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emancipate himself, and after great difficulty sonorous voice, and his very finely formed and some rough treatment from his master, features made an impression on me which the man concluded to accept seventy pounds, time has never lessened. Dear, generous and Gibson began ulpture with the Messrs. master! I see you before me now, I hear Francis. Here he worked, perfectly happy. your soft Venetian dialect, and your kindly
“ After some months there came a tall words inspiring my efforts and gently cormagnificent-looking old gentleman to the recting my defects. Yes, my heart still workshop: his hair was white as snow; swells with grateful recollection of you." aquiline nose, thick brows; and his manner Thorwaldsen he also knew, and he gives was most benevolent. It was William Ros. some interesting reminiscences of this celecoe. The object of his visit was to order a
brated man. chimney-piece for his library at Allerton. In Canova's studio he studies the pure My models and numerous drawings, were Greek style, encouraged in it by his master, soon placed before him, and he said many and entirely bent that way by taste and encouraging things to me. In a few days principle. Here he models a sleeping shepMr. Roscoe returned, and settled with my herd, and a Mars and Cupid, for which latter master about the chimney-piece; then turn group he receives a commission from the ing to me, he said he wished me to make a Duke of Devonshire, his first commission basso-relievo for the centre, not in marble, in Rome. In 1822 Canova dies, beloved but in terra cotta, from a print which he and regretted by his pupils and friends. In brought with him. He added : ‘This print 1821 Gibson models a group of “Psyche is of great value: it is by Marc Antonio, and the Zephyrs.” Sir George Beaumont from Raphael.' It represented Alexander (reputed to be one of the best judges of art ordering Homer's Iliad to be placed in the in England) comes to Rome and is sent by casket taken from Darius. .... I executed Canova to Gibson's studio, and gives the the work, which gave satisfaction, and it is young sculptor a commission for it. In preserved at this time in the Liverpool In 1819 he has a commission from Watson stitution.”
Taylor for a statue of Paris ; and in 1824, Mr. Roscoe continued to be his patron, from Sir George Cavendish, for the “Sleepand gave him wholesome advice about his ing Shepherd Boy”; and in 1826 he has studies. Now commences his course of the patronage of Mr. Vernon and Sir Wat. patronage. He meets with Mr. and Mrs. kins Williams Wynn; and he is elected d'Aguilar ; with John Kemble, who sits to honorary member of the Pontifical Academy him for his bust; with Mrs. Siddons; and at Bologna, and subsequently member of with Sir John Gladstone, father of the emi the Academy of St. Luke, and of the Royal nent statesman. He begins to have long Academy in London; and in 1827 his ings to go to Rome, and has a wonderful * Psyche and the Zephyrs” is exhibited at dream of Aying there on the back of an the Royal Academy. eagle. In 1817 he leaves Liverpool for But it is needless to trace step by step London, which had once been the goal of Gibson's prosperous career. It seems to his ambition. Now, nothing but Rome have been uninterrupted. In art he believed will content him. He has letters to Lord in the Greeks and no others. He was enBrougham and Mr. Christie, a man of clas thusiastic, industrious, and happy. And sical learning and pure taste in art, who in he acquired fame and competence, without troduces him to Mr. Watson Taylor, then swerving at all from his principles in art. one of the most liberal patrons of art, who Perhaps his most striking and original gives him commissions for busts of himself work was his “Hunter and Dog." This and Mrs. Taylor and Mr. Roscoe. He has was executed in 1838. We have an impresalso letters to Fuseli, Flaxman, Benjamin sion that when in Rome, many years ago, we : West, and others. This same year he goes saw the cast in Gibson's studio, where we to Rome, with letters to Canova, who takes went to see his famous tinted Venus. And him at once into his school, treats him en perhaps we may be pardoned for here recouragingly, and offers to help him pecu cording a characteristic sentence we heard niarily. Gibson in his later days dwells from the sculptor's lips on that occasion. with enthusiasm upon the qualities of his Something led to conversation on modern celebrated master :
and ancient costume, when Gibson said : “I need not say that this interview de. “If I had a wise, I would n't allow her to lighted me, while his gentle manners, his deep dress in crinoline ; no, I should arrange her
