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primary and secondary endings were still largely differentiated,24 and the old imperfect could easily have maintained its foothold after disappearing in Latin. At any rate the solitary fu-fa-ns, as explained above, would not be a guarantee of the existence of a larger category of imperfects in -fā- either in primitive Italic or Oscan-Umbrian.

By the way of a summary we may say that the Latin imperfect in -bam is most probably patterned after an old pluperfect of *bheu-, sc. *bhebhua- Italic *fe-fa-, which became *fu-fa- through the influence of the root vowel u. This became structurally obscure and was misanalyzed, the reduplication *bhu- *fu being taken for the root. Only in this way can the stems preceding the suffix of amā-bam, monē-bam, sci-bam, and the like be explained without operating with old infinitival forms, the existence of which cannot be made plausible.25 Only by the equivalence of the pluperfect of *bheu- 'become' and the imperfect of *es- 'be' is the use of the perfective stem *bheu- in *-fām -bam as a durative imperfect formation intelligible.

24 See Buck 151 ff.

25 It might be argued that *fu-ba-nt, the assumed pattern, has no existence in Latin, but Osc. fu-fa-ns puts it upon a much firmer basis than either an infinitive *age or an independent verb *fă-m *fă-s etc. for the Italic period. The disappearance of *fu-ba-nt in Latin was due to the rivalry of erant, which was patterned after the synonymous pluperfect *bhe-bhua-nt much more probably than after an IE *bhya-nt (imperfect) which cannot be proved to have existed in any Italic dialect. However, cf. Sommer 578.




1. Lat. auster 'south wind; south', austrālis 'southern': aurora, etc., is a well established etymology, but not sufficiently explained. Both groups of words may be referred to a base *awes- or perhaps rather ēwes- (with a- from ǝ), with the primary meaning 'wave, roll, rise', descriptive of fire and water. Hence *austro- was used both of the east, orient, in reference to the rising of the sun, and of the south, or rather of the south wind, as the rain-bearer, storm-bringer, thawer. For Lat. auster is described as fulmine pollens (Lucr. 5. 744), turbidus (Hor. Od. 3. 3. 4), nubilus (Prop. 2. 15, 56), humidus (Virg., G 1. 462), pluvius (Ovid, M 1. 66), and also as frigidus, hibernus, validus, vehemens. We may therefore compare Skt. oşám 'geschwind; sogleich', Swed. yster 'sehr lebhaft, unbändig', OHG ustar 'gierig', ustrt 'Fleiss'; Norw. yr 'ausgelassen', Swiss ūr, ūrig 'stürmisch (von Wetter), wild, zornig', Bav. eurisch 'mürrisch' (or these with IE r); Norw. ÿsja 'swarm out, of small animals', usla 'stöbern' (of dust or rain), usle 'coaldust', ON usli 'glowing ashes', ysja 'fire', Lat. ūro, Skt. uṣmā 'Hitze, Glut, Dampf', etc.; vāsa-h 'Wolgeruch', Swed. ōs 'Dunst, Geruch,' OE wōs 'moisture, juice', MLG wōs 'Absud, Brühe, Most', wasem 'Wasserdampf, Dunst', OHG wasulun 'pluviis', Norw. vaslast 'nass werden, fliessen'.

2. Gr. eupos 'east-southeast wind' is most simply explained as *euroor *euro- from the base *ēwer-, synonymous with the base discussed above. Compare OE ear (*aura-) 'sea', ON aurigr 'wet', Norw. aura, yrja 'wimmeln', yrja 'Gewimmel; Wind mit Straubregen', yra 'rieseln; wimmeln', Swed. yra 'stöbern, wirbeln, fliegen, spritzen,' ON ya 'Streuen, spritzen rieseln', ur 'Sprühregen, feuchter Nebel', MIr. feraim 'pour', OBulg. virěti 'quellen, sprudeln, wallen, sieden, kochen', Lith. virti 'sprudeln, kochen', varvéti 'in dichten Tropfen fallen, triefen, rinnen', Skt. vār 'water', Av. vār 'rain', etc., to which may be added Lat. ver 'the spring', just as other words for spring belong to No. 1. 3. Gr. vóros 'the south wind; the south or southwest quarter',

VÓTLOS 'wet, damp, moist, rainy; southern', voтepós 'wet, damp', from *snot- 'flowing, wet': Lat. nāre, etc. Cf. Boisacq 673 with lit.

4. OE sūp, OS suth 'south', OHG sund 'south wind', Germ. *sun þa-, probably from pre-Germ. *snto- 'dripping, wet, thawing', related to the above (IF 4. 103). Here, rather than to swim, may belong OE sund 'water, sea, sound', ON sund 'swimming; strait, sound', syndr 'capable of swimming', synda 'swim', MLG sunt 'strait, sound', to which may belong Lat. sentīna 'bilge-water', Skt. satīnám 'water'.

