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L'Académie Hongroise et la linguistique hongroise. By JOSEPH SZINNYEI. Rev. d. Et. Hongr. et Finno-Ougr. 4. 41-61 (1926).

American Speech 2. 299-416 (1927).

Anthropos; Ephemeris Internationalis Ethnologica et Linguistica 22. 1-350 (1927).

Biblica 8. 129-256 (17*-32*) 1927.

Bolletino delle Pubblicazioni Italiane Nos. 307-8 (1927).

Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris Nos. 82, 83 (1927). Bulletin of the AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES No. 6 (1927).

The Catholic University of America Patristic Studies. XII The Latinity of the Letters of Saint Ambrose. Pp. 140. By SISTER MIRIAM A. ADAMS.-XIII The Language and Style of the Letters of St. Basil. Pp. 230. BY SISTER AGNES C. WAY.-XIV The Syntax of the Confessions of Saint Augustine. Pp. 135. BY SISTER M. RAPHAEL ARTS.-XV S. Ambrosii De Nabuthae; a Commentary with an Introduction and Translation. Pp. 249. By MARTIN R. P. MCGUIRE. Washington: 1927.

Commentationes Aenipontanae.-I. De Clausulis Minucianis. Pp. 96. By A. AUSSERERER-II De Casuum Temporum Modorum Usu in Ephemeride Dictyis-Septimii. Pp. 55. By R. LACKNER.— III Der Artikel vor Personen- u. Götternamen bei Thukydides u. Herodot. Pp. 68. By A. A. PFEIFAUF.-IV Übersicht über Philologischen Handschriften aus Tirolischen Bibliotheken. By A. ZINGERLE. Zur Würdigung Polyäns. By GUIDO MÜLLER. De

Codice Aenipontano 579 quo continetur Ovidi Remedia Amoris. By J. LECHNER. Pp. 104.-V Imperfekt Audibam u. Futur Audibo. By L. SIEGEL. Die Berichte des Photius über die fünf ältern attischen Rednern. By A. VONACH. Pp. 76.-VI De Libello Simonis Atheniensis De Re Equestri. Pp. 35. By J. SoUKUP.-VII De Enuntiatis Graecorum Finalibus. Pp. 44. By I. KNUENZ.-VIII De Compositione Numerosa Dialogi Ciceronis De Amicitia. Pp. 80. By I. BLUM. -IX De Lingua Antiquissimorum Graeciae Incolarum. Pp. 48. By J. HUBER.-X Das Pfingstwunder; die Urform d. gr. Tragödie. Pp. 47. By ERNST KALINKA. Innsbruck: Universitäts-Verlag Wagner, 1906-24.

La Cultura; rivista mensile di Filosofia, Lettere, Arte 6. 193-384 (1927).

English Studies 9. 33-96 (1927).

Gnomon; kritische Zeitschrift für die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft 3. 193-384-Bibliogr. Beilage 2-(1927).

Hispania; a Journal devoted to the Interests of Teachers of Spanish 9. 1-374; 10. 1–208 (1926-7).

Indogermanische Forschungen 45. 1-206 (1927).

Italica; Quarterly Bulletin of the Am. Ass. of Teachers of Italian 4. 25-55 (1927).

Journal of the Polynesian Society 36. 1-98 (1927).

Leuvensche Bijdragen; Tijdschrift voor Moderne Philologie 18. 95-138 (Bijblad 75-114) 1926.

Louisiana Place-Names of Indian Origin. Pp. 72. By WILLIAM A. READ. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1927.

Le Maître Phonétique April-June 1927. 13-24.

Man; a monthly record of Anthropological Science 17. 61-120 (1927). Meddelelser fra Norsk Forening for Sprogvidenskap 1. 45-92 (1926). The Modern Languages Forum 12. 2 (April, 1927).

Modern Philology 24. 385-505 (1927).

Le Monde Oriental 20. 1-258 (1926).

Munster Vowels and Consonants. By ALF SOMMERFELT. Proc. Royal Irish Academy 37 (C:11) 195–244 (1927).

Le Muséon; Revue d' Etudes Orientales 40. 1-160 (1927).
Namn och bygd 13. 6 (Bil. A:5) 1-20 (1925).

Philological Quarterly 6. 97-224 (1927).

The Physical Characteristics of Speech Sound.-III. By MARK H. LIDDELL. Lafayette: Bulletin No. 28, Engineering Experiment Station, 1927.

(To be continued)

INDO-EUROPEAN ozdos, GREEK ŏços, GERMANIC asts, etc.