dresses myself. The Greeks understood that somewhere." The man asks if he is a forthing.” He loved the graceful contours and eigner. Gibson tells him no, he is a sculpundulating lines of the antique. Michael tor ; had been living at Rome all his life, Angelo never met his full sympathy : “He and was only here on a visit. The man was a wonderful mortal ; but celestial beauty seemed struck, and said that his father had and grace he never arrived at.” Nor could been a sculptor too, and had worked for he endure the realistic school of sculpture : Flaxman. “So then I found him changed "The human figure concealed under a frock in manner, no longer so sharp and laconic." coat and trousers is not a fit subject for Miss Harriet Hosmer, his pupil, says: sculpture." And he persisted in represent “Gibson is a god in his studio, but God ing Mr. Huskisson with a bare arm and shoul- help him out of it. . . . . On a tour in der. Determining to be as Greek as he Switzerland, where Miss Hosmer formed could (for he used to say, “ Whatever the one of the party, she extended her usual Greeks did was right "), he ventured on giv care of the master to his luggage as well. ing a slight color to some of his statues. That consisted of three pieces, one of which The first instance in which he tried it (and was a hat-box. But Miss Hosmer soon obit seems rather bold, considering the sub served that this box was never opened. .... ject) was in his statue of Queen Victoria. Returned to Rome, she ventured to ask what His tinted Venus we remember seeing and object had been served by giving the hatbeing very agreeably impressed with it. If box the tour, and herself the trouble of any subject can bear color, we said, it is looking after it. Gibson calmly replied : pre-eminently this. It is needless to say that "The Greeks had a great respect for the the tinting was so faint, and the gold orna number three, — yes, the Greeks, for the ments so tastefully touched, and so unob. number three,' — and that was all the explatrusive, that there was a harmony about the nation she ever obtained.” whole work which we were surprised at Mr. Gibson died in Rome at the age of our enjoying so fully.
seventy-six. “On the 9th of January, 1866, In character, Gibson was simple, guile. when apparently in perfect health, he was less, warm in his friendships, upright and seized with paralysis. He had shortly behigh-minded. Money was a secondary con fore received the tidings of the death of Sir sideration with him. He lived a life of ab Charles Eastlake, which, it is believed, exsorption in his art. The Roman revolution pedited the fatal blow." thunders past him. He sees a little of it, On the 27th of January he died, and was and gives us some pleasant pages thereupon; buried in the English cemetery at Rome. but he reverts to his dear studio and his In her life of this eminent sculptor, Lady friends. In his journeys, even in England, Eastlake has given a valuable contribution
makes odd mistakes in taking the wrong the biography of artists. She has al. railway, and when he supposes he has ar
lowed Mr. Gibson to tell his own story, rived at Chichester and asks for the Cathe wherever she could do so. Her own part is dral, he finds he is in Portsmouth, “where done with great ability, and with a modesty there is no cathedral, no, none at all.” On in which her ladyship leaves her personality another occasion he says :
entirely out, — her only appearance being “The train stopped at a small station, the allusion to the death of her husband, and and seeing some people get out, I also de Mr. Gibson's letter to her on the occasion, scended, when in a moment the train moved January, 1866. These were the last words on, faster and faster, and left me standing he ever penned. on the platform. 'I wish to heaven,' We cannot pretend here to pass judgment thought I to myself, 'that I was on my way on Mr. Gibson's works ; but they may back to Rome, with a vetturino!' Then I serve to suggest a few thoughts on sculpture observed a policeman darting his eyes upon in general. There is no doubt a truth in me, as if he would look me through. Said Gibson's saying, that whatever the Greeks I to the fellow, “Where is that cursed train did (in sculpture) was right. That is, there gone to? It's off with my luggage, and is a certain form or style of sculpturesque here am I!' The man asked me the name art, embodying the ideal as well as the of the place where I took my ticket. 'I realistic, which the Greeks carried to perfecdon't remember,' said I ; 'how should I tion. We have never got beyond Phidias know the name of any these places, -it is and the Elgin marbles. And those wonderas long as my arm ? I have written it down ful sculptors of the olden times must be
