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Etymologisches Wörterbuch der europäischen (Germanischen, romanischen und slavischen) Wörter orientalischen Ursprungs. (Indogermanische Bibliothek, Erste Abteilung, ii Reihe: Wörterbücher). Pp. xvii + 243. By KARL LOKOTSCH. Heidelberg: Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung, 1927.

Gnomon; kritische Zeitschrift für die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft 2. 689-752-Bibliogr. Beilage 6-(1926) and 3. 1-192— Bibliogr. Beilage 1—(1927).

Greek and Latin Etymologies. By FRANCIS A. WOOD. Class. Phil. 21. 341-5 (1926).

Hebräische Grammatik; mit Benutzung der von E. Kautzsch bearbeiteten 28. Auflage von Wilhelm Gesenius' hebräischer Grammatik. 2 Teil: Verbum I. Hälfte. Pp. viii + 85. By G. BERGSTRÄSSER. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrich'sche Buchhandlung 1926.

Hispania; a Journal devoted to the Interests of Teachers of Spanish 10. 1-66 (1927).

Indo-European PT-: Germanic F-. By FRANCIS A. WOOD. Germ. Rev. 1. 309-13 (1926).

Indogermanische Forschungen 44. 217-384 (1927).

Italica; Quarterly Bulletin of the Am. Ass. of Teachers of Italian 4. 1-24 (1927).

Journal of the Polynesian Society 35. 267-354 (1926).

Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris. N. S. Vol. XVIII, pp. xxvi + 531. Paris: au siège de la Société, 1926.

Language Studies in the Franciscan Order; a historical sketch. Pp. 104. By JOHN M. LENHART, O. M. CAP. New York: Jos. F. Wagner, 1926.

Leuvensche Bijdragen; Tijdschrift voor Moderne Philologie 18. 51-93 (Bijblad 43-71) 1926.

Le Maître Phonetik Jan.-March 1927. 1–12.

Les Malayo-Polynésiens en Amérique. By P. RIVET. Journ. Soc. Amér. de Paris 18. 141-278 (1926).

Man; a monthly record of Anthropological Science. 17. 1-59 (1927). Manuals of conversational Languages published in recent editions by J. Bielefeld, Freiburg i. Br.—The little Yankee. By A. D. SCHOCH and R. KRON.-Der kleine Deutsche. By R. KRON.-Alltagsdeutsch. By R. KRON.-Deutsche Taschengrammatik. By A. KELLER.— Im deutschen Reich. By O. LEOPOLD.-Deutscher Briefsteller. By O. LEOPOLD.-Le petit Parisien. By R. KRON.-Il piccolo Italiano. By O. HECKER.-Su e Giú per l'Italia. By G. M. LOMBARDO.—

El Castellano actual. By ROMÁN Y SALAMERO.-O Pequeno Português. By A. DE CARVALLE.-Malý Čech. By L. DRŮBEK.

The Modern Languages Forum 11. 4 (Oct. 1926); 12. 1 (Jan. 1927). Modern Philology 24. 261-383 (1927).

Namn och Bygd 13. 1-208 and 1-48 (1925).

The Peasant Vocabulary in the Works of George Sand. By ALEXANDER HERMAN SCHUTZ. The University of Missouri Studies 2. 1-114 (1927).

Philological Quarterly 5. 289-384; 6. 1-96 (1926-7).

Philologus; Zeitschrift f. d. klass. Altertum u. s. Nachleben. 82. 121-364 (1926-7).

Phonetic Transcription and Transliteration; proposals of the Copenhagen Conference April 1925. Pp. 32. By OTTO JESPERSEN and HOLGER PEDERSEN. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926.

The pocket Oxford Dictionary. Pp. xvi + 1029. By F. G. FOWLER and H. W. FOWLER. (American Edition revised by G. VAN SANTFOORD.) New York: Oxford University Press, American Branch, 1927.

La Prose métrique des Anciens. Pp. 70. By A. W. DE GROOT. Collection d'Etudes Latines, published by the Société des Études Latines, edited by J. MAROUZEAU, II. Paris: Société d'Edition 'les Belles-Lettres', 1926.

Publications de la Faculté des Lettres de l'Université de Strasbourg. Fasc. 32. La Chanson de Sainte Foy; I. Fac-similé du manuscrit et text critique, Introduction et Commentaire philologiques. Pp. viii +376 and 12 plates. By ERNEST HOEPFFNER. Fasc. 34. Système

de la Syntaxe latine. Pp. 428. By A. C. JURET. Paris: Société d'Edition 'les Belles Lettres', 1926.

Revista de Filología Española 13. 225-336 (1926).

Revue Hispanique 67. 1-571 (1926); 68. 1-584 (1926); 69. 1-662 (1927).

Ricerche Religiose 2. 485-580; (1926); 3. 1-96 (1927).

S. Aureli Augustini de Catechizandis Rudibus; translated with an Introduction and Commentary. Pp. xxi + 365. By JOSEPH PATRICK CHRISTOPHER. (Catholic University of America Patristic Studies, Vol. VIII) Brookland: Catholic Education Press, 1926.

S.P.E. Tract No. XXV. On some disputed Points in English Grammar. Pp. 141-72. By OTTO JESPERSEN. New York: Oxford University Press, American Branch, 1926.

