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The stem huis- shows a further extension in u in huišuš 'alive, raw',28 huiswanza 'alive', and huiswatar 'life'. With reduplication and a further suffix we get huihuiššuwališ29 'mature, old enough to be king'. Friedrich compares the suffix with that of taršawalaš (ta-ra-áš-šá-wa-la), which is used of a lawsuit and means 'entscheidbar' or the like. I would connect the prior element of the latter word with dar- 'declare, announce',30 through an extension in & analogous to halziš(š)- beside halza-, huiš- beside huwa-, etc. That the extended form of dar- had the suffix š instead of iš, eš is shown by the iterative stem taršk‐ (e.g., tar-ši-ki-mi, Forrer, Boghazköi-Texte in Umschrift 2. 23. A 2. 15). The word originally meant 'spruchreif, capable of being decided'. Assuming that the suffix wališ had the same force as walaš in taršawalaš, we can hardly come nearer the ordinary meaning of huiš(u)- in defining huihuiššuwališ than if we translate 'old enough to beget, capable of begetting', and so 'mature'. Apparently then huwa-, hui-, huis- means not only 'grow, become, live', but also 'beget'.
Now this is precisely the range of meaning of Indo-European *bhewǝ-, *bheu-, *bhū-; and I propose to connect them on the basis of a phonetic law: Hittite h initial corresponds with Indo-European bh. Whether huwa- is an independent development from the pre-Indo-European base* *bhewā-, or whether we should trace the Hittite forms to some sort of contamination of the several grades can scarcely be determined at present. See above fn. 1. The etymology is strengthened on the formal side by a number of Sanskrit words which, like Hittite huiš-, contain an element (i)s, namely bhavisnus 'becoming' bhūṣati 'is busy', bhuṣayati 'adorns', etc.
A pragmatic argument in favor of the connection is the fact that it enables us to establish another etymology at once. A well recognized derivative of Indo-European *bhewo- is Sanskrit bhūmi, Old Persian būmi 'earth'. This word comes very close to meaning 'everything,
28 Sommer and Ehelolf, BoSt. 10. 20.
29 See Götze, Hatt. 119, and especially Friedrich, Staatsvertr. 89.
30 See Götze, ZA 34. 184 (1922).
31 That the so-suffix in Indo-European was a conglomerate (s + ko) is well known (see Brugmann, Grundriss 22. 3. 350f.). The Hittite iterative suffix šk was similarly formed, as is shown by such series of stems as au-'see' auš- ušk-; halza- 'call' halzeš(š)-, halziš(š)- : halzišk-; hanna- ‘decide a law-suit, litigate': hanneššar 'justice, lawsuit': hannešk-; ištamaš- ‘hear' : ištamašk-; maušš, ‘fall' : maušk-; pa-, pi- ‘give' : peššiya 'give, throw', pippeššar 'gift' : pešk-; parh- 'drive hard, speed' parheššar 'haste' parhešk-; punuš(š)- ‘ask' : punušk-; uppa-, uppi- 'send': uppeššar 'Zusendung' uppišk-.
totality' when Darius calls himself xšāyabiya ahyāyā būmiyā ‘king of this earth'. In Sanskrit there is a neuter n-stem bhūman which also means 'earth', and whose plural comes to mean 'the aggregate of existing things'. With the latter stem I would connect the Hittite nt-stem humanza 'all, whole'. The n-stems have practically disappeared in Hittite; no doubt the r/n-stems have taken their place as far as they had substantive value and neuter gender. I cannot cite other Hittite examples of n-stems giving way to nt-stems; but in view of the extensive spread of the latter declension32 that is the most natural fate of an n-stem which had or had gained a personal or an adjectival force. We may then regard the connection of huwa-, hui-, huis- with IndoEuropean *bhewa- as fairly certain if we can find other Hittite words with initial h corresponding to Indo-European bh.
First of all we must consider huwa-, hui- in the meaning 'flee' and in the phrase piran huwa- 'go before, lead to victory'. These meanings of the word are so far removed from the others, and also from the force of Indo-European *bhewǝ-, that we are justified in looking for another etymology. The meaning 'flee' leads us at once to Greek yɛúyw, Latin fugio 'flee', Sanskrit bhujáti 'bend, force aside', Lithuanian búgstu, búgti 'be frightened', Gothic biugan 'bend', Anglo-Saxon būgan 'be bent, flee', etc.33 Since the Germanic words compel us to posit not only Indo-European *bheug- but also *bheugh- or *bheuq-, there is no difficulty in assuming as the base of Hittite huwa- 'flee' a form without a root-determinative.