always our teachers. But let us not tbere- We have one very popular sculptor, Mr. fore make them our absolute masters. John Rogers, who works at a class of subjects Sculptors have filled the galleries of art with in the treatment of which he stands unrivalled, more tame imitations of the Greek than at least in this country. Mr. Rogers not nature and art can tolerate. They have merely gives us the extreme realistic treatmade Sculpture a mere handmaiden to the ment, in his little groups, as to costume, Antique. But we do not believe that the but ventures almost beyond the legitimate Greeks absorbed all the beauty there is in sculpturesque grouping ; verging on the doform. Still less can we believe that the main of picture. His object is to tell a ideas and aspirations of the nineteenth cen- story, and, so far as truth and expression tury must necessarily be expressed in the and character go, he does it admirably. forms of two or three thousand years ago. The only question is, Does he not sometimes Whatever of grace and beauty and poetry pass beyond the bounds required in a sculpthe Greeks teach us let us joyfully accept.
tor? He has exhibited a bust in the New But if we stand upon a loftier eminence of York Academy Exhi for this
year, of ideas, and a large religion of humanity, let a gentleman, with cravat and high standing our artists endeavor to better their instruction. collar, and he has aimed to express the iris
The forms of art must be adapted to the of the eye. Nothing can be more literal and time, the race, the climate, the customs, the prosaic. Surely there is a medium between religion of a people. The pure nude, or this and the bust with bare throat, breast, the slightly nude, our fashions and climate and shoulders,- between Greenough's Washdebar the sculptor from, — unless it be in ington and Powers's Webster or Story's making studies of the Indian and negro. Everett." And here our admirable sculptor Mr. Ward On the whole, we conclude that though has done nobly. But what can be said of the sculptor of the nineteenth century has Horatio Greenough's Washington? It is a but little to do with the nude, and should fine piece of classicism merely, - suggesting avoid all hard literalism of costume and one of the gods of Olympus, - and not by grouping, there is enough to occupy him any means the well-clad and respectable in the great variety of beautiful forms that father of his country.
exist in nature. Let him cease to imitate But because the nude is out of place here, the antique, only filling his soul with an must our sculptors rush into the opposite idea for which he seeks a corresponding extreme of representing man or woman in embodiment in nature, and the spirit of the the strict fashion of the day, be that fashion antique will come to him, as it came to Wilwhat it may ? This extreme would be just liam Story when he made his Cleopatra as contrary to the requirements of art as the and his Lybian Sybil. other. There must be a middle ground, though sometimes difficult to attain, between
The Andes and the Amazon ; or Across excessive classicism and excessive realism.
the Continent of South America. By In portrait-statues the sculptor, to be sure,
JAMES ORTON, M. A., Professor of Nathas little choice. He is at the mercy of the
ural History in Vassar College, etc. fashion of the day; and a cloak or a silk
With a Map of Equatorial America and gown is often a godsend to him. Mr.
numerous Illustrations. New York : Har. Launt Thompson has made statues of Na
per and Brothers. poleon I. and of General Sedgwick. Both are in military costumes. Bonaparte is so PROFESSOR ORTON'S route across the familiar to the mind's eye, in the ungraceful South American Continent was from Guaycoat and breeches of seventy years ago, that aquil to Quito, thence across the Cordillera we almost forget the ugliness of the fashion. to the Napo River, down that river to the In the statue of Sedgwick (at West Point) Amazon, down the Amazon to the Pará, the hero stands in his plain military frock- and from the Pará to the sea. This vast coat, which is at least infinitely better than journey has resulted in a book, which is many military costumes we have seen. finely emblematic of the fatigues of the exBoth statues are full of character and pedition, and which we suspect is no bad strength; but our time is fortunate in having representative of the natural superfluity and a more natural fashion than that of the redundancy of that tropical region. The eighteenth century, and we have no doubt equator seems to affect travellers very the sculptor fully appreciates the fact oddly: they are never able to leave any.