Skånemålens Böjningslära. Pp. 141. By GILLIS LECH. Lund: Carl Bloms Boktryckeri, 1925.

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 78. 3. The Classification and Distribution of the Pit River Indian Tribes of California. Pp. 52 and 27 plates. By G. HART MERRIAM. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1926.

The Smithsonian Report for 1925: The Historical Geography of early Japan. Pp. 547-68, with 9 plates. By CARL WHITING BISHOP.— The Excavations of the Sanctuary of Tanit at Carthage. Pp. 569-74, with 4 plates. By BYRON KHUN DE PROROK.

Some revised Etymologies. By FRANCIS A. WOOD. Mod. Phil. 24. 215-20 (1926).

Språkvetenskapliga Sällskapets i Uppsala Förhandlingar. Jan. 1922-Dec. 1924. Pp. 130. Uppsala Universitets Årskrift 1924, Filosofi, Språkvetenskap och Historiska Vetenskaper 8. Uppsala: A. B. Lundequistska Bokhandeln.

Om typiska Skiljaktigheter mellan Modersmålsutveckling och Språkkurs; ett Bidrag till språkkundervisningens Psykologi. Pp. 160. By GUNNAR FREUDENTHAL. Lund: Gleerupska Univ.-Bokhandeln, 1925.

Studier över Vokalväxlingar i äldre Västgötalagen I; Växlingen a: :e i Stamstavelse. Pp. 93. By TORSTEN WENNSTRÖM. Lund: Gleerupska Univ.-Bokhandeln, 1925.

Studium über die Mittelniederdeutsche Urkundensprache der dänischen Königskanzlei von 1330-1430; nebst einer Übersicht über die Kanzleiverhältnisse. Pp. xi + 147. By JOHAN CARLIE. Lund: Gleerupska Univ.-Bokhandeln, 1925.

Le Style indirect libre. Pp. 240. By MARGUERITE LIPS. Paris: Payot, 1926.

Wir Menschen der indonesischen Erde V; das Herz des Indonesiers. Pp. 30. By R. BRANDSTETTER. Luzern: E. Haag, 1927.

Wo befindet sich das Manuskript letzter Redaktion des grossen Yamana- (= Yagan) Lexikons von Th. Bridges? By F. W. KOPPERS. Anthr. 21. 991-5 (1926).

Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 17. 81-160 (1927).

Zeitschrift für Semitistik u. verwandte Gebiete. 5. 1-184 (1927).




The Hittite documents show many instances of an interchange of the vowels e and a. Since the variation is not uniform, and neither vowel of the pair is restricted to any phonetic surroundings or morphological categories, we must apparently assume several causes, and sound method requires the separate treatment of groups of words which show parallel phenomena. In this paper I propose to discuss the variation in monosyllabic verbal roots which end in a consonant. That the matter needs elucidation appears from these typical examples: ešzi 'he is'

ešir 'they were'

ašanzi 'they are'

ari 'he has arrived'

aranzi 'they have arrived'

erir 'they had arrived' Hrozný1 discussed the variation in the radical syllable of verbs, but without coming to any satisfactory conclusion. Forrer2 groups together paradigms of a number of verbs which exhibit the phenomenon, under the captions: 'Umlaut von Verben der mi-Konjugation' and 'Umlaut von Verben der hi-Konjugation'. Tenner supplements the forms given by Forrer, and remarks quite justly: 'Mit dem nur vor i eintretenden germanischen Umlaut hat dieser hethitische Vokalwechsel jedenfalls nichts zu tun'.

Tenner confines his attention to three verbs of the hi-conjugation, and precisely these verbs, I think, suggest the true source of the variation in most of the words discussed by Hrozný and Forrer. The verbs are citable as follows:

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1 Die Sprache der Hethiter 169, 170f. (1917).

2 Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft NF 1.213f. (1922). Ein Hethitischer Annalentext des Königs Mursilis II 18f. (Leipzig, 1926).

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With the exception of the forms printed in italics, these verbs show the vowel a in the singular, the third person plural present and imperative, and in the participle, while the vowel e appears throughout the plural, except the third person present and imperative. The few forms which vary from this scheme are of course to be explained by analogy.


I have pointed out that some of the personal endings of the Hittite hi-conjugation are remarkably similar to those of the Indo-European perfect tense (2nd sing. ti tha, 3rd sing. i = e, 3rd pl. pret. ir beside Skt. ur, Lat. ere, s frequently inserted before second personal endings as in Lat. vidisti, vidistis, etc.). If, then, the hi-conjugation is in part identified with the Indo-European perfect, the stem-vowel e in the plural of our three verbs is to be equated with Germanic plurals like Gothic bērum 'we bore' beside bar 'he bore'. The fact that there is usually no indication of length in the e-forms cited above does not constitute an objection. If the original vowel quantities survived in Hittite, at any rate they cannot be inferred from the orthography of our documents; e-eš-zi ἐστί he is' and e-ša-ri = ἧσται “he sits are typical examples.


The correctness of our equation becomes obvious upon a closer scrutiny of the three verbs. Other Hittite words clearly related with

LANGUAGE 2. 33f. (1926).

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