5. Lett. jedels 'Südwind': no-jedināt ‘abquälen, turbieren', jōds ‘ein böser Geist, Waldteufel', Lith. júods (turbid) 'schwarz', Skt. yādaḥ ‘ein im Wasser lebendes Ungeheuer, water-demon', base *jed- 'excite, stir up,' perhaps also in Skt. indra-ḥ 'Indra', indriyám 'Kraft, Vermögen, Sinn', and also OBulg. jędro 'Taxi', Russ.-ChSl. jadrů 'Taxis', Russ. u-jadrět' 'stark werden, sich kräftigen; schäumen, brausen, perlen (von Getränken)', Serb.-Croat. jédar 'voll, kräftig, frisch, stark', Russ.-ChSl. jadro 'nucleus, testiculus', LRuss. jadró 'Kern, Korn; Mark', jádernyj, 'kernig, dicht; frisch,' etc. (cf. Berneker I 455f.). Since *jed- 'excite, stir up, mix' is ultimately identical with *jed- 'join', compare also Lith. jednóti 'vereinigen, verbinden, versöhnen', Skt. ya'damānaḥ 'verbunden mit', etc. Cf. author, Post-Cons. w in IE, LANGUAGE MONOGRAPHS 3. 18 (in press).

A synonymous base *jebh- occurs in Czech jebati 'bewegen, rühren; schimpfen; futuere', jebati se 'sich fortpacken', Pol. jebac' 'schlagen; schimpfen; futuere', Skt. yábhati 'futuit', Gr. pupos (*jebhuro'stormy, turbidus') 'a westerly wind', represented as stormy, rainy, Jópos 'darkness, gloom'; and *jeg- or *jegh- in Russ. dial. jáglyj 'heftig; eifrig; geschwind', jágliť' 'brennen vor Begierde',-—s'a 'sich rühren, sich bewegen, vorwärts gehen', Skt. yákşati 'eilt vorwärts, verfolgt', yakşám 'übernatürliches Wesen, geisterhafte Erscheinung', Gr. ixavav ἐπιθυμεῖν, ἴχαρ 'vehement desire.

6. OBulg. jugu (*jougo-), LRuss. juh 'Süden, Südwind', juhá 'warmer Wind', júhovy 'südlich; brennend, warm', Slov. jug, gen. júga "Tauwind; Süden', jugovina "Tauwetter', od-júžiti se 'auftauen', júžina 'Mittagessen; Jause, Vesper', etc. (cf. Berneker I 457): OE gēocer (*jeugro'hot, bitter') 'full of hardship, sad', NHG Swiss giecht 'Entzündung, eiternder Zustand einer Wunde; Erbitterung, Hass, Zorn', Goth. jiukos 'Ovuoi, Zornausbrüche; épileiaι, Streitereien', jiukan 'kämpfen', MHG jucken 'prurire', base *jeu- in yuváti, yaʼuti 'vermengt', Lith. jauti 'heisses Wasser darüber schütten,' Lett. jáut 'Teig machen, einrühren', Lat.

jūs 'broth, soup; juice, liquid', Skt. yūşa- 'broth', etc. Cf. author, Post-Cons. w in IE 16.

7. Lith. pietūs 'Mittagessen, Mittagszeit; Süden', pietwỹs 'Südwind', from *pēitu- 'swelling, gushing', applied to the south wind as moisturebringing, melting, and also to the preparation of broth for food. The explanation of this word as meaning 'meal, noon meal, midday, south' is improbable, just as it is equally improbable in No. 6. Compare Lat. pituita 'slime, clammy moisture; a gummy moisture that exudes from trees', Gr. TiTVs 'pine tree', base *pei- 'swell, gush' in Gr. widów 'gush forth', rida 'spring, fountain', i'w 'fat', Tiaivw 'fatten; increase; make wanton', Lith. pieva 'Wiese', Skt. pīvan- 'swelling, fat', páyate 'swell', etc.




With the main points made by Professor Whatmough in LANGUAGE 3.105-9, as to the etymology and meaning of the Oscan word deketāsio-, a title of magistrates at Nola and at Abella, I am in hearty agreement. In two minor details only I should like to supplement or modify what

he says.


Professor Whatmough associates the word with the giving of tithes, and therefore explains it as a derivative of Italic *dekento- 'tenth,' with the suffix as in Umbrian sestentasiaru, a name or epithet of a festival or gathering, which goes back ultimately to the numeral seen in Latin sex. But there is no warrant in Italic for the -to- suffix in 'tenth,' all the recorded forms being referable to *dekemo-; in fact, no Italic numeral from 'seventh' to 'tenth' inclusive has the t-suffix. would seem more likely, then, that deketāsio-, or, to give it its earlier form, with the nasal that disappears in Oscan before t, *dekentāsio-, was built up from *dekemā 'tithe' by the influence of some other word of official or religious significance, which ends in -tasio-. As such a word I propose the equivalent of Latin argentārius, suitable both in form and in meaning to produce a *deken-tāsio-.

The second point is the g instead of k in degetasio-, as the word is written in the inscriptions found at Nola. There seems to me no likelihood of contamination with the Oscan equivalent of vi-ginti or with that of digitus, suggested respectively by Buck and by Conway. But the equivalent of argentārius or of argentum might easily suggest the g. It so happens that while *aragetāsio- is not found in Oscan, aragetud 'argento' does occur, twice, and precisely in the inscriptions of Nola which record the activities of the officials bearing the qualifying title *degetāsio-.

Thus the early Oscan *dekentāsio- was, in my opinion, built up from *dekemā "tithe' with the suffix of (the equivalent of) Latin argentārius. It is found at Abella as a magisterial epithet in the form deketāsio-, but at Nola with a still further influence of (the equivalent of) argentārius or of argentum, as degetāsio-.

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