thing out of their books, and present their Quitonians a neat people ; the only broom readers with masses of detail which one which they enjoy being a besom of split ought to find very satisfying, but which stick. Since his return, he has sent a Qui. nevertheless have little nourishment in them, tonian friend a package of broom-corn seed, and which leave one both oppressed and and he hopes clean things from this; but empty. One longs for something less of we fear he is too sanguine. this intolerable abundance ; for a little clear- When he gets into the Amazon country ness of arrangement; for some preparation he is more instructive in his studies, and of of the material for the ordinary digestion, course the chief value of his book throughwhich refuses those heaps of raw geographi- out is in the scientific observations, to which : cal and ethnographical facts. With half a general and literary criticism of this sort the information that Professor Orton gives, ought not to apply. He has several chap--- and he is but one of many victims of ters on the animal and vegetable life of the equatorial prodigality, — presented in a more great river and its borders, and one of these, ordered and tangible shape, we feel that we concerning the different populations of Brazil, should be much richer than with the elemen- is interesting even to the unscientific reader. tal whole, for we have not looked through Professor Orton believes that the Indian is his book without being arrested by many destined to extinction in that region as in curious things. One gets from it (without our own, for there Nature anticipates our much direct help from the author, to be sure) Piegan massacres, or rather obviates their an idea of the character of the people and the sad necessity, and the consequent letter of country, which, if not quite novel, is founded any Brazilian General Sherman, by making upon fresh observation and is interesting, the race very unfruitful. He advances the and there are some pictures of humanity, opinion that the tropics are not the original mainly developed by the verbal magnifi- habitat of the race; that the Indian lives cence and actual squalor of life in Latin- there as a stranger, far less fitted for its American countries which are amusing and
climate than the negro or Caucasian." He also humorously meant. Such, for exam- notices all the different aboriginal breeds, ple, is this sketch of the domestic affairs and generally the chapter is one of the best of the honored chief magistrate of Papal- in the book. The information is thrown lacta, in Ecuador :
down here, as elsewhere, haphazard, and is “We put up at the governor's. This often surprisingly abrupt and disjointed. It edifice, the best in town, had sides of up- is not quite fair to give the passage as an exright poles stuccoed with mud, a thatched ample of Professor Orton's method, but it is roof, and ground floor, on which, between not unfair either to let him say here as he three stones, a fire was built for cookery does in his book : “The Purú-purús bury in and comfort. Three or four earthen kettles, the sandy beaches, go naked, and have one and as many calabashes and wooden spoons,
wife.” were the sum total of kitchen utensils. A large flat stone, with another smaller one to rub over it, was the mill for grinding corn;
So Runs the World Away'. By Mrs. C. A. and we were astonished to see how quickly
STEELE. New York : Harper and Brothour hostess reduced the grains to an impalpable meal. The only thing that looked A NOVEL of the “Red as a Rose is She” like a bed was a stiff rawhide thrown over
sort; but entirely stupid, and without any of a series of round poles running lengthwise. the redeeming originality of that book, This primitive couch, and likewise the if original sin may be considered a redeemwhole house, the obsequious governor gave ing quality. The destroying military man up to us, insisting upon sleeping with his rides his usual course through these pages, wife and little ones outside, though the and breaks the heroine's heart; the baddish, nights were cold and uncomfortable. Par.
beautiful woman flirts up to the brink of ents and children were of the earth earthy, ruin, and tearfully retires upon the desola. - unwashed, uncombed, and disgustingly tion of her husband. Of course there is filthy."
the wonted allowance of hunting, dining Generally about Ecuador Professor Orton
and smoking, duelling and dying; and a does not tell much that is new, and he is more thoroughly disagreeable lot of peocontent to quote from Mr. Hassaurek and ple we never saw got together, — no, not in other recent authors, He did not find the a modern English novel by a female hand.
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