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Fii Mayman inv.de

del.

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th! fly, incautious Youth, the flattering, Jaré

, Which PLEASURE spreads to lure thee to her Gate; I her soft lourts conceală.pale Wavr and CARE,

And lire DISEASE,nd keen 'REMORSE await: These friends shall drive thee from her dazzling Shrine. Und swift to LA kumri drend lave consign?

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In a Way most suitable for trying the GENIUS,

and advancing the
Instruction of YOUTH.

IN T W E L V E PAR T S.
Illustrated with MAPS and useful CUT S.

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VI Z.
1. On READING, SPEAK VI. On DRAWING.

ING, and WRITING VII. On Logic.
LETTERS.

VIII. On NATURAL HIS-
II. On ARITHMETIC, TORY.

GEOMETRY, and AR IX. On ETHICS, or Mo-
CHITECTURE.

RALITY,
III. On GEOGRAPHY X. On TRADE and Com-
and ASTRONOMY.

MERCE.
IV. On CHRONOLOGY XI. On LAWS and Go-
and HISTORY.

VERNMENT.
V. On RHETORIC and XII. On HUMAN LIFE
POETRY

and MANNERS.
The Third Edition, with Additions, and Improvements.

THE SECOND VOLUME.

L O N D ON:
Printed for R. and J. DODSLEY, at Tully's Head in Pall mall.

MDCCLVIII.

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THE

E L E ME NTS

OF

LOGICK.

INTRODUCTION.

1.

F all the human Sciences, that
concerning Man, is certainly the Importance
most worthy of Man, and the ofthe Known
most necessary Part of Knowledge. Selves.

ledge of ourWe find ourselves in this World

furrounded with a Variety of Objects; we have Powers and Faculties fitted to dcal with them, and are happy or miserable in proportion as we know how to frame a right Judgment of Things, and thape our Actions agreeably to the Circumstances in which we are placed. No Study therefore is more important than that which introduces us to the Knowledge of ourselves. Hereby we become acquainted with the Extent and Capacity of the human Mind, and learning to diftinguish what Objects it is suited to, and in what manner it must proceed, in order to compass its Ends, we arrive by degrees a that Justness and Truth of Understanding, which is the great Perfection of a rational Being.

II. If we look attentively into Things, and furvey them in their full Extent, we see them Different Filing one above another in various Degrees of E- Gradations of minence. Among the inanimate Parts of Matter Things. fome exhibit nothing worthy, our Attention, dicit Parts seem as it were jumbled together by mere Chancen VOL. I.

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ner

nor can we discover any Beauty, Order, or Regularity in their Composition. In others we discern the finest AP. rangement, and a certain Elegance of Contexture, that makes us asfix to them a Notion of Worth and Excellence. Thus Metals, and precious Stones, are conceived as far surpafing those unformed Mafics of Earth, that lie every where expofcd to view. If we trace Nature onward, and pursue her through the vegetable and animal Kingdoms, we find her still multiplying her Perfections, and rising by a juft Gradation, from mere Mechanism to Perception, and from Perception in all its various Degrees, to Reason and Understanding. Usefulness of

III. But though Reason be the Boundary, by Culture, and which Man is ditinguished from the other Creaparticularly tures that surround him, yet we are far from of the Study finding it the fame in all. Nor is this Inequality of Logick.

to be wholly - ascribed to the original Make of Men's Minds, or the Difference of their natural Endowments. For if we look abroad into the several Nations of the World, some are over-run with Ignorance and Barbarity, others flourish in Learning and the Sciences; and what is yet more remarkable, the same People have, in different Ages, been distinguished by these very opposite Characters. It is therefore by Culture, and a due Application of the Powers of our Minds, that we increase their Capacity, and carry humant Reason 'to Perfection. Where this Method is followed, Knowledge and Strength of Understanding never fail to ensue, where it is neglected, we remain ignorant of our own Worth: and those latent Qualities of the Soul, by which she is fitted to survey this vast Fabrick of the World, to scan the Heavens, and search into the Causes of Things, lie buried in Darkness and Obscurity. No Part of Knowledge therefore yields a fairer Prospect of Improvement, than that which takes account of the Understanding, examines its Powers and Faculties, and shews the Ways by which it comes to attain its various Notions of Things. This is properly the Design of Logick, which may be justly stiled the History of the human Mind, inalinuch as it traces the Progress of our Knowledge, from our first and fimple Perceptions, through all their different Combinations, and all those numerous Deductions that result from variously comparing thein one with another. It is thus that we are let into the natural Frame and Contexture of our own Minds, and learn in what manner we ought to conduct our Thoughts, in order to arrive at Truth, and avoid Error. We see how to build ile Discovery upon anyther, and by prelowing the Chain of

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