The Vedic hapax legomenon nişatsnú ‘sitting in' does not, as is usually said, owe its rare suffix snu to a combination of the final s of sadas 'seat' with a suffix nu, but is an imitative congener of the pair sthāsnu (sthāṣṇu, sthāņu) 'standing' and carişnú 'walking', see AJ Ph 16.417. If we had in addition to these three a fourth congener *çayişņu 'lying', the lazychain would be complete: 'Don't walk, if you can stand; stand, if you can sit; sit, if you can lie!' To make up for the failure to complete this group, the RV has patayişṇú 'flying' which reflects patáyantam in the stanza below. To match carişṇú TB has gamişņu ‘going'. The preposition ni in nişatsnú adds, however, to the word the particular idea of 'nesting', 'nestling', German 'nisten'. It occurs in a charm for the safe delivery of a woman, RV 10.162.3 (MG 2.18.2), where the various postures and movements of the embryo in the womb are compared with the actions of a bird in the nest:

yás te hánti patáyantam nişatsnúm yáḥ sarīsṛpám,
jätám yás te jighānsati tám itó nāçayāmasi.

"(The demon) who seeks to slay thy flying, nesting, or hopping (foetus), or (the child) when born, that (demon) do we drive out from here.' The words sarīsṛpám and patáyati occur also in connection at AV 19.48.3; the natural contrast between the two implies the rendering 'hopping' rather than 'creeping' for the intensive sarīsṛpá. In any case nişatsnú, as well as other combinations of ni+sad (yónış ta indra nişáde akāri, RV 1.104.1), reflects niḍá 'nest', IE ni-zd-o- 'place to sit in'.

With IE ni-zd-o-s 'nest' rimes IE o-zd-o-s 'ast'. The fonetics of the latter are perfectly well understood, the meaning not at all. For *ozdos does not mean 'appendage', 'ansatz' but 'place to sit on', 'perch', just as *nizdos means 'place to sit in'. RV 10.43.4, váyo ná vṛkşám a'sadan, analyzes the idea formally and functionally. Both *nizdo

and *ozdo- owe their being to sympathetic observation of bird life, almost idyllic in mood.

Stokes, in Fick's Vergleichendes Woerterbuch 2.50, posits a word *odbos (Erse odb) for *odgos or *ozgos, which Bartholomae, ZDMG 46.305; IF 5.355, identifies with Vedic ádgas, as well as Gr. öços, Goth. asts.' For all of these he posits a start-form *ozgos. He does not explicitly discard IE ozdos but he leaves the reader puzzled as to why Gr. ofos, (Lesbic todos), Goth. asts, Arm. ost should not represent IE ozdos rather than IE ozgos.

Vedic ádga (Middle Persian azg according to Bartholomae) does not rest upon a very firm foundation. It occurs in obscure connection AV 1.27.3, where the comm. reads udga which he glosses by çākhā 'branch'. Neither ádga nor udga is quotable from the literature a second time. If, however, the Vedic and Celtic forms should justify IE ozgos 'branch', that word seems most likely to be derivable from the IE root seg 'hang' in Skt. saj 'cling', Lith. segu 'bind' (see Fick' 1.137). The meaning of *ozgos would then be 'place to cling to'. In Sanskrit the combination a+ saj is very frequent; see, e.g., the expression Kāuç. 75.19 çākhāyām āsajati (to be sure, not in connection with birds). Brugmann, IF, 19.379n., suggests that Gr. õσxos, dσxn 'branch' is derived from the root of exw with the preposition o (ō). If so, the meaning would be 'place to hold to'. In case the formation be prehistoric it would reflect a third parallel *o-zĝh-o-, matching both structurally and semantically *o-zg-o- and *o-zd-o-.

1 He does not include Armenian ost in his statement.




The verbs of the Hittite hi-conjugation fall into three classes according to the final sound of the stem. In spite of more or less irregularity in each class, the following paradigms will represent the usual types of conjugation.

I have shown that certain verbs of the first class (šakki 'he knows', aki 'he dies', ari 'he arrives, has arrived') correspond rather closely to IE perfects with stems ending in a consonant. Most of the other verbs of the same type are etymologically unclear, but from the Hittite point of view they are, with one exception, consonantal stems. We must, however, include in this class the irregular verb au- 'see', whose conjugation is as follows:

[blocks in formation]

Our second class may be described, from the Hittite point of view, as the a-class. If we assume that these verbs also correspond to IE perfects, we must conclude that a represents an original long vowel, at least in the forms of the singular, since the IE perfect has no stems ending in a short vowel in the first and second persons singular of the active voice. Such orthography as da-a-i 'he takes' and da-a-áš ‘he took' is very frequent; but repetition of a vowel sign need not indicate a long vowel. My belief that we have to do with original long vowels in this instance is based solely upon IE grammar.

1 Language 3. 161-8 (1927).

This form obviously belongs to the mi-conjugation.

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