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fixed base of supply for their volume. will not sail too late in the season, if we The reader must for himself judge are guided by the judgment of old pohow far they are capable of unsealing lar navigators. the ices of the Arctic and Antarctic The detachment of ice masses and Seas, and clearing a path through the their dangerous presence in the frozen crystal solid to the goal of the geogra- ocean doubtless will continue till late pher. But what if the base of these in July. During the early summer the potential masses which move into the diffusion of fresh water from the meltPolar Basin be advanced toward the ing snow over the surface of the Polar

Pole through an arc of twenty degrees Sea would seriously obscure the presi of latitude ? Suppose the equatorial ence of the warm current, and render

currents should shift their position to its movement less discernible by the ward the north as much as twelve thermometer. hundred or fourteen hundred miles, “ The months of August and Sephow would this affect the thermomet- tember," says Lambert, “are, I beric gateways ? Evidently they would lieve, the best for explorations along have far less space and time to spread the coasts of the Arctic Ocean. Whalout their volume and radiate their heat, ers have pushed to the east of Point before washing up into the Arctic Sea Barrow, and taken whales until the itself. Judging by the velocity of the 15th of September, without seeing ice Gulf Stream and Kuro Siwo, they from the north, and I have seen whales would, in such a case as we have sup- taken as late as October 12th under posed, be shortened, in their course to the 71° of latitude.” Captain Bent the Pole, at least thirty days. The dif- also, in a late note to the writer, obficulty of preserving their tropical heat serves : Were it not for the absence of course diminishes as the time of of daylight, I should recommend midflow diminishes. Now this advance- winter for the experiment, not only on ment of the base of supply for these account of the lessened chance of hot currents is just what annually takes meeting floating ice at that season, but place. In a word, the mathematical also from the fact that less dissolution equator and the thermal equator are of ice is taking place then; and the only twice in the year the same line. thermal difference between the waters The latter is thrown to the north at of the warm stream and those of the least twelve hundred miles. As it is counter-currents being greater in winthrown northward, the trade-wind zone ter than in summer, the former (or is moved with it. The trade-winds, warm currents) could be more easily however, set in motion the equatorial traced then than they probably can currents of the Pacific and Atlantic. at other seasons." These mighty masses, flowing to the That the method of testing this thewest, have their northern banks trans- ory is not an experiment we have a ported over twelve hundred miles near- guaranty in the fact of its coming er the Pole! And it follows that the from a skilful and trusty seaman. Kuro Siwo and the Gulf Current of the How far the thermometer avails as Atlantic are thus and then, once every a practical guide at sea is beautifully year, pushed and pressed the same dis- suggested by Humboldt. Sand-banks tance nearer the Polar Basin.

and shoals, he says, may be recognized Such are some of the chief facts by the coolness of the waters over and principles of physical geography them. By his observations, Franklin which underlie the final solution of the converted the thermometer into a soundpolar problem, - a problem that has ing-line. Mists are frequently over cost the world more than any or all these depths, owing to the condensabeside.

tion of the vapor of the cooled waters. There is reason to hope much from I have seen such mists in the south of the American Arctic Expedition. It Jamaica, and also in the Pacific, defin

ing with a sharpness and clearness the and their bearings may be taken in the form of the shoals below them, appear same manner as that of a high mouning to the eye as the aerial reflection tain or isolated peak. of the bottom of the sea.

In the open

The new expedition will be conductsea, far from land, and when the air is ed in the interests of geographical calm, clouds are often observed to rest science. We shall look for rich reover spots where shoals are situated, sults.

T. B. Maury.

REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.

The New Timothy. By WM. M. BAKER. preached into them by very ferven' apostles, New York: Harper and Brothers.

men of their own experiences, sympathies,

and prejudices. Their religion did not MR. BAKER has already made himself make them Abolitionists, but it did make favorably known by his story of the seces them vastly better men than they would sion days in the South, which he called, not otherwise have been ; and at the worst, it very attractively, “Inside,” and he has an was one of the most interesting and pictualmost unique combination of qualities for resque phases of their life. the achievement of popularity, in his very evi. Mr. Baker's story is that of a young clerdent power as a literary artist, and his very gyman, who comes from a seminary to the strong and explicit religious orthodoxy. Of charge of a Southwestern cure of souls, course it may be doubted whether novelists himself a Southwesterner, but refined and should be a source of pride to any sect; enfeebled by his college life. He is no yet we suspect that none are loath to see great figure, either before or after his selftheir religious opinions arrayed in the pretty emancipation from seminary traditions, and and effective garb of romance. The Devil, his encounter of the local sinners upon their who once had all the good tunes, has been own plane of sentiment; and neither are obliged to give some of them up, as every any of the young gentlemen and ladies of body knows who listens to the lively yet the story remarkable, least of all that young sacred marches and quicksteps played now. lady with the intolerable name of John. But adays in the churches ; and the enemy of all the rude and bad people are new and souls is quite likely to be made to relax charming. So good society as the Meggar his monopoly of the best stories, though family we have not seen, in a novel, for a here, we must say, he shows the strongest long time; and the hunter, Brown Bob fight.