As noted above it is as easy to derive the meaning 'run' from the meaning 'flee' as the reverse; and this seems to have been the actual direction of development. Several Indo-European languages preserve the meanings 'bend' and 'be bent', which can scarcely be derived from 'flee', and still less from 'run'. Here we seem to have the original force of the word, out of which developed the meaning 'flee' before the separation of Hittite from the parent stock.
One of the commonest words in the Hittite documents is the word for 'king'; but it is usually denoted by an ideogram. Very often we have the ideogram LUGAL, either alone or with phonetic complements (LUGAL-uš, LUGAL-un), which show that the word ended in uš in the nominative and in un in the accusative. There is also a verb meaning 'become, be king', and this also is usually written by the 32 See especially Friedrich, Staatsvertr. 85 f.
33 For other cognates and references to the literature see Walde-Pokorny, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen 2. 144 ff.
ideogram; but occasionally we read haššuwet instead of LUGAL-uwet 'he became king'. It follows that the word for 'king' was *haššuš.34 The reigning Hittite king is regularly designated not by the ideogram LUGAL, but by the sign-group PUD.ŠI, i.e., the determinative which regularly stands before the name of a god + the ideogram for 'sun' + an Assyrian phonetic complement which includes -I the pronominal suffix of the first person singular. A full translation would be 'my sun-god'. This is treated somewhat like a personal name; it is comparable to English 'his Majesty', except that it is used by the king in speaking of himself. Mursilis II begins the annals of his first ten years:35 Thus speaks my sun-god Mursilis, the great king, the king of Hatti, etc.' After an introduction of two lines he devotes 16 lines to the early period of his life during the reign of his father and his elder brother. In this passage the title under consideration does not occur. In line 19 he continues: 'When, however, my sun-god seated myself on the throne of my father, Hittite treaties were written out in two versions which have the form of letters, one from each of the two contracting kings to the other. Mursilis addresses Duppi-Tesup of Amurru as follows:36 'And as <I> my sun-god protect you, so will I protect your son also.'
This curious use of the ideogram of the sun-god for the Hittite king finds certain partial analogies in the cuneiform writing. The Babylonians tended from the earliest times to write royal names by ideograms, and, since a personal name usually contained the name of a god, divine names, duly equipped with the god-determinative, were extremely common in the names of kings. The Hittite kings could not find the names of Babylonian gods in their own personal names, but they did the best they could. For example, the name Mutallis is written NIR.GAL-iš because NIR.GAL may stand for Assyrian MUTALLU 'heroism',37 and Mursilis is written Mu-ur-ši-DINGIR. LIM, where the ideogram and Assyrian phonetic complement are to be read as Assyrian ILI 'god'.38
34 Hrozný, BoSt. 3. 9915, Sommer, BoSt. 7. 92, Weidner, BoSt. 8. 502, Archiv für Keilschriftforschung 1.11; Freidrich ZA, NF. 2. 276.
35 KBo. 3. 4. See Hrozný, BoSt. 3. 164ff. for a transliterated text and a (partially incorrect) translation.
36 Cf. Friedrich, Staatsvertr. 13.26.
37 See Götze, Hatt. 56.
38 See Sommer, OLZ 27.27 (1924); Friedrich, Staatsvertr. 151. DINGIR occurs in the Amarna letters with the phonetic value il, but it is not there equipped with a phonetic complement besides.
A closer parallel is to be found in the use of PŠAM ŠI 'my sun-god' as a title of the Egyptian king in the Amarna letters.39 This, however, is only one of several complimentary titles used by the king's vassals; they did not use it constantly, and, as far as we know, the king of Egypt never used it of himself when writing in Assyrian. Furthermore it is ŠARRU 'king' or BELI 'my lord' that takes the place of a personal pronoun in the Amarna letters.
