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TENIERS AND HIS WORKS.
imitation. Nor does this appear to be an over-estimate I.
of the imitative powers of the younger Teniers' pencil.
Mr. Bryan was present a few years ago, at the sale or The artist's occupation, especially when confined to easel pictures, almost precludes the possibility of a life in which was a picture of Mary Magdalen kneeling in a
one of the principal collections of paintings at Brussels, of much incident. Confined to his studio, he pursues grotto, the figure as large as life: this picture had been the noiseless tenor of his way, and the occurrences of regarded for many years by the most experienced judges, one year generally form an epitome of the whole course
as an admirable production of Rubens : some difference of his life.
of opinion arising, the picture was taken out of the frame, That he may be rich or poor, industrious or indolent, are when the name of David Teniers, Jun., with the date, accidents that attach to all professions, and only interest when a moral may be deduced from a man of genius, who been concealed by the border of the frame.
was discovered at the bottom of the picture, which had by persevering industry, raises himself from a lowly condition to distinction; or, on the contrary, debases himself by
The earlier years of Teniers were not free from those indolence and vicious habits from the rank his talents would struggles with adverse circumstances which so often entitle him to hold*.
mark the progress of a man of genius. He was often The most satisfactory memoir of an artist is that under the necessity of going in person to Brussels to which gives a chronological account of his works : dispose of his own pictures ; and was frequently mortiwhere, for whom, and under what circumstances they fied to see very inferior works preferred to bis own. were painted ; this enables amateurs to observe the pro- | But most probably on account of the povelty in style, gress of his skill, and the variations of his style. and the brown tint of his pictures, they were not under
If it be true that painters as well as authors pourtray stood. It happened, however, that some of his produce then selves in their works, it may be concluded from the tions attracted the notice of the Archduke Leopold, a works of Teniers that his disposition was gay and humor- great admirer and patron of the art, By order of this ous, with an attachment to domestic enjoyments, as exhi- prince he painted a great number of capital pictures, and bited in the many scenes he so frequently represented.
was also employed by him to collect paintings of the That he was gentlemanly in his appearance, and amiable Italian and Dutch school to enrich his gallery. Many in his character, may be inferred from the many portraits of these he afterwards copied, and also published a folio of himself which are introduced in his village feasts, &c.:
volume of prints engraved from them. This volume --he is always represented with the air and dress of a was published at Brussels MDCLX., and consists of 246 gentleman, and being generally accompanied by his wife engravings : it is dedicated « To the admirers of the art, and children, it is evident that he found his happiness greeting." There is a copy of it in the British Museum, in domestic society:
which formerly belonged to Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose David Teniers the younger was born at Antwerp in autograph is written on the titlepage *. the year 1610. From his earliest years he had the Teniers was suitably rewarded for these services, and good fortune to receive instructions in his art from bis honoured by the Duke with the gift of his portrait and a father, an artist of no mean powers. Young Teniers is gold chain. Such patronage procured him employment said also to have studied under Bronwer and Rubens, and a ready sale for his works, He also painted several but this is very doubtful. It is, however, certain that pictures for Queen Christina of Sweden. The King of David Teniers the eller had enjoyed the privilege of Spain also became so pleased with his works, that he being a disciple of Rubens, and had gained the esteem built a gallery on purpose for their reception. Teniers of his master. From the school of that celebrated was also much employed by the Elector Palatine, who so painter the elder Teniers went to Rome, and having nobly evinced his love for, and patronage of the arts, attached himself to Adam Elsheimer continued with by the splendid collection formed by him at Dusseldorf, him six years; and between the styles of his two mas but since removed to Munich. ters he formed a peculiar, agreeable, and natural style of The illustration to the present article is from a pichis own ;-he was in fact the inventor of that manner ture in the Louvre. It represents the interior of a of painting which his son afterwards so happily culti- Cabaret with two boors seated in front; one of whom, vated and brought to its utmost perfection. The dressed in a white frock and cap, is filling a pipe, while pictures of the elder Teniers are usually small:-his his companion, sitting opposite to him is smoking: a favourite subjects the shops or laboratories of chemists; low stool with a pot of embers and a paper of tobacco rural groups, festivals and exercises; temptations of St. on it, stands near them. In the back of the room are Anthony, and Friars: all executed with so much nature four pensants round a fire. A tub and some pans are and truth, that his pictures procured him great honour | in a corner in front. The size of this picture is one and extensive employment.
