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Lib Harvard College

Literature, Science, Art, and 'olitics.

OCTOBER, 1870.


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Our Israelitish Brethren. James Par

ton Joseph and his Friend. X. Bayard

Taylor Regret. Celia Thaxter Irony. F. H. Hedge Oldtown Fireside Stories. Harriet

Beecher Slowe Speckled Trout. John Burroughs My Retreat | A German Landlady. H. H. Under the Skylight. C. P. Cranch Some English Workingmen. Justin McCarthy


Page Jeremiah S. Black and Edwin M. Stan385 ton. Henry Wilson . . .

463 Four Months with Charles Dickens · 476 403 A Virginian in New England Thirty413 five Years ago. III.

482 The New American Polar Expedition 414

and its Hopes. T. B. Maury 492

Reviews and Literary Notices 424

504 Baker's New Timothy. – Darlington's Ac429

count of the Remarkable Occurrences in 440

the Life and Travels of Colonel James

Smith, and Drake's Pioneer Life in Ken441

tucky. – Miss Van Kortland. - Ténot's 457

Paris in December, 1851. - Locker's Lon-
dou Lyrics. – Hingston's Genial Showman.

Peterson's Modern Job. – The Ameri458

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can Annual Cyclopædia.





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Some Memories of Charles Dickens.

Holiday Romance.

Sketches of Young Couples.
The Mystery of Edwin Drood, — all that Mr.
Dickens had written.

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The Will of Charles Dickens.
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A Magazine of Literature, Science, Art,

and Politics.





ID the reader ever try to compute observance of Sundays and holidays,

brethren to keep two Sundays a week, Protestant than in Catholic lands. The
and four sets of holidays a year? Be- rigor of the Scotch and the Puritan
sides their own religious and national Sunday is especially grievous to them,
festivals, they have been compelled, even to the present hour; while in
generally under ruinous penalties, to Paris, Hamburg, and Vienna Sunday
abstain from business on those of the is, in some branches of business, the
countries in which they have dwelt. best day of the week.
Thus in Catholic countries, for several This fact of the double set of holi-
centuries, they were obliged to be idle: days would alone have sufficed to ex-
1. Fifty-two Sundays; 2. Thirty holi- clude them from agriculture. A ripe
days of obligation ; 3. Fifty-two Satur- harvest will not wait from Friday till
days or Sabbaths; 4. An average of Monday for any of our scruples; and
twelve other holidays of their own : to- two good planting days lost in a late, wet
tal, one hundred and forty-six days per spring would often make the difference
annum, or about two days in every five ! between a crop and no crop. Fancy a
In Protestant countries, the usual num- market-gardener in strawberry time, or
ber of idle days, including their fifty- a florist in May, obliged to cease work
two Saturdays and twelve festivals and half an hour before sunset Friday af-
fasts, has been one hundred and ten, ternoon, and unable to offer anything
or about two days in every six. In for sale till Monday morning! Even
other words, the Jews in Catholic the thirty Catholic holidays of obligation
countries have been obliged, by law placed the farmers of Catholic coun-
and conscience, to abstain from busi- tries under a disadvantage that was
ness nearly three days a week, and in obvious to all who lived near the line
Protestant countries a little more than dividing a Catholic from a Protestant
two. Of late years, since Catholics country. Voltaire, who lived for thirty
have become much less strict in the years close to the frontier of France,

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by Fields, Osgood, & Co., in the Office of the

Librarian of Congress, at Washington. VOL. XXVI. - - NO. 156.


within two miles of Protestant Geneva, borrower worships in the cathedral. dwells upon this in many a passage of On Good Friday as on the Day of exquisite satire. Readers remember Atonement, through merry Christmas the scene in which the priest rushes and joyous Purim, on the days of Passfrom the tap-room, “red with wrath over, the fourth of July, the fifth of and wine,” to rebuke the yeoman who November, still it yields its increase. had “the insolence and impiety” to Hence strong Israelites usually deal in plough his field on a Saint's day, “in- money; and as to the rank and file, stead of going to the tavern and drink- we must allow, if we would be just, ing like the rest of the parish. The that the trader who has to keep his poor gentleman was ruined: he left shutters closed two or three days a the country with his family and ser- week must, as a general thing, carry on vants, went to a foreign land, turned business at small expense, and make Lutheran, and his lands remained un- the most of every transaction. cultivated for many years.” If thirty But if, a thousand years ago, the extra holidays were a serious injury to Jews had reached that point of develFrench farmers, it will not be ques- opment which would have enabled them tioned that ninety-four made agricul- with a good conscience to give up ture an impossible pursuit to Israel- their seventh-day Sabbath, and rest ites.