Since, then, the use of the sign-group PUD. ŠI as a sort of personal name for the Hittite king cannot be fully understood from the history of cuneiform writing, it must find its explanation in the Hittite language. This conclusion becomes certain when we observe that in the one extant Hittite letter from an Egyptian king he uses the same curious expression of himself, with a significant variation in the method of writing. In the letter to Tarhundaraba, king of Arzawa, occurs the phrase:40 DUMU.ŠAL-ti PUD-mi ku-in DAM-an-ni ú-wa-da-an-zi, 'to your daughter whom they will bring for marriage to my sun-god'. But instead of DUD-ŠI we read PUD-mi; instead of an Assyrian phonetic complement including the pronominal suffix -I, we have the corresponding Hittite pronominal suffix in the dative case (-mi 'meo'). It follows that the sign-group PUD. ŠI in Hittite documents was read not as Assyrian (ŠAM ŠI) but as a Hittite noun with appended -miš. In K Bo. 5. 3. 4. 29 we find an accusative PUD. ŠI-in, which Hrozný (SH 84) interpreted as an i-stem form of the substantive. Of course the Hittite phonetic complement belongs to -min, the accusative of the pronominal suffix.
The Hittite word for the noun 'sun' is also written by the ideogram DUD, and phonetic complements show that its nominative ended in -uš and its accusative in -un. Like the word for 'king', it was a u-stem. We find, then, that in Hittite, but not in Babylonian, it is customary to use the phrase 'my sun-god' as the standing designation of the reigning monarch. In Hittite both the word for 'king' and the word for 'sun' are u-stems. It is a natural inference that the two words are identical throughout. We must certainly read LUGAL-us as *haššuš; I suggest that we read PUD-us as *haššuš, and PUD. ŠI as *haššuš-miš. In Greek we must assume beside yws from pafos 'sun', an equivalent stem *ws with original w, on account of Homeric póws (contamination of φάος and *φως), the derivatives φώσκει, διαφώσκω, φωστήρ, and Attic
39 For references, see J. A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln 1511 s. v. šamšu. 40 See J. A. Knudtzon, Die Zwei Arzawa-Briefe 36. 12-13.
pws (paos from páfos would not contract).41 In Greek we also find ❤ús used of princes. It has, to be sure, a different stem when it is thus brought down to earth, and it has not hitherto been clear whether pús, pwrós had always been a t-stem or whether it was originally an s-stem like *pws 'sun'. In view of the apparent confusion of the two meanings in Hittite one may now incline to adopt the second alternative. Some further support for this opinion may be derived from the fact that a Sanskrit lexicographer cites bhās, the cognate of *pws 'sun', as meaning 'might, majesty'. I am inclined to think that the practice of identifying the reigning monarch with the sun was inherited by the Hittites from the days before their fathers had separated from the Indo-European parent stock.
I can offer no explanation of the difference in stem-form between Hittite *haššuš and IE *bhōs. If we assume that Hittite is the innovator here, it is worth noting that the language has but scant remnants of other consonant stems than those in r/n and nt.
Hittite has two verbs with the stem hark-. One of them loses the final k before endings beginning with a consonant (e.g., pres. 3rd sing. harzi) and means 'have';42 the other retains k in all positions (e.g., harkzi, written har-ak-zi) and means 'go to ruin, perish, be destroyed'.43 As Götze, Hatt. 72, has pointed out, the stem harnik- 'devastate, destroy', is a causative with nasal infix from the stem of the latter verb. There is also a causative with the usual suffix nu, namely harganu-, whose meaning is identical with that of harnik-. No doubt harnik- is an inherited stem and harganu- a relatively recent analogical formation.
I would connect harnik- with Latin frango 'break' and hark- with Gothic brikan, Anglo-Saxon brecan 'break', Latin frēgī 'I broke', fragor 'crash', etc. In the Indo-European languages forms from the root without nasal infix often have the causative (i.e. transitive) force; but Hittite preserves the probably original distinction. The final consonant of the root is written in Hittite either as g or as k; this is one of the very numerous words which suggest that Hittite had lost the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops.
Hittite har(k)- 'have' I would connect with Latin farcio 'stuff, cram', Albanian bark 'bundle', Middle Irish barc 'profusion', etc. The mean
41 See Brugmann, Grundriss 2.2 536, 5781; Brugmann-Thumb, Griechische Grammatik1 75; Walde-Pokorny, VWIS 2.122.
42 See Sommer, BoSt. 7. 72.
43 See Götze, Hatt. 81; and references.