Long, is a convert of a sort not to make However this may be, it is quite certain us sorry that he is saved. that Mr. Baker, who is an earnest and active Mr. Wall, the minister, goes, by Long's clergyman of the evangelical persuasion, is advice, upon a bear-hunt with the Meggar also a clever and amusing writer, with an family, and by rashness and good luck kills eye for character which would be notable in the bear. This feat so far raises him in one of the wicked. In “ The New Timo their opinion, that it is possible to let them thy,” as in his former novel, he has laid the know who he is; and the bear-hunt is finally scene in the Southwest, where, in creed at blest to the conversion of all the Meggar least, there is far more Puritanism than boys, the mother being already a "profescould have been found in New England any

sor.'

We cannot give a clearer idea of the time during the last fifty years. Those rude Meggar family, or a better proof of Mr. backwoodsmen and patriarchal planters, and Baker's almost singular power of faithfully those slaveholding village bankers and law. reproducing such character, than by some yers, when they got religion, got religion of passages descriptive of Mr. Wall's arrival the old kind, and had no doubts about it on a Sunday at their cabin : after they had got it. But they got it in no “The road before the cabins has evidentcold blooded way, out of books; it was ly been for years the gathering-place of cat

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tle. Among the mire lies an old wagon, “ The rest of the men scent an attempted and parts of another cumber the rotting swap from the outset. There are Old Man logs placed on end, one higher than the Meggar himself and two friends with whom other, at the fence by which the yard is en he has been gambling upon the barrel, who tered. Half a dozen old saddles stride the remind Mr. Wall of dirty and defaced cents, fence, left there since being taken off the and who circulate there as Zed and Toad. horses from sheer laziness, and which will Not even the greasy cards can stand against not be taken into the house by their owners the attractions of a swap of horses, and until the last possible moment before night. these join the group. No one has the least

concern as to who the visitor is. The en“The rider sees, drawing nearer, that tire interest is centred in Mike, and Mr. there is quite a group of men lounging in Wall has a new insight into Swift's tale the passage of the cabins and under the of the Yahoos and their four-footed masfront shed. A rough-looking set they are ;

ters. and, to his dismay, he observes quite a “But this venerable head of the house. group of them around a whiskey-barrel hold, Old Man Meggar! A miserable litstanding on end, playing cards upon its red tle shrivelled-up old sinner; his scanty wisps head, with oaths and exclamations. The of white hair in strings about a weazen screams of a tortured fiddle come from with face; a pair of small eyes, red and watery in the house. In fact there is a miasma of from some sixty years of steady intoxicawickedness and whiskey and wretchedness tion. To his toothless mouth swearing seems upon the whole den. ..

the only language left, flowing uninterrupt“But two or three of the men least occu edly with a rivulet of tobacco-juice which pied are looking at him at last. They arise trickles down his ragged white beard from and come out together in their dirty shirt either filthy corner thereof.

To him, sleeves, pipe in mouth. They reach the as to his host, Mr. Wall now makes his apfence, and lean upon it on their folded peal. arms, – rough, red-headed, blowzy, beard "This is old Mr. Meggar, I believe?' ed, large-nosed men they are. It is not Mr. he says, with an inclination toward that old Wall they are interested in at all ; it is his reprobate. 'I started on a little visit to horse. A man they can see any time, and you, got lost in the woods, have had no attach very little value to when seen. A dinner, am as hungry as you please. If it fine horse is quite another thing. So far as is convenient, sir, I would like a little somethe rider can see, they have not as yet ob. thing to eat. As to our horses, gentlemen, served that he has accompanied the horse. they can wait!'

.... The visitor has appealed to that “How much that critter cost you ?' asks one of the virtues which is about the only Doc. Meggar at last the owner ; and it one left to that household, - hospitality. In is the first recognition by any one of them such a frank and cordial way, too ! there of his existence.

"Certainly, sir, certainly !' said the old " "He was given to me by my uncle,' re. man, and he climbed feebly over the fence, plies that gentleman.

followed by his guest, the rest remaining "• Ketch my daddy, let alone uncle, giv about the horses. • What could I hev been in' me sech an anemil,' remarks Jake, with thinking of? I oughter hev --' And here severe sarcasm, implying strong doubt of the a dirty negro-woman emerged from a side

hovel in answer to his curses. • Where's * But what will you take, now ? Not a ole woman? you cullud cuss !! serviceable hoss, mind; too flimsy across 'Same place, Massa ! sa-a-ame place ! the l'ins. On'y a sort

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fancy anemil; ain't Down 't end ob garding! 'Hind de buttera paint hoss nuther, say?' asks Bill, resum beans !' ing his pipe.

""A-prayin' away!' said the master, • Thank you. I don't want to sell,' is with unspeakable disgust. “You jest run

down there, quicker 'n a flash. Tell her "Of course not! What you want to do there's a man here at the house wants his is to swap. I seed that in your eyes the dinner. You clip it. Take seat, sir. Ev'ry minit you rode up. That's what you come afternoon, year 'round, same way! Hev a for! Just you hold on a bit!'

pipe, sir? A-prayin' rain or shine, 'hind them butter-beans !- Bill'(at the top of his

statement.

the reply.

course not.

death :

voice to the men at the fence), 'hev you an' and opinions of their class; but it is in skil. Jake left enny o' that whiskey ? Not a sin ful characterization of them both that Mrs. gle drop?' (In a lowered growl) — 'Of Likens is made to say after the General's

You 'll hev to wait a little, sir. Boy's gone to cross-roads for more, and ««• But there's one thing I must tell you, I'll lamm him when he gets here! A-pray- child,' she adds, after quite a silence. “I've in'! Ez if Almighty ever comes in rifle wanted to do it for months, — have started shot o' the place !' and the oaths and to to do it a dozen times, but it was too awful. bacco-juice and hospitable attentions to his We are alone now,' adds the old lady, lowguest flowed on, mingled with unspeakable ering her voice and rising to see that the : contempt at the conduct of his wife, praying door of their chamber is shut, for it is as behind the butter-beans.

they are about lying down at night. 'I “And what might your name be, stran. shudder to tell even you. It never hapger?' he asks at last.

pened to the General, in full at least, till “Charles Wall,' replies the visitor, sud after that awful night Uncle Simeon raved denly and stoutly, but with a terror down

-you

remember it about blood and burnhis very spine. He need not have feared. in'. It would n't then, only the General's Old Man Meggar knows nothing of him or understanding had grown weak-like in that of any other of his class !

matter before. I know you won't breathe " And your name is Meggar,' he contin it to a soul. It would kill me dead if I ued, in the same breath. • Meggar, Meg. thought people dreamed of a syllable of it. gar ; I don't remember ever meeting with It would blacken the General's name forany of that name before.'

ever, because people could n't understand “A few of the men have torn themselves he was out o' his head when he thought it, from the horse, and are lounging about the as I could. It was part of the disease that speaker. His remark brings out from all killed him, — he was so perfectly sensible an instant, unanimous, uproarious shout of 'cept in that. An' it act'ly reconciled me laughter.

to his death some, I'd all the time such a Why, what is the joke?' Mr. Wall deathly terror he might let it out ; you see inquires, as soon as he can be heard. His it was growin' on him. He thought slavery simplicity in asking such a question provokes the ownin' our own black ones — another and heartier peal.

wrong thing, almost a sin !' added Mrs. “Well, you see,' said his host, wiping General Likens, her lips to John's ear, with his yellow sleeve his watery eyes, and in accents of horror. It's weighed on my leering upon his guest like a decrepit satyr, mind dreadful! He was crazy, an' could

was a

and

you see, I'm the child of misfortin. I n't help it, you know.' did n't happen to hev any father, 'cept my “As they endeavored to compose them. mother. Her name was Meg. — M

selves to sleep, exhausted by this fearful reve. thing or other ; I don't rightly mind what; lation, Mrs. General Likens added : ‘I'm don't matter. I s'pose people that knew afraid you won't be able to sleep a wink to. my mother, seein' me a little shaver toddlin' night thinkin' of it, but I had to tell you. about, 'd say, Hello, little Meggar !” and He was deranged, you know,

not respon. it come that way. Can't say who begun it. sible like ; an' it nigh drove me crazy, too, Anyhow, Meggar's my name.

to think of it. But try an' go to sleep if you never heern tell of the name before, I sup I feel very tired to-night.'”