only on ours, it would not have availed Except where Jews lived together in to give them a choice of occupations. large numbers, as in Poland and some In the night of superstition, no Jew parts of Germany, the same fatality of could own or hold land on endurable their lot sufficed to exclude them from conditions in any country of Chrismost workshops, counting-rooms, and tendom. Nor could he belong to any stores. Who could take an apprentice guild of mechanics ; and hence he with the understanding that he was could not be himself a mechanic, nor to be always absent on Saturdays ? apprentice his son to a mechanic. He Who, a clerk, on the condition of not could not lawfully hire a Christian serhaving him on the busiest day of the vant in some countries. He could not week? Even here, in these free cities enter a university or a preparatory of America, wherc Jcwish merchants school in any counlıy, and so llic lihand bankers are often obliged to em- eral professions were closed to him. ploy Christian clerks, they labor under He could not be an artist, even if any the disadvantage of having to pay sala- Christian prince would have bought ries for three hundred and nine days' pictures of him, because, in the black work per annum, while only getting ages, there were only two kinds of pictwo hundred and fifty-seven days' at- tures that yielded much revenue or tendance. In short, if the reader will renown,

New Testament scenes, and take the trouble to trace all the conse- indecent pictures from the Greek and quences of the conscientious adherence

Roman poets.

The former a Jew of our Israelitish brethren to their holy could not paint; the latter he would days, he will discover that during many not, for the Jews have preserved, centuries of their dispersion among through all vicissitudes, a certain chasChristian nations, that adherence would tity of mind and taste, which makes have been enough of itself to confine such subjects abhorrent to them. A their able men to the trade in money good Jew knows better than most men and jewels, and their ordinary men the unutterable preciousness of an unto petty traffic and hard bargaining. prurient soul and an uncontaminated Money at interest keeps no holy day. body; for there is nothing which his Like the trees of the Scotch laird in the religion inculcates so sedulously and in novel, it grows while the owner sleeps. so many ways. At the present hour It earns revenue both while the lender they are probably the chastest seven prays in the synagogue and while the millions of people under the sun.

The tory Carlyle, with the baser in- that country, nine thousand of whom stinct of his party, — which is, to grovel live in or near Jerusalem; and there is before the strong and trample on the no reason in the laws or customs of the weak, — makes this exclusion of the land why they should not cultivate the Jews from all the more honorable and soil. But hardly a Jew in the world expanding pursuits the occasion of a knows how to plough and reap, and most bitter taunt. The celestial pow the Jews in Palestine — pilgrims and ers, he says, when a people have be descendants of pilgrims — have been come hopelessly debased, sometimes steadily demoralized by the alms sent toss them in utter contempt a great

to them from orthodox synagogues in bag of money, as if to say, “ Take every part of the world. M. Netter, that! Be that your portion !” How the agent of the Israelitish Alliance, cruelly unjust is this! The Encyclo who was sent to Palestine to inquire pædia Britannica, an invaluable work, into the condition of the Israelites but uniformly narrow and reactionary there, reports that this unwise, sention religious subjects, while admit mental almsgiving paralyzes the arms ting that, in the dark ages, Jews had and corrupts the hearts of his people. no choice but to be money-lenders, “ As the elders,” he remarks, “get a while allowing that they had no means double portion of the alms, and as they either of revenge or self-defence, ex themselves distribute whatever little cept in extorting usurious interest from may be left of it, the indigent and lowly their plundering oppressors, stamps get but a very small portion of it. We with reprobation their “ meanness and therefore see parents allowing their injustice” in so doing. But the same children to marry early, in order that writer on the same page (Vol. XII. p. the offspring of these marriages may 778) has no word of encomium for those share in these charities and increase heroic Jews, who he says presented the resources of the family. Children their breasts to the sword rather than are also made to study the Talmud, a violate their conscience ; nor for those knowledge of which brings in an addihigh-minded Jewish maidens and wives, tional income. The weak and powerwho fastened stones to their bodies and less are held in abject subjection by sought refuge in the river from the

their superiors, and frequently seek repolluting touch of Christian soldiers. lief from the English missionaries, who In one of our best periodicals, while are always ready in such cases." I am writing these paragraphs, I read Here is another example of the peran impatient paragraph, complaining of nicious consequences of ill-directed the “obstinacy” of the Russian Jews benevolence, from which the future is in avoiding agriculture and sticking to to suffer so much. The remedy M. petty traffic. As if, in all the empire Netter suggests is agriculture; alof Russia, until very recently, an Israel though at present not a Jew in Palesite could own an acre of land, or till a tine cultivates the soil. A few of them farm to advantage, while forced to ob- have tried gardening, and failed, as serve the numerous festivals of the Christian amateurs generally fail, from Greek Church !

ignorance. An agricultural school and The Jews are, in truth, singularly experimental farm, in aid of which monadapted by natural disposition to agri- ey has been subscribed in New York culture, their skill in which once made and other capitals, is about to be Palestine a garden. At the present started in Palestine. All things must moment the attention of benevolent have a beginning, and the disuse of and public-spirited Jews is directed to eighteen centuries cannot be overcome the return of their people to agricultu- in a year or two, but there is reason ral pursuits, and the scene of the first to believe that the people who once experiment is Palestine itself. There made their land a proverb for its abunare now thirteen thousand Israelites in dant harvests are about to recover

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