foot by one foot eight inches. Under the guidance of his father, young Teniers soon Our notice of this artist and his works will be commastered the mechanical processes of his art, and in the pleted in another article. course of this early training he doubtless acquired that * Sir Joshua Reynolds has expressed his opinion of Teniers in the branch of the art termed pasticci, or the power of imi
following terms :-" The works of David Teniers, Jun., are worthy the tating the Italian Masters, in which he afterwards lego vf his art.
closest attention of a painter who desires to excel in the mechanical know
His manner of touching, or what we call handling, has became so remarkably proficient. His skill in this way perhaps never been equalled : there is in his pictures that exact mixture must have been early displayed, for we find him first of soliness and sharpness which is so difficult to executę." spoken of as “ the Ape of Painting;" and afterwards,
PEACE. when increasing years had enabled hiin to transfer to
Such was thy legacy at parting, Lord! his canvas the feeling, as well as the mere handling of All power, all willingness to give were thine; the great works which he copied, he is referred to as Thou might'st have made earth's richest sons resign “the Proteus of Painting." Indeed, as Pilkington The wealth wherewith their treasuries were stored; remarks, the power of his pencil in imitating the works The prince's dignity, the miser's hoard, of great painters was incredible. He knew how to adapt
The field, the flock, the olive, and the vine, it to a variety of eminent artists whose touch and
Pearls from the ocean, diamonds from the mine, colouring were exceedingly different; and yet he could
All these thy bounty could thy friends afford ;
Yet none of these were pledges of thy love : give his imitations of those masters so strong a character
But thou didst leave them on that solemn day of originality, as to leave it doubtful whether they were What the world gives not, nor can take away, not really painted by the very artists, of whose manner Peace, sought in vain when not a gift from Thee: of thinking, composing, and pencilling they were only an How doth that legacy our hearts reprove,
Still bent on earthly joys, though vain and false they be ! • SMITH, Catalogue of Dutch Painters,
SEASONAL WILD FLOWERS.
infinite delight,” to examine the Furze (Ulex Europæus), JANUARY
the only plant which he met with in flover.
“I then first comprehended the nature of systematic Not undelightful now to roam,
arrangement and the Linnæan principles, litile aware The wild heath sparkling on the sight,
that at that instant the world was losing the great genius Not undelightful now to pace
who was to be my future guide, for Linnæus died in the The forest's ample rounds,
night of 11th January, 1778.” It is the frequency of And see the spangled branches shine, And mark the moss of many a hue
this plant in our country which makes it so little valued That varies the old tree's brown bark,
or admired : were we to come unexpectediy and for Or o'er the grey stone spreads.
the first time in sight of a furze bush in full blossom, And mark the cluster'd berries bright
we should view it with a feeling approaching to that of Amid the holly's gay green leaves;
the great founder of systematic botany. It has been The ivy round the leadless oak, That clasps its foliage close.
The blossom’d furze unprofitably gay ; We are in general prone to look on Winter as a season but yet it is not useless in an economical point of view. of gloom and desolation, in which all Nature lies bereft It is extensively cultivated in some places where the of beauty and interest. Even in the bright frosty days, land is poor, and is cut every second or third year to that not unfrequently call us abroad during this season make fagots for the use of lime and brick kilns. It is of the year, and lead us to take exhilarating exercise in also occasionally used as fodder for horses, being mown the open air, we see not, because we expect not to see, when very young, and bruised in a mill to soften its the objects of interest which botanists speak of, as being spines. apparent in all seasons, and as affording them so much The common names whereby this plant is known are pleasure and delight. Or if we mark, amidst the gene three in number. Furze, derived from Fyers, the ral decay of nature, a few stunted forms, not yet deprived Anglo-Saxon name of the plant. It has been supposed of their leafy clothing, nor wholly stripped of their that this name was given to it on account of its peculiar simple blossoms, not often do we check our rapid pace dryness, which adapted it for fires. Whin, from to form the scanty wreath we might otherwise obtain Chywnn, the name given to it by the Welsh; and From hedgerow, bank, and coppice bough,
Gorse, from an Anglo-Saxon word signifying angry, or To hang on January's brow.