How very effectively this indicates a whole And he led off again in a peal of that condition of things now passed away forparticularly filthy kind of laughter which ever! There is little else about slavery indicates the of the joke starting in the book, — that is to say, it appears it.”

only for artistic purposes, and seldom even Next to these Meggars and Bob Long, for these. we suppose the best pieces of character No one has made better pictures of painting are General Likens, and Mrs. Gen Southern country and village life than these, eral Likens, the former silent as the latter is and only. Major De Forrest has equalled talkative. Her talk is all excellent, and as them. As a story,

“ The New Timothy” natural as the General's silence. They are is not much, but as a study of life little simply religious planter-folk, Virginians by known to literature, it is most successful and birth, and with apparently only the thoughts commendable.

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An Account of the Remarkable Occurrences one to throw upon his own past.

The spirit in the Life and Travels of Colonel James of his letters is not the least delightful thing Smith, during his Captivity with the In about them. He confesses to far more of dians, in the Years 1755, '56, '57, '58, and an old man's garrulity than he ever indulges, '59. With an Appendix of Illustrative and he owns and pleasantly laughs down a Notes. By Wm. M. DARLINGTON, of predilection for magniloquence, which he Pittsburg. Cincinnati : Robert Clarke traces to an early revolt from the vulgarity & Co.

and coarseness of the ordinary backwoods Pioneer Life in Kentucky. A Series of Rem- speech. Yet this man, so admirably con

iniscential Letters from Daniel Drake, scious, not only as to himself, but as to M. D., of Cincinnati, to his Children. the real character and effect of the pioneer Edited with Notes and a Biographical life which he fondly depicts, had little or no Sketch by his Son, CHARLES D. DRAKE. schooling, save such as he could give himCincinnati : Robert Clarke & Co.

self, up to the age when he quitted the

drudgery of the farm for the severe study of None of the Ohio Valley Series, as we his profession. He shows himself quick to think, are more attractive than these vol the grand and beautiful aspects of the wilumes, the latest published of that admi derness, yet he does not fail to acknowledge, rable collection. The first is a reprint of even while regretting these, its terrible hardone of those rare old books, like Bouquet's ships, its heart-breaking loneliness, its almost Expedition, with which the publishers are inevitable barbarity. The passages in which enriching the series ; and the last is among he touches upon the character of his mother, the most interesting of the original works her life of ceaseless care and labor, and her relative to early Western history. Dr. Drake capacity for better things, are very affectwas a man who while he lived was a large ing; and we learn also to honor her and her part of all literary and scientific progress in husband, with their excellent morality, their the West, and who left behind him a repute religiousness, their sense of justice, and their for public usefulness and private worth which abhorrence of slavery, which early made its his own section may well cherish with pride, hideousness known on the frontiers. It is and which we may all gladly recognize. women who suffer most in all the advenHe was a very remarkable man in every tures and enterprises of men, and the greater way, for what he was, and for what he did; burden of exile and solitude fell upon the and the story of his boyhood in the back mother in this case ; but the full sense of woods of Kentucky, as told here, is one of this is so cumulative, and so little dependent the best witnesses to the fact that, whatever on detachable passages, that the reader must refinement may be, fineness is as directly the go to the book itself for it. gift of Heaven as any positive ability. Civ The letters of Dr. Drake are not merely ilization, you must own as you read, was personal reminiscences, but faithful pictures born in this man; by nature he hated what of local manners and customs.

We canever was rude and cruel and impure, and not advise any to turn to them for the realiloved justice and beauty. He was not a zation of romantic ideas of the pioneers; but man of genius, it would seem, but of sensi they are very interesting reading, and very bility and conscience and modesty; not instructive ; they form part of our own hissmart, in the pitiable, bad way of many of tory, which daily grows more venerable and our growths “from the people," but talented, precious ; and we most heartily commend tastesul, industrious, honest.

the volume, not only to collectors of such He came of stock partly Quaker; and material, but to the average reader, as somewhen he was a child, his father removed thing very apt for his entertainment and with his family from his native State of New then for his use. The biographical sketch Jersey to the wilds of Kentucky, and after by Mr. Charles D. Drake is satisfactory, the fashion of that day hewed out a farm and the preface a singularly sensible piece from the heart of the unbroken forest. The of writing. family life in the log-cabin there is what Dr. Drake's boyhood was passed in that Dr. Drake has portrayed in these letters to period just before backwoods life ceased to his children, with winning simplicity and be a general condition. The Indian wars familiarity of style, and in a clear, objective were ending in the West, - the West of light, such as only the vast and striking that day, which is now pretty far eastward, changes of American history would enable - and the Americans were in full and un.

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