realm of mind alone to find any adequate men of science will be required in the future signs of his presence. In short, it has preto become men of thought as well ; that is, pared us for the spiritual recognition of to confront truth as well as fact, or purge God, as a being who is essentially inscruthemselves of all indifference and indecision table to a direct approach, or refuses to with regard to universal questions, no less become known save as he is necessarily than to particular ones. In a word, Nature revealed in his creature.
sole veritable sphinx, who has hitherto Of course, people will vary indefinitely in baslied all philosophic and all religious scio- their views as to how revelation becomes lism alike, with her insatiate demands of worthily constituted. Science has no word what? whence? whither? - is now block- to bestow upon this topic. But she puts it ing the way of Science herself, and will beyond all doubt, by the intellectual attitude eventually force her to become godly in she assumes at this day, that raclation, or pure self-defence, or to hinder the human
110 knowledge, are the sole remaining altermind from being buried under its own rub- natives of the human mind with respect to bish, from becoming extinguished indeed God. Either some revelation of the Divine under its own mere and miserable excreta. name is necessary to our knowledge of God, It is true that technical men of science seem or else the Divine name must consent eremore backward than any other as to philo- long to be blotted out of men's rememsophic tendencies ; for when any one of brance : upon this point she speaks with them, like Mr. Darwin, steps forth from the commanding accents. We accordingly mean ranks to deny, however modestly, that we no reproach, but a sincere homage to science, have any evidence of Divine power ever when we express our conviction that any having been exerted upon nature, or strictly old dame, with spectacles on nose, who defrom without, and not from within, he in- voutly patterns her Bible, even at the risk stantly challenges such distinction above of swallowing all its marvels as literally true, nearly all his peers as necessarily argues has a much better, though latent, intellectual their intellectual average to be very moder- relation to the future of thought, than even
But the tradition, let us hope, is at our sturdiest eaglets of science, who yet are last fatally interrupted ; so that we may content to find in their knowledge of what reasonably infer that there will be no mere they call “ the laws of nature ” a full satisman of science in the future ; that is to say, faction to their spiritual aspirations, or thirst none who will be content simply to know, for truth. She at least does not actively without exacting that his knowledge prove or acutely misapprehend the role which Naitself at the same time serviceable to ture plays in the drama of creation, and thought.
they habitually do this, in converting her Let the truth be thoroughly understood on from an accessory into a principal. The this subject. The positive benefits accruing truth is, that what we call “ nature” is to the intellect from science are not nearly merely a hypothetical body, or bond of so great as superficial observers are wont to universality, which we, in our ignorance of imagine. It is emphatically a negative ser- man as the only true universal, do not hesi. vice which science has hitherto conferred tate to assign to specific existence, mineral, upon the mind; consisting in its gradually vegetable, and animal, as necessary to give disenchanting us of the old superstition them fixity, or render them stable. And which made space and time laws of the in- this is literally all it is : a purely logical finite being we have in God, rather than two substratum or substance, having neither exmost generalizod expressions of the finite istence nor function unsupplied by our inand phenomenal existence we have in our- telligence. In its widest acceptation, it is a selves. In destroying this vulgar prejudice, mere provisional cuticle of the human mind, science has virtually lifted the philosophic designed to harbor that mind, or give it a problem of creation (together with all strict- quasi outward unity with itself, while it is ly cosmical questions whatever in fact), destitute of true inward unity, or unhoused out of the sphere of sense, and converted it in its own spiritual recognition. And to take henceforth into an exclusive problem of the up our abode in nature, therefore, or make
Such is the great negative work it the temple of our intellectual rest, withit has done, in sternly demolishing every out instantly pressing on to know the ma
jestic spiritual form to which it is altogether ducing picture of her. He keeps a surprisand abjectly ministerial, is not a whit more ing cheerfulness of temper throughout, but creditable to our intelligence, than it would he does not pretend that his intimacy with be to cherish the disgusting viscera of the poverty is ever enviable ; and indeed there corpse for their own sake, and with no view never was but one man had the heart volun. to the lessons they reflect upon the health tarily to perpetuate such a thing, and he was and disease of the living subject.
a saint, and not a literary man.
There is something quite touching in the
first of these vagabond adventures, that is to T'agabond Adventures. By Ralph KEELER. say, in the account of the boy who ran away Boston : Fields, Osgood, & Co.
from home; but the author does not direct
ly appeal to sympathy for him. So strange It is given to so few people to have run facts have rarely been so simply told, and away from home in very early life, to have with such strict regard to the truth of local adopted the profession of negro-minstrelsy color and the integrity of the hero's characin fulfilment of the ambition of every boy ter, who never thinks or does anything befor some sort of histrionic eminence, to have yond his years. Those of our readers who abandoned this art for the purpose of going remember Mr. Keeler's Atlantic papers, through college, and then, after much travel “ Three Years as a Negro Minstrel” and in Europe and a course of study at Heidel “The Tour of Europe for $ 181 in Currenberg University upon less money than most cy,” are as well qualified as ourselves to of us would like to starve upon at home, to pronounce them very interesting in substance have settled quietly down to writing for the and agreeable in manner : he has somemagazines, that Mr. Keeler has at least one what enlarged them, as they now stand, and reason for making this curious and enter they will bear a second reading singularly taining little book. The story was worth well. We think that the first two parts telling, even if he could have imparted to of the book are better in every way than it no charm of narration and suggested no the last : they are better in style, and in pleasant or useful reflections to his reader. fact they are more curious; for the povBut he has made it lively and agreeable in erty - stricken traveller and student is not style, and he has addressed himself so skil so novel in literature, whilst the runaway fully to the reader's good sense as well as boy and negro-minstrel, surviving to write interest, that we believe the public will find it, of himself, is absolutely new. The min. as we do, a novelty in literature, and some strelsy paper is peculiarly entertaining to us thing very much better than a novelty. There people of the audience, who are always longis the flavor in it of the picaresque novel, ing to know what the actors are like behind without the final unpleasant tang of that the scenes, and who have here the chance species of fiction ; and the author has so ob to see our delightful old friends with their jectively studied his hero, that even where burnt-cork off. It is immensely gratifying the latter falls into unpoetizable squalor, and to find so much human nature in them, -has things happen him that you wish had yes, so much more human nature than falls not happened, you do not refer your repug to the lot of most other men ; and we ought nance to the historian, who, you feel, sees all to be obliged to Mr. Keeler for the sincerthese things in the same light you do. On re. ity and good taste in which he has presented flection, too, you are glad that he treats his them. That company on the Floating Palace subject so unsparingly, for a book has no is one that it is charming to know through business to be merely literature ; and such a him ; and the whole paper has now an hisbook as this especially ought to teach some torical value, for negro-minstrelsy, that sole thing, - ought to disenchant youth with ad- growth of drama from American lise, is now venture, and show Poverty in her true colors, almost wholly passed away, and was waning that people may use every honest effort to even before slavery perished. Something avoid her. That lean nymph is so apt in else pleased us in this paper : perhaps it literature to take the imagination of the may be roughly described as confirmation young, that it is well for once to see her as of our belief that the truly American novel, she is in real life: Mr. Keeler, who has when it comes to be written, will be a story walked up and down with her, like Con of personal adventure after the fashion of stance with gries, and has the same reason Gil Blas, and many of the earlier English to be fond of her, paints anything but a se fictions.