irascible, on account of its painful prickliness. Our poets In commencing a series of observations on the wild celebrate it under either of these names, as best suits flowers of our land, we shrink not from the task of pro- their purpose. Thus, Cowper says: ducing such a wreath, even though the season be consi The common overgrown with fern, and rough dered unfavourable to its exhibition. We have often
With prickly gorse, that, shapeless and deform’d sought out the sheltered hollows and sunny slopes, where
And dangerous to the touch, has yet its bloom,
And decks itself with ornaments of gold, January's scanty blossoms have been wont to show
Yields no unpleasing ramble. themselves ; and in remembrance of past pleasures, and
And Hurdis : in the hope of inducing our readers to look with greater interest on such hardy wildlings as dare to show their
And what more noble than the vernal furze faces at this season of the year, we offer a few notices of
With golden baskets hung? Approach it not, their respective merits and beauties, with such simple
For every blossom has a troop of swords
Drawn to defend it. directions for the discovery of their botanical character, as may not be inconsistent with the popular nature of beauty of its blossoms, and we wish those of our readers
But we are now considering it chiefly as it regards the this work. First, then, twine we the runners of the lithe Wood- tively the shape of those blossoms, that they may, as Sir
who are unacquainted with botany, to examine attenThe first of wilding race that weaves
James Smith did, get their first lesson from this brilliant In nature's loom its downy leaves,
flower. Is there anything peculiar in its shape which And hangs in green festoons, that creep
likens and associates it with many other common and O'er thorny brake or craggy steep.
well-known plants ? There is. We cannot look at its If the weather be tolerably open, we shall not fail to curiously arranged petals, without remembering that find these green runners, prematurely put forth indeed, those of the laburnum, or golden chain, and the broom, and doomed to blacken and to decay under the influence
are very much like them, though not bristled round of the nipping frost and biting air, which will supervene
with thorns in a similar manner. The laburnum and ere May arrive to open their lovely and fragrant blos
the broom resemble the furze-blossom in shape and soms; yet still, at this season welcome, as is every
colour; but there are many that differ in colour, and yet green leaf and blade that meets the eye.
have the same shape. Such are the sweet-pea, vetch, Where shall we find a more brilliant blossom where clover, trefoil, lucerne, beans and peas of the garden, with to deck these simple runners, than that which and many others. These constitute a tribe of flowers so
easily recognised, and so abundantly to be procured, Fringing the fence or sandy wold
that they may well be recommended to the notice of With blaze of vegetable gold,
young botanists, who may collect a few specimens of The FURZE.
each flower of that kind, as it comes in blossom ; examine This fragrant plant (for whether our readers are aware the different parts, with the assistance of some elemenof it or not, its bright blossoms yield a pleasing perfume) tary book on botany; and write down the principal is spoken of by Dr. Lindley as almost too beautiful for points of resemblance and of difference, preserving these our northern climate ; while it is a common anecdote memoranda along with a dried specimen of each plant. told of Linnæus, that when he first saw it flowering in Thus may be very easily acquired an acquaintance with England, he was so struck with the richness of its golden the numerous and extensive tribe of papilionaceous or corollas, which he had never seen blowing in his own butterfly-shaped flowers. severe clime, that he fell on his knees, and offered up a To return to our winter's wreath. We choose not the thanksgiving to the great Author of Nature. It is also noxious bear's-foot, or Christmas rose (Helleborus fætiremarkable that our distinguished botanist, Sir James dus), formerly described in his work*, but rather take Smith, commenced the systematic study of plants, by an the despised wayside flowers, sometimes showing themexamination of the common furze or whin. He tells selves on southern banks in the depth of winter, but not us, that he began on the 11th of January, 1778, “ with
* Vol. IX. p. 96.
often gathered or even noticed; we mean the purple and gamic plants, especially the mosses, now put on their the white Dead-nettle (Lamium). These stingless nettles, best attire, and to the inquiring eye exhibit a structure though classed among worthless weeds, are possessed of more beautiful than is to be perceived in the noblest much beauty, which can only be appreciated by closely trees of the forest. At this season, too, the fuci and examining their lipped flowers. Their strong-smelling other sea-weeds furnish an abundant harvest; and Nature, leaves may be deemed no acquisition to our wreath, but ever benignant, retains some of the natives of the bright the delicately marked blossoms are worthy of a place summer, and furnishes her admirers with a few sweet there, and at this season of the year we must not be i specimens to compensate in some degree the loss of the fastidious. We shall recognise in the admirable struc more numerous and gaudy progeny of the days that are ture of these flowers, the same peculiarity which we
gone by.” have found in the splendid scarlet or purple salvia of our flower gardens, and we shall likewise trace a family resemblance to many other flowers, such as lavender,
PROVIDENCE OF GOD. thyme, rosemary, mint, ground ivy, bugles, &c. Most To those, the eyes of whose understandings are enlightened, of these lipped flowers (Labiatæ) are aromatic, a large and the avenues of their hearts opened, to discern and adore proportion of them have perfectly harmless properties, ¡ the perfections of God, how manifold are the instances and their favourite places of resort are hedges, woods,
which will occur of the providence of God interfering to and shady lanes.
direct the course of human events towards a salutary end ; Our wreath will receive no ungraceful addition if we
to make the afflictions of men the path-way to enjoyment;
out of evils temporal and transitory to produce substantial add the early tufts which already adorn the Hazel, and
and permanent good Joseph was sold a bond-servant into depend
Egypt, and thus was made the instrument of preserving his In russet drops, whose cluster'd rows,
father, and his brethren, and their households. Moses was Still closed in part, in part disclose
driven from Egypt by the fear of destruction, and thus was (Yet fenced beneath their scaly shed)
made the instruinent of delivering the people of Israel from The pendent anther's yellow head.
bondage. In these instances we have infallible authority for But of floral adornments our supply is so scanty, that affirming the intention and the workings of Divine wisdom. if we reject such mean and insignificant plants as the
In many we can judge only upon general principles, and Chickweed (Stellaria media), whose tiny greenish-white
froin analogy of revealed truth. And who that examines blossoms are still to be found, and of the Groundsel
into the course and mutual relation of human events, can (Senecio vulgaris), whose composite flowers are hardy however fortuitous they may appear to the inconsiderate
fail of being struck by innumerable coincidences, which, enough to bear the rigour of the season, we have little
and unreflecting eye, will, if duly scanned, bear solemn and else to add, unless the occurrence of comparatively mild convincing evidence to the disposing influence of the proviweather should induce the Primrose to peep forth and dential power of God? give us an early prestige of the spring. This is some Providence however works by means, and by means most times the case in January.
generally of no extraordinary kind, but such as present them
selves in the common incidents of human life. It was no mira Mild offspring of a dark and sullen sire !
culous or preternatural, nor marvellous, nor strange disposiWhose modest form so delicately fine Was nursed in whirling storms,
tion of things, which brought Aquila and Priscilla into ac
quaintance and intercourse with St. Paul. Being originally And cradled in the winds.
Jews, they were both parties instructed in a trade, according In this low vale the promise of the year,
to the usual Jewish practice. “By their occupation” the two Serene, thou open'st to the nipping gale,
former 66 were tent-makers, and because he was of the same Unnoticed and alone,
craft, he abode with them and wrought.” The apostle inThy tender elegance.
deed, claimed for himself, as well as for the other ministers So Virtue blooms, brought forth amid the storms
of the Gospel, the right of living by the Gospel which he Of chill adversity, in some lone walk
preached; but for special reasons he chose at Corinth to Of life she rears her head,
waive that right, and to seek subsistence from other sources, Obscure and unobserved ;
of which the principal was the exercise of the trade, wherein
for the supply of any occasional necessity he had been trained. While every bleaching breeze that on her blows, What could be more natural than this, or more agreeable Chastens her spotless purity of breast
to the common course of things? What more natural, or And hardens her to bear
more agreeable to such course than that on coming to a strange Serene the ills of life.
place, he should seek a dwelling and employment with The botanical name (Primula) of this general favourite
those of the same trade? But it was by these natural and and harbinger of spring, is derived from primus, first, ordinary occurrences that Divine wisdom wrought: after the or prime. Hence the flower has been called prime-rose, Rebekah, in going out of the city to draw water at the well,
same manner that God wrought when he made the act or which is contracted into primrose. The primrose tribe instrumental to her meeting the servant of Abrahain, and consist of bright but modest-looking flowers, frequently becoming the wife of Isaac;
or when he made a similar act possessing a slight but pleasing fragrance. To this of the woman of Samaria, in going to Jacob's well to draw tribe belongs the lowly pimpernel (Anagallis), hereafter water, subservient to the introduction of her and her fellowto be more particularly noticed, the water-violet or citizens to a knowledge and belief of the Messsiah. feather-foil (Hottonia) and many other familiar plants
Of events, however ordinary and natural, the results are which will come under review as the season advances.
in the hands of him who is the God of nature, “ without
whom not a sparrow falleth to the ground, and by whom The properties of this tribe are not very marked. The
the hairs of our head are all numbered.” Our lives are a cowslip is slightly narcotic, the root of the primrose series of providences. Whatever we do, however free we possesses, nauseating properties, and different species be to do it, it is as if we should cast seed into the earth; but of the pimpernel formerly enjoyed a great reputation as God giveth it a body, as it pleaseth Him, and to every seed specifics in the case of madness; but their use is now its own body-Bishop Mant's Primitive Christianity, discontinued.
Thus even in January we may generally collect a few LITERATURE has ever been regarded as the best test of civiflowers, and when Winter,
lization in any age or country; its history may, therefore, Sullen and sad, with all his rising train,
be regarded as a record of the progress of mind and the sucVapours and clouds and storms,
cessive triumphs of intellect. But such a record would be
imperfect if it did not directly refer to the Great Author of may seem to have consigned the vegetable world to
every good and perfect gift, whether physical or intellectual, desolation and death, the botanist is not then neces and collect the indications of God's moral government, which sarily deprived of all his accustomed pleasures. Speak are not less apparent in the universe of mind, than in the ing of this season, Drummond observes, “ Many crypto- universe of matter.
LETTERS TO THE READER.
It has been observed, that although the citizens of
the United States speak the same language with ourNo. I.
selves, serious mistakes frequently arise between us by MY DEAR READER,
reason of the different ideas that are attached to The fixed and lasting characteristics, which the same words. Daily observation, also, shows that are common to the whole race of human fellow-beings, men, even of the same nation, in the degree that they so greatly exceed in importance those transient qualities differ from each other in natural temperament, early which distinguish individuals, that moral sympathy habits, and education, differ likewise in the ideas that they naturally extends from familiar acquaintances to un severally hold concerning the various portions of the known relations. While time, place, and other conven
universe with which their minds are familiar; and tional circumstances, mould only such part of our nature when they employ words that are the artificial symas is peculiar to the individual, the ground-work of the bols of these ideas, the necessity is frequently entailed human constitution has remained unchanged from the first upon them of translating their significations to each creation. Personal peculiarities, family likenesses, and
other. On the other hand, Capt. Basil Hall remarks, national resemblances, are lost in the bolder outlines with surprise, the extent to which he could carry of man, when abstracted from the influence of chang
on communications with the natives of the Eastern Seas, ing conditions, while the affections formed in ordinary of whose languages he was altogether ignorant, prosociety become merged in the charities of universal vided he could keep them in good humour. These brotherhood.
casual facts teach us that the spirit of good will is the The rapidity of communication which is now, for the first principle of communicating with our species, and first time, established between place and place, is giving
that it is idle to use merely the same words, unless we rise to a corresponding increase in the interchange of assure ourselves that we correspond with similar ideas. thoughts and feelings. The personal appearance, the In order to do this, you may say, that men must be name, age, position in life, and artificial manners of an educated. But what is education? other, may be unknown to us; but, “the science of Define it as an art, and we must find the subject of it, human nature is, like all other sciences, reduced to a few which, in this case, is MAN. But man is a compound clear points," and these first principles, which belong not being, whose elements must needs be counted before the only to the reader and myself, but to mankind in general,
effects of education, or of any other art, upon them, can may well be made channels of healthy intercourse. En be calculated. Botanical teachers are in the habit of dowed with the same bodily organs, gifted with the same demonstrating the various parts of plants, by selecting intellectual faculties and moral attributes, are we not all such species for inspection as have one or other of their brethren; has not one God created us?
organs remarkably developed. Thus, the large and But, while I recognise this comparative equality of fleshy bracteæ of the artichoke introduce the student to man with man, with respect to the specific and enduring the tiny scales upon the common hawkweed, and so the characteristics of his nature, I would especially disown more extraordinary features of mankind may serve as the unphilosophical mixing up of natural with artificial the index-map of our composition. Could we but property. On the contrary, I consider, that if there be ascertain the causes that have awaited upon the fullest one fact more than another applicable to large numbers growth of every human faculty and feature, it is of our kind, it is this, namely, that we are not only
evident that we should be put into possession of many enabled to bear, both in mind and body, the various inequa valuable signs for the avoidance of noxious causes, as lities and moral climates of the world, but that exposure
well as for the cultivation of wholesome influences. of the body to ranges of temperature, of the mind to the I need not repeat the worn maxim, that in order to vicissitudes of worldly affairs, and of the heart to an educa command nature, we must first obey her, except for the tion of circumstance and suffering, is absolutely neces- purpose of bringing the question to an easy analogy. sary for the excitement of individual action, and to the Before the beautiful principle of Mr. Ward's miniature extension of progressive civilization. The province of conservatories was explained in the papers of the day, every other animal is contracted within a given circle, the first and wrong impression of the facts was, that he but the life of man is limited only by the confines of our
had discovered the means of preserving living plants in planet; while the aspirations of the Christian connect cases from which all external air was excluded.But the our immortality with the universe. During periods of philosopher claimed no discovery; copying with close ease we stagnate in inaction, months of continued fidelity the soil, air, amount of moisture, and other consunshine weaken our whole frame, and the mind, if not ditions whereby nature (that is, the laws of the God of altogether subdued, actually craves after what would nature) brings forth the most exquisite productions of the under other conditions be considered as hardships.
field, the inuitative artist shut out, more perfectly than In truth, my dear reader, most of us confess at heart, others had succeeded in doing, the interference of that before we can stake our happiness upon out
external and injurious agents. The force of air, when ward objects, or, from motives of false philanthropy, expanded by heat, was found to effect a passage for desire for others an equality of things, we must have itself through a varnished membrane covering the mouth forgotten the beauty that belongs to a variety of social of a large bottle, in which a plant was growing under levels—the diversified virtues that are put forth under the foregoing conditions; and when the air within was as many trying positions, which are the means of contracted by cold, the weight of the external atmostrengthening the sinews of the soul, and so prepare sphere (15 lbs. upon each square inch of surface) was us for putting off the liveries of life for the sable fully sufficient to press in fresh quantities of the vital uniform of death. Difficulties are indeed essential to fluid, while there was no pore of sufficient magnitude to human improvement; else where would be the triumph allow of the escape of a particle of watery vapour. of subduing them, where the more precious conscious Ornamental glazed conservatories, of diminutive proporness when we feel our impotence over events, and are tions, made thus apparently air-tight, but actually only thereby reminded of the All-POWERFUL, who is ever vapour-tight, are the most perfect of vegetable nurseries ; ready to shelter us, even from ourselves ?
and why? The reason is clear; plants, like animals, are Having said thus much, lest you might take it for by their nature susceptible of certain influences, some granted that, with a hollow judgment, I mixed up the of which promote health, and others cause disease. In idea of an unattainable earthly equality with the indis- the closed glass cases here referred to, the agents of putable birthrights of our race, I turn, with less reserve health, as far as man's knowledge over them extends, are to such matters as, to use my Lord Bacon's expression, included; the agents of disease, excluded. come home to men's business and bosoms."
Apply the same natural method to human im.
provement. The constitution of man is, indeed, far | adoption of vaccination reduced the number of deaths more complex, and widely different must be the condi- from the same disease, in the last quarter of 1841, to 68 tions under which it is most perfectly developed ; but when knowledge is brought to bear against ignorance, the method of studying, with the view of imitating, the and legislation stimulates social inertness against the means of our welfare, approves itself equally to reason other injurious agents that are in activity around us we and conscience.
may reasonably anticipate equivalent success. These are physical experiments; but the material tene Of all who are born of the labouring classes in Man. ment is only the lower portion of our being. The chester, 57 per cent. die before they attain the age of five intellectual faculties that enable us to watch, and par- years. I will never believe that medical science is tially to control, the powers of matter, equally demand content to cure, or to lessen, the evils under which the the culture that is due to animal life; and this mind minority of 43 may struggle into existence, without that commands matter must, in its turn, be subjected to investigating, with a patient and humane philosophy, the the moral instincts of our conscience. Every village various causes that destroy the greater number. My will afford us examples of the success and failure of these reader will agree with me, that physical education, or a physical, intellectual, and moral experiments. The babits knowledge of the causes that depress, as well as of those of some betray the unworthy triumphs gained by sense that maintain, life, and the application of this science to over their infirmity of spiritual self-control; the opinions the well-being of our children, will soon become a part of others are but the expressions of intellectual dissipa- of our domestic economy, and the extension of the same tion; but fortitude through suffering, patience under to the benefit of the poor, a part of our religion ; for, oppression, sympathy for affliction, belong altogether to of the mortality among the labouring classes no less than another class of individuals. The civilization of the 62 per cent. of the total number were under five years world affords another and broader illustration of of age. “Even amongst those entered as shopkeepers these threefold growths. Oriental nations, for the and tradesmen, no less than 50 per cent. died before most part, monopolize the unenviable attainment of they attained that period.” material, sensual civilization; the tone of their supersti I will here prevent the objection that this is a necestions, arts, and habits, savour of sense. The Greeks of sary mortality,--that these innocents are born to die. old are undoubtedly the representatives of mental civili- M. Mallet mentions that in an establishment for the zation; the very stones of Athens hold captive the care of female orphans, (at Geneva, I believe,) taken mind of the traveller, by reason of the intellectual ab- from the poorest classes, out of eighty-six reared in stractions which they represent. But, higher than the twenty-four years, only one died. Greek aspired above the barbarian, did the ancient Jew It will not require much reflection to see tne value of rise over all people in his spiritual relations; and the the important statistical law, “ that the strength of a. relative durability of Jewish, Greek, and Oriental na- people does not depend on the absolute number of its tionality is no inapt scale of the comparative importance population, but on the relative number of those who are of physical, intellectual, and moral science.
of the age and strength for labour.” The 570 children By the term moral science, I scarcely need observe that die, before they attain their fifth year, out of every that I mean that Divine knowledge, which, being beyond 1000 children born at Manchester, are replaced by the reach either of observation, experiment, or abstrac at least an equal number of others, perhaps, equally tion, has consequently been revealed not to the Egyptian, feeble-bodied. Early and barbarous periods are rewhose eyes were dimmed by material fancies; not to the markable for a lavish excess of births, as well as for a Greeks, lest its source might be confounded with that of prodigious mortality. These facts are common both to their brilliant philosophies; but to a race of shepherds, uncivilized nations and to the abject classes of more whose avocations were certainly not such as would lead refined countries. The idea, therefore, that a large them to the discovery of sublime truth by the slow pro- infant mortality is a necessary "corrective to the prescesses of inductive reasoning or experimental investi sure of population on the means of subsistence,” is as con . gation.
trary to the facts of science as it is repugnant to the I might trace the destruction of these elements of feelings of religion. Where the mortality of man is our being; and science is even now absorbed in the highest, the births are more than sufficient to replace eminently Christian effort of recording every cause
the deaths, and this fact has long been observed as a conthat is hurtful to man, socially or individually, It sequence even of pestilences. Where the mortality is has been observed that the recent Report upon the lower, the number of adults is larger, and the average Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of amount of age, strength, skill for productive industry, Great Britain,
and other elements of a sound civilization, are increased. has unveiled dark pictures of our social state, but there
It is proved, that (in Geneva) the real and productive is still sufficient to encourage hope; and yet the remedies value of the population has there increased in a much greater require an absence of selfishness, and an amount of energy, proportion than the increase in the absolute number of the intelligence, and public spirit, which only a strong sense of population. The absolute number of the population has approaching danger, and even an appeal to selfishness itselt, only doubled in Geneva during three centuries; but the can bring into combination.
value of the population has more than doubled upon the
purely numerical increase of the population. In other I confess I do not share these fears; and my hopes words, a population of 27,000, in which the probability of are founded, not merely upon the efforts of science, but life is forty years for each individual, is more than twice as on the practical relation which these bear to the spirit of strong for all the purposes of commercial production as a Christianity. Hospitals, lunatic asylums, and gaols, population of 27,000 in which the probability or value of may be defined as so many infirmaries for those physi- lite is only twenty years for each individual.-Sanitary cally, intellectually, and morally diseased. Able men Report, p. 18+-5. are analysing the causes that lead to these results ;
The causes that have contributed to this improvement universal literature is placing before the eyes of all every in the population of Geneva are fresh addition to our knowledge; while legislation is generally attributed to the advance in the condition of exerting a healthy control over such ascertained evils as
all classes; to the medical science of the public health being cannot be removed by the efforts of individuals. Even
better understood and applied: to larger, and better, and the discovery of vaccination, for instance, was not suffi- cessation of the great epidemics which, from time to time;
cleaner dwellings; more abundant and healthy food; the cient entirely to overcome the indolence of ignorance; in decimated the population; the precautions taken against three months, ending December, 1840, no less than 706 tamine; and better regulated public and private life deaths occurred from small-pox in the metropolis alone;
The material ripeness of barbarous nations is to a but an Act of Parliament for facilitating the universal | very considerable degree evidently